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.ti W* fK- FERKU TT'iniimr NO EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE CLAIM. Dr. John A. Ryan of St. Paul Seminary Refutes Mr. Archer's Statements Regarding Ferrer, the Spanish Anarchist. Was Ferrer "a martyr of progress" on account of his teaching on indus trial and social reform? The Ameri can Federation of Labor seems to have thought so, when its annual convention of 1909 passed resolutions of sympathy with him. Like most other persons who depended upon the secular press, its members were misled by the first accounts of the man and his trial. A few weeks later John Mitchell admit ted that the convention had acted un der a misapprehension of the facts. While Ferrer sympathized with the working classes, his program of indus trial reconstruction was undoubtedly some form of anarchistic communism. He would have neither policemen nor private property. Now this scheme of voluntary, independent, and commun istic associations of production and dis tribution, without either legal author ity or legal restraints, does not strike sober-miDded persons as practicable or desirable. It would either quickly go to pieces or reduce the majority to a condition of industrial slavery under a minority composed of the most power ful and the most cunning. This condi tion and this mastership would be worse than anything that we have in the present system. Moreover, there is abundant evidence to show that Ferrer would, if expedient, have had his new economic order introduced by wholesale confiscation. We cannot call this program nor this method pro gress. It is not improbable, however, that Mr. Archer would accept our condem nation of Ferrer's educational activity, and political and industrial teaching. In that case, we must conclude that he calls Ferrer "a victim of obscurantism, a martyr of progress," simply becaus^ in his opinion the punishment of a man for any, even the worst, sort of teach ing, is contrary to free speech, and therefore contrary to progress. Now, the theory that a man ought to be per mitted by law to speak or write what ever he pleases is not only false,but never has been consistently adopted by any civilized nation. Why should lip freedom or pen freedom be less re stricted than arm freedom or gun free dom? Why should a man be permit ted to say what he pleases, and not to do what he pleases? The propagation of opinion is carried on only with a view to giving it external reality and permanence in deeds and institutions. If the latter, say, destruction of prop erty, anarchy, and adultery, may prop erly be restrained and punished by law, may they not quite as properly and more effectively be repressed in their causes, the pestiferous teaching? We protect the ignorant, which means the great majority, against adulterated food: is it less important or less reas onable to protect the average man against that poisonous doctrine which generally results in pernicious actions and conditions? Moreover, unlimited freedom of speech has never been permitted by any civilized state. In his "Letter to the Duke of Norfolk," Cardinal New man so clearly pointed out the disas trous consequence of this so-called right as advocated by Mr. Gladstone, that the latter petulantly exclaimed: "What bishop knows of a state which by law allows a perfectly free course to blasphemy, filthiness, and sedition?" Even in America, a man may not with legal impunity libel his neighbor, nor propagate immoral literature, through the mails or through the book trade. We hanged the Chicago anarchists mainly because of their speeches and their writings, and, since the assassin ation of President McKinley, we do not permit anarchists, even of the "philosophical" brand, to come into the country. There are only two grounds upon which the freedom to spread false doctrine can plausibly be defend ed. The first is that we do not know, or cannot agree, whether the doctrine is false or true. The second is that toleration is often more conducive to social welfare than prohibition. This is a practical problem which every na tion must solve for itself but there are certain doctrines which men in civilized societies are practically unan imous in condemning. Among them are Ferrer's teachings on the family government, and property. Even if the Spanish military court had sentenced Ferrer to death because of his opin ions and propaganda, it would not have been wrong in principle, nor pun ished him too severely, nor impeded genuine progress. Education, political liberty, social /reform, freedom of speech, are all causes so sacred and so vital that they must not be outraged and discredited through association with the pernio ious and reprobated teachings of Fer rer. That men can so ignore or misin 1 ,' -, r*ryft **££':^T^' terpret the evidence as to -conclude that he was unjustly condemned, is in itself a very small matter that they should identify his doctrines or his cause with the interests of progress, is on every account deplorable. Somewhat less deplorable, because purely personal in its bearings, is Mr. Archer's attribution to Ferrer of "genu ine moral greatness" (241,2). He ad mits, indeed, that Ferrer was neither a great educator nor a great man, thai both his thought and methods were crude (ibidem). The truth is that this "intellectually mediocre" (the phrase is Archer's) Spanish anarchist, about whom so much fuss has been made by misguided people, was not an educat ed man at all. He had only a rudi-. mentary school training, but his extra ordinary energy enabled him to take in a heterogeneous and ill-assorted mass of facts, theories, and hypothe ses, and thus to impose upon the sup erficial and uncritical. Nor can we concede to him moral greatness. Even if we admit, with Mr. Archer, that "his idealism was ardent and sincere, his courage was high and unflinching" (ibidem) we deny that these are suf ficient to make him morally great, just as we refuse the attribute of physical greatness to a man who has excep tionally keen sight and manual dexter ity, but who is deaf and dumb, and has lost both legs. Moral greatness sup poses that all the moral qualities are at least up to the average, and that some of them are considerably above this level. Unless, therefore, we are to give the phrase a new definition, we cannot predicate moral greatness of a man whose life and teachings were profoundly, if not equally, immoral. DIOCESE OF MEZ IJSES ITS BISHOP BISHOP HESLIN DIES AFTER LONG ILLNESS. Ordained to.the Priesthood tn 1869— Consecreated Bishop in 188ft—A. Zealous Missionary Bishop. Another American diocese, the third in less than two months, has been called upon to mourn the .death of its Chief Shepherd. On February 21, the Right Reverend Thomas Heslin, D. D., Bishop of Natchez, Mississippi, died after an illness of more than a year, relieved at times by periods of im provement which raised hopes doomed to disappointment. The funeral services took place at the Cathedral of Our Lady of Sorrows, Natchez, on Tuesday last. The Ponti fical Mass of Requiem was celebrated by Right Reverend Edward P. Allen, Bishop of Mobile, Alabama and the sermon was delivered by the Most Reverend James H. Blenk, Archbishop of New Orleans. v.""'- Bishop Heslin was born in the par ish of Kiloe, County Longford, Ireland, in 1847. After completing his pre liminary studies he joined a band of young levites who accompanied Bishop Odin of New Orleans to America in 1863 to prepare themselves for mis sionary work. He completed his theo logical studies in the old Bouligny Seminary in New Orleans under the direction of the Lazarists. He was ordained September 18,1869. He serv ed as assistant pastor in different par ishes until 1873, when he was placed in charge of St. Michael's Church. In 1888 he was appointed to the See of Natchez in succesion to Most Reverend Francis Janssens, who was promoted to the Archbishopric of New Orleans, and was consecrated Bishop on June 18,1889. The Diocese of Natchez comprises the whole of the state of Mississippi and has a Catholic population of 25,701, ministered to by 46 priests. It has a large number of colored Catholics and an Indian settlement of 238 Catholics.. A GREAT DEMOCRACY. "The Catholic Church is essentially the most democratic of churches," said Prof. Nathaniel Schmidt of Cor nell University, while speaking before the Ethical Society at Memorial Hall, St. Louis. His subject was "The Pres ent Opportunity of the Catholic Church." "In the United States the Catholic Church is stronger than in the Latin countries," Prof. Schmidt declared. "Here it stands upon its own innate strength and derives no artificial sup port from the state. This is as it should be, and the recent separa tion of Church and state in France and Portugal will be of inestimable bene fit eventually to both. "The Catholic Church today is meet ing its greatest crisis but all careful students of history and religion agree that it will do this successfully. How ever, it must separate itself from the unnecessary aid of the state, and show in its organization its essential democ racy. The democracy is very evident in the ICatholic Church of America." I r» 1 «-t 1 i.,'"•' v?:"""' "V\ t"-""- Fv."-^.V.", DANGEflOUS^ READING THE DEADLY PLAGUE OF MODERN SOCIETY. ftisfcop Corbett of Cr6okston in His Lenten Pastoral Points Out the Dangers of Pernicious Books and Newspapers—Recom mends The Catholic Bulle tin. Men of serious thought will undoubt edly affirm that the deadly plague of modern society is the multiplication of pernicious books, atheistic pamph lets and unrestrained newspapers. The wicked influence of this corrupt literature weakens religion, stains purity of morals, and saps the founda tion of the great central truth-of the existence of God. Catholics are not free to read what ever literature they may choose. Their grave duty is to deny themselves and those under their charge danger ous and immoral books and newspa pers. Holy Church condemns bad books by placing them on the Index and absolutely forbids the reading of them under pain of sin. Even pagan ism acknowledged that the true object of reading was instruction and not perversion. The Jews exhibited great solicitude lest dangerous reading would injure the faith and morals of the people. The early Christians, who had followed curious things, burnt their books before all. The unre strained perusal of periodicals in which the doctrine and history of the Church are falsified, her practices ridi culed, her dogmas condemned as tyranny, and religious indifferentism praised will eventually diminish faith in the hearts of those Catholics whose judgment lacks sufficient discipline to distinguish truth from error. Few in tellects command the ability of dis secting intricate sophisms and detect ing error clothed in insidious and double-meaning phrases, but fluent and elegant in style. Few minds study profoundly the incontrovertible argu ments which Catholic theologians have produced in defense of truth and in refutation of error. The reading public possesses the scantiest knowledge of our Catholic faith, of the proofs from reason that underlie it and of the solidity of its motives. The books commonly read to the exclusion of those expound ing our holy religion actually teem with anti-Catholic prejudice and dis torted views of the action of the One, Holy and Apostolic Church upon the world. The current literature has become a real hot-bed of objec tions against the Church, of open mis representation of her administration and of villification of her clergy. Every pure and honest man should abhor those boolts which, with pleas ing language, though shameless auda city, depict infamous scenes of vice disguised in glowing colors, and extol the lowest passions of the human heart at the expense of virtue and modesty. ST. PAUL, MINN., MARCH 4,1911 Never since pagan times was public tastes so vitiated and public morality at such a low ebb as in the present age. Human life takes its quality largely from the nature of its reading. Parents, especially, should stren uously protect the innocence of their children from the gar bage of novel reading. By such sensuous reading their youthful minds become enfeebled and incapable of serious efforts. It is a question whether or not a bad companion or a bad book produces the worst effect. Parents who do not want to be disap pointed in their offspring should keep close vigilance on their reading lest they lose their holy faith and morals. Untold good comes from well-ordered and well-patronized parish libraries where intelligent librarians, under the direction of the pastor, keep the books in constant circulation. Numerous public libraries contain books which calumniate, insult and ridicule our Holy Church, and describe scenes most dangerous to the faith and morals of our children. Newspapers.. The Roman Pontiffs have unceas ingly endeavored to restrain the un bridled license (if corrupt journals. Newspapers tfater to the depraved taste of the age by making their read ers familiar with unlawful love, hid den marriages, broken matrimonial vows, divorce suits, suicide and mur der. Even common police court cases are written to fan the basest pas sions. The alleged justification for this is that the reading public wants news of this sort. Newspapers supply millions and millions of people with false or insinuating and satanic ac counts against our Holy Church, the true mother of civilization and the only possessor of the salutary reme dies for the evils and vices of the hour. Journals which fail to check, or rather strive to arouse low human passions, are a menace to the very ex istence of society, and should be avoided as a pest. The noble duty and high mission of the press is to know the truth, uphold the truth, and publish the truth regardless of cost. Aias! what bigotry creeps into its col umns concerning that old institution wfcich gave birth to the press and fos tered it in its infancy! Catholics were the first to print books both in Europe and in America. The Press often proves to be an ene my of the Church by keeping alive the old calumnies against her. It is mor ally impossible to be constantly read ing depraved literature and not be de moralized, and to be receiving impres sions unfavorable to the Church and not be affected thereby. Outside the pulpit the Catholic Press, by the main tenance and dissemination of divine triith at no matter what sacricfice, dis pels the dense ignorance of the age concerning religious matters, and im pedes the terrible corruption of morals aijd the systematic spreading of per nicious errors detrimental to both church and state. The providential mission of the Catholic Press is to bring frequently to the homes of the people and to impress firmly on their minds correct Catholic doctrine and prjactice. I earnestly exhort every pastor to employ his best efforts to have each Catholic family in his Dio ceise subscribe immediately for "The Catholic Bulletin" of the Province of Sti Paul, the official organ of our Dio cese. The Bulletin being, moreover, a ho^ne journal under the potent influ ence of the great Archbishop of St. PjIuI, should engage the deepest in terest of every Catholic in the North west. I request the Reverend Pastors tofforward to the Reverend Chancellor a list of subscribers in their parishes and missions. SOCIAL SCIENCE COURSE SOCIALISM AND ALLIED TOPICS |)ISCUSSED UNDER THE AUS PICES OF THE GERMAN CATHOLIC FEDERATION. Noted Speakers—Live Subjects—Large Audiences. The German Catholic Federation of St. Paul is a central body made up of all the Catholic men's societies in the different German parishes in the city. It has for object to educate its mem bers in regard to the questions of the day and particularly to teach them the truth about Socialism. It meets once a month at the Assumption Parish Hall, where general business is trans acted. The chief feature of these meetings is a lecture on some phase of the social question. One part of its annual program is to hold a series of free lectures on social subjects to which the general public is invited. So pronounced was the success of last year's course that preparations were made for a similar series this year. The first of these lectures was given on January 19 by the Reverend George Scheffold, O. S. B., who took for his subject "The Catholic Church and So cial Reform." In this lecture the speaker dwelt on the social conditions which confronted the Church at the beginning of her existence and which she changed by her beneficent action on paganism. The first step in this work was the establishment of the family on a Christian basis, giving to woman her God-appointed rights and position. Her Christian code of laws founded on justice and peace renewed the face of the earth. It made the proud Roman bow his head, the Teu ton forget his savagery, and the un cultured hordes of the north lay aside their arms and respect the rights of their neighbors. In the course of time, however, the world forgot that the Cross was the conquering sign. It casti off the yoke of the Church and thus ushered in the present social dis orders. If society is to emancipate it self from its present sad condition, it must once more return to God. The way to this has been pointed out by Leo XIII and Pius in their Ency clicals. The church safe guards marriage and the family life to save the indi vidual. In her code of laws she teaches public morality, infuses a sense of justice into the field of econ omy, and encourages practical char ity by calling into being charitable in stitutions. Neither state nor society can prosper without the church. She has raised her voice at all times on behalf of right in the strug gle of the classes. Today she claims for the lower classes justice from the rich, teaching the latter that they are only the stewards of this world's goods and placing on them the duty of as sisting their less fortunate brethren. The church teaches the state its duty to encourage it to respect the rights of the individual and of the family which must be protected as they ex isted prior to the state. T'JTVr "W Jf *. •*. /.i. i/r^-? .,^:y- -yr & np*'tfj ^.'-'•*$r,'£ A,.,^»'»\^'-»-'vr I Activity in social reform Is not only the individual's duty on 4ehalf of state and society, but it is a religious du principles, of truth and justice NT down by the church will establish ana HON. preserve peace in the social order. Father George also delivered the second lecture January 22 on the "Par taking of the Middle State in Social Reform." He accounted for the grad ual growth of disorder and dissatisfac tion among the classes by showing that it is due to deviation from the teachings of faith and to the intro duction of the doctrine of liberalism into economical and political life. The factors of the middle state which he dwelt upon were mechanics, retail dealers, farmers and those who live off former earnings. He recommend ed the formation of unions in all these departments of activity. On the same evening Mr. G: Stelzle of Minneapolis lectured on "The Par taking of Catholic Societies in the Work of Social Reform." He recom mended, especially, practical social in structions at every meeting in order to cultivate a sense of social justice. All must be made to feel an interest in such subjects for the reforms sought are for the benefit of all. They should make their influence felt by molding public opinion and legislative action. Above all, the members of the society must be practical Catholics in both private and public life. The third lecture of the course was given on January 29 by Rev. George Plank of the Church of St. Agnes on "Religion With the Socialist Is a Pri vate Affair." In the course of the lecture Father Plank proved that the natural law demands religion in the private as well as in the public life of the individual. The state and the family must have religion for their foundation. Socialists desire to eliminate reli gion from the life of the individual and society. Their whole program rests on atheistic principles. On the same evening, Mr. G. Stelzle of Minneapolis spoke on the "New Ob ligations of Women." He portrayed woman as wife and mother. She must be so educated as to understand the position in society for which God in tended her, that is, to be the help-mate of man, the soul of the home, the edu cator of the child and the preserver of faith in the family. He recommended a course of social science for women to enable them to meet the conditions forced upon them by their social en vironment. The Federation was most fortunate in securing the services of Mr. David Goldstein of Boston for a couple of lec tures. Mr. Goldstein was formerly a leader among the Socialists but he is now one of their most skilful oppon ents. His first lecture was on "The Tactics of Socialism." It was a severe indictment of the methods of Socialists as expounded and practiced by the recognized leaders of the movement. This lecture was published in "The Catholic Bulletin." The second lecture was on "The Passing of the Middle Classes as Pre dicted by Socialism." He based his lecture on the statements of the Com munist Manifesto of 1848, which de clared that the middle class, under the present state and government, would soon be wiped out that there would remain only extreme riches on the one hand and abject poverty on the other. Socialism would prove the only savior for the middle class, be cause under a Socialist regime the amassing of riches would be impossi ble. Mr. Goldstein proved the falsity of this contention by reference to re liable statistics, which show that the middle class, instead of being wiped out, has improved its condition during the past half century. Mr. Goldstein's lectures were a revelation to many who heretofore saw in the Socialist movement only an affair of little im portance. On February the class of social study was brought to a close by a meeting of all the affiliated societies in the Assumption School Hall. En couraged by the success of this year's course, a resolution was passed, not only to continue this social study at the general meetings of the Federa tion, but to carry it into the meetings of every affiliated society. It was re commended that special meetings be held by every society once a month, in the course of which social questions would be discussed. It was also re solved to establish a library, to provide the members with the necessary lit erature on these subjects. It is to be hoped that the efforts of the German Catholic Federation will be crowned with success and that its influence will be felt in every walk of life. It would be well for all Catholic organi zations, in the City of St. Paul, re gardless of nationality, to join hands with the German Federation in this great movement to combat the com mon foe. He who drinks is deliberately dis qualifying himself for advancement. Personally, I refuse to take such a risk. I do not drinks—President Taft. MtNkPZZzr-&?/# Lir,.?^ i n '^'^HlCAL i 0 :»oc fi-Ty. Number 9 ?/«E TO SOUTH IHW JOHN BARRET PRAISES THEIR CULTURE AND HOME LIFE. Excellence of Their Educational Insti tutions—Divorce Almost Unknown —No Race Suicide—Effects of the Catholic Religion. In the- New York Times of February 12, the Hon. John Barret, the Director General of the Pan-American Union, who has passed many years in South America and is thoroughly familiar with the conditions there, paid a tri bute to the proficiency of the univer sity students in the South American Republics, and to the ideal home life of the people. He said in part: "I must now make a statement I am sorry to put forth, because it re flects upon the young men of this country but in making it I am simply telling truth and doing justice to our neighbors. "A contrast will explain just what I mean. Pick at random a hundred young men who have just been gradu ated from one of the great Latin American universities, and then pick the same number at random from the graduates of any of the principal uni versities of the United States. Let them be examined competitively and tested by comparison, particularly in regard to manner, clearness of speech, capability to write well, knowledge of language, of history, of literature, of the sciences, and in almost all the branches that are supposed to con stitute the best part of the education of a graduate from a modern univer sity, and the result will be so over whelmingly in favor of the Latin American student that such of us as may have done it will bow our heads in shame at even having criticised the educational methods of Latin-Amer ica. "It is interesting, in this connection^ to note that the majority of young Latin-Americans who come to the United States to study in our univer sities, as ours go to Europe to study in the English and the German uni versities, stand well in their classes and have a reputation for scholarship which reflects credit on their race. It may be excusable to point out, in a discussion of this kind, that in Lima, Peru, a university of high standing was in existence 100 years before John Harvard founded the great uni versity which bears his name and is one of the prides of the United States." Speaking about home life in South America, Mr. Barret said: "Yes, the Latin-American has many virtues. Take his home life. Rich or poor, he can be accused of anything but race suicide. The best families in Brazil, Argentine, Chile, and Mexico average two or three times the num ber of children characterizing the best families in the United States. This may be due to the prevailing religion and its teachings in this matter, or it may b& due to race psychology but the fact remains." "And how about divorce?" "Divorce?, Almost unknown. There again, the prevailing religion possibly has much influence, but whatever may be the cause to which conditions may be due, it is the case that one hears rarely in the Latin-American republic of such cases of domestic infelicity as are reported constantly in the newspapers of the United States." LATIN-AMERICAN CATHOLIC8. The eighteen countries of Latin America have a combined population of 67,796,072, according to the sta tistics compiled from the latest available sources by American Consul Frederick W. Gooding, of Mont#» video. Brazil heads the list witfc 19,910,646. The other countries of fottf million and over are Mexico, 13,607, 259 Argentina, 6,80$,674 Peru. 4,500,000 Colombia, 4,000,000. Prac tically all the population of Lai id America is Catholic. Exclusive Of Mexico, North America has a popu lation of 100,000,000, of whom 25, 000,000 are Catholics. Add the West Indies with 5,000,000 more Catholics and we find that 97,000,000 of the 172,000,000 people of the Western Hemisphere are Catholics. VALUABLE HISTORICAL WORK. We note that the "American Press" will very shortly publish the third vol ume of the "Pioneer Priests of Nortft America" by the Rev. T. J. Campbell, S. J., Editor-in-Chief of America. The first volumes of this valuable contri bution to the history of the mission aries of Canada and United States have already taken a commanding po sition as authoritative narratives of the heroic careers of a group of glor ious confessors and martyrs, who$®' life work seemed to be threatened with obscurity. St KtesySftjiffiaili! j- t"