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u .1 INTERESTING LETTER FROM OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT. International Catholic Defence League —Catholic Features of the Forth coming Coronation—Events in Portugal, Spain, France. Of course I refer to the warfare which the Church is compelled to wage with the united hosts of Freemasonry, unbelief, and modern paganism which have taken such a hold on the world of today, and, having captured fortress after fortress, are endeavoring to drive the Church back to the catacombs from whence she rose so gloriously centuries ago. Just at present we are here in Britain, because a most im portant movement fraught with far reaching consequences, is here in prog ress of formation, and with the strangeness of coincidence this coun try, whose inhabitants decline military service, is the first to submit a care fully thought out scheme of conscrip tion for Catholics, that all may take their places in the fighting ranks of the Church's army. International Catholic DcfenceLeague. Catholic Events in Europe London, Feb. 28,1911. We hear a good deal of talk these days of wars and rumors of wars be tween nations of the Old World, and even within those nations. But war between two great hostile powers has already broken out, and the opposing armies of each are to be found in every European country, while the struggle becomes fiercer and the en counters more frequent every day. As war correspondent of the Church Mili tant we shall pass from one battle ground to another, surveying on our journey the conditions which make for victory or defeat in the various countries involved, getting a glimpse sometimes at the strategical position of this or that outpost of our Holy Faith, and looking through the ene mies' plans of action when we have the chance. You have no doubt already heard of the suggestion mooted at the first Na tional Catholic Congress in England last August, by an energetic and en thusiastic northern priest, Father Dowling, for the raising of an Inter national Catholic Defence League. That suggestion was received with ap plause which has been echoed by the Catholic world, and subsequent events in Portugal and elsewhere have only served to emphasize the need of a new force in our struggle. The wave of irreligion accompanied by a corres ponding degeneration in morals, which is sweeping over Europe, the increase of crime, and the revolt against all authority even in the civil order, which has come to the front now that we are enjoying the companionship of those first fruits of the secular educa tion introduced so universally some thirty years ago, and the effects of which are typified in the present gen eration, has already engulfed many fair ideals of the human race, and left nothing but desolation behind. That the enemy is well pleased with the results of capturing the children is only too well evidenced in the fight which is raging or pending everywhere for the schools of the land. In France it is desperate, in England it is ap proaching, in Catholic Germany where the schools are jealously guarded there is a host which can make its will felt in the laws and councils of the nation, and a people, be it also noted, that has a strong Catholic press. There is one little spot of green earth that still resists the encroachments of the godless teacher—Ireland. In the House of Commons the other day, the Chief Secretary floored one of his most formidable adversaries, Sir Ed ward Carson, who was fulminating wildly against Home Rule, by the one little question, "Could you deal with Irish education? You know you dare not touch it." And all the brilliant K. C. was able to reply was, "How can I?" If only France, and Spain and Portugal had been able to cry as Catholic Ireland has done, to the one who would rob their little ones of the faith: "/ou know you dare not touch it," how different would be their con dition today. Well, Father Dowling having that quality in him which makes for suc cess has not been content to talk, but has begun to act. He has taken a very big step towards realization this week by securing the first episcopal sanction of the scheme. It comes from the Catholic Hierarchy of Ireland, and is dependent upon the approval of the Vatican, It is probable that the English Bishops 'will also consider the plans of Father Dowling's League favorably when they meet in Low Week, and the good priest has lost no time meanwhile in preparing his me morial to the Holy See and obtaining influential signatures thereto. This document will set out the Constitution and aims of the League which are briefly, as follows: .- v v v The defence of the rights and liber ties of the Church and her children in all parts of the world, wherever such liberties are attacked. The moral de fence of the Church's honor by means of agents in every place who will take up and sift, and obtain contradiction for, every scandalous story published by the anti-Catholic press, making en quiries on the spot, through fellow agents established there, and bringing the facts as prominently before the public as the rumor itself. The pro vision of a fund to be used in fight ing legal actions for any Catholics, clerical or, lay, who are penalized in any way on account of their faith, such fund to be provided by the small an nual subscriptions of the members of the League, which, taken at Father Dowling's figure of twenty millions for the Catholic world—a moiety of the 240,000,000 of which that world is com posed—would give £1,000,000 sterling to start with. Other offensive meas ures recommended by the militant priest, but which he is prepared to surrender if the weight of opinion is against them, have among them, re prisals by boycott of the goods of any country whose administration perse cutes the Church. One of the most daring and original of the ideas of the League's founder is to form a com pany which could be entrusted with the duties of Trustee of Church Prop erty threatened with confiscation, and could thus step in with all the au thority of its universal nationality to demand justice and resist confiscation. No one can deny that such an or ganization as this is needed, and though Catholics are apathetic in parts, twenty million is not too large a proportion from whom to expect en thusiasm and active support, and twenty million is enough to start with. Catholic Women's League—Boys* Brigade. Britain has already done much in the way of Catholic organization dur ing the past few years. There is now the Catholic Women's League which, though numbering only 1,500 members as yet, is an organization that has done much to foster good feeling among Catholic women and is engaged in many useful works, all of which it does thoroughly. There is also the Catholic Boys' Brigade, a pioneer oi the now famous Boy Scout movement that has been taken up by the whole country, and one which does an incal culable amount of good among our boys during the difficult years that fol low their departure from school. For this body a new work has been found by another enterprising priest, Father Plater S. J., who has impressed the boys in a northern town into the serv ice of the Catholic press and its dis semination, with great success. The idea is to post boys outside the Catho lic Church of the district, with Catholic papers which they offer to the faithful as they come from Sunday Mass, thus gaining a number of new subscribers. Catholic Features of the Coronation. As the time for the Coronation fes tivities draws near it is interesting to note how at every step those con cerned, or the crowd which follows (Continued on page 4.) s ?W\S ¥ft**? S IF CATHOLIC CHARITIES REPORT OF FIRST MEETING JUST ISSUED. An Interesting Volume of Addresses and Reports—Every Phase of Cath olic Charity Work Discussed— A Handbook of Informa tion for All. The report of the First National Conference of Catholic Charities has just issued from the press. Our read ers will recall the remarkably success ful gathering which was held at the Catholic University of America, Wash ington, in September, 1910, for the purpose of identifying the lay charities of the United States more closely with one another and to promote the na tional interests of Catholic relief work. The volume before us contains about 450 pages. It is cloth bound. The first part is taken up with the de scription of the beginnings of the con ference, which was created at the Catholic University of America in February, 1910. The second part in cludes the official record of the gen eral sessions, of which there were five In the first we find a magnificent ser mon by Most Rev. Archbishop Blenk on "The Spiritual Element in Charity." In the second, which was presided over by His Eminence, the Cardinal, we find besides the eminent chair man's address, the paper of Monsignor Shahan on, "The Practical Mission of the Conference," and a most eloquent address by the Hon. Matt O'Doherty -v::4, a c- i of Louisville on, "Catholic Ideals in Charity." In the third session state ments were received from cities, states and dioceses, showing the conditions of lay Catholic charities. Digests of these statements appear in the report. The main feature of the fourth ses sion was the exhaustive paper by Mr. Robert Biggs of Baltimore on, "The Dependent Family," the reading of which was followed by thorough going discussion. The next session took up the problem of "Delinquency," under the direction of the Hon. Mi chael F. Girten of Chicago, who read a very searching paper on that sub ject. The reading was followed' by discussion. In two other general? sessions de voted to an exposition of principles ex clusively, papers were read by Mr. David F. Tilley of Boston on, "The State and Private Institutions," and by Mr. Paul Fuller 6f New York on, "The Recognition of the Religion of Depen dents by the State." At the second of these sessions papers were read by Monsignor White of Brooklyn on, "The Reform Problems Which the Church Should Meet," by Very Rev. Joseph McSorley, C. S. P., of New York on, "The Catholic Layman and Social Re form," and by Mr. Thomas Woodlock of New York on, "The Church and the Social Conscience." The third part includes the record of the section meetings of which the chief were those on The Protection of Young Girls in our Large Cities, Tuber culosis among the Poor, the Care ot Dependent Children, the Juvenile Court, Day Nurseries and Social Settle ments. Scattered throughout the volume, but arranged in logical rela tion to the general topics, we find some 25 papers on subjects vitally re lated tc the work of relief. The Appendix contains the Consti tution of the Conference the Financial Statement and the reprint of two papers from the Catholic World writ ten by Rev. Dr. Kerby in reference to the organization and interpretation of the work of the First National Con ference of Catholic Charities. The value of the report for purposes of reference^ is greatly enhanced by in-" dexes of names and of contents. One is glad to learn from the report, as was announced in the press at the time, that the Conference effected per manent organization and adopted a Constitution, which calls for national meetings every two years. The officers represent many sections of the country and every department of the great field of Catholic lay charity. The report conveys an immense amount of information as to Catholic activity in relief, and it ought to serve as a source of splendid direction in the further development of such work. The papers throughout show a highly commendable combination of a pro foundly Catholic spirit which is worthy of the finest traditions of the Church's charity, and a wide-awake eagerness to adopt every method which com mends itself as improving the effici ency of relief work without robbing it of its original spiritual character. The touch of the master is found in the papers for in every case the authors brought to their labors great wealth of experience in personal service of the poor. The report would make excellent spiritual reading for all Catholics. It is a volume which ought to be found among the books in Catholic homes generally. Its wide distribution ought to be encouraged by charitable organi zations, for no better handbook in Catholic charities has come to our notice in the United States. Those among our readers who feel that the love and service of the poor has been and must remain the pride and glory of the Catholic Church, will undoubt edly look forward to the day when we may possess a dozen equally worthy reports of as many inspiring National Conferences. We read with pleasure that there is promise of or ganization of committees in all of our large cities to study the problem of the Protection of Young Girls and that the work of perfecting the federa tion of Women's Catholic charitable organizations will be pushed as rapidly as circumstances permit. The mechanical features of the re port give evidence of commendable care throughout. It sells for $2.00 a copy and is published from the Catho lic University. THE CATHOLIC EPISCOPATE. *At present there are 1,440 Catholic Bishops in the entire world. Of these Italy has 268, France 84, Spain 5, Aus tria-Hungary 52, Russia 13, Portugal 12, Turkey in Europe 7, Greece 7, Bel gium 6, Holland 3, Switzerland 5, Bos nia Herzegovina 3, Roumania 2, Den mark, Bulgaria, Luxembourg, Monaco and Barbary have each 1, Ireland 28, England 16, Scotland 6, Malta 3, East Indies 32, Japan 4, Turkey in Asia 3, Persia 1, Canada 26, United States 93, Newfoundland 3, the Republics of Cen tral and South America 130, Australia and Oceania 19, New Zealand 4, the Philippines 9, Cuba and Porto Rico 5. RMiiifia! "FT^Ti «*V?« ST. PAUL, MINN., MARCH 11,1911 I, -. ,, -, ST. THOMAS COLLEGE PATRONAL FEAST CELEBRATED. On March 7th the College of St. Thomas celebrated the feast of its patron Saint. High Mass was solem nized at 10 o'clock, with Rev. Joseph Corrigan as celebrant, Rev. James Cleary as deacon, and Rev. James O'Hara as sub-deacon. Bishop Lawler presided in the sanctuary. The Col lege Choir, under the direction of Pro fessor Pardo, rendered Bordese's Mass in E flat. At noon dinner was served in the seniors' dining hall, which was tastefully adorned for the occasion. The College Orchestra enlivened the meal with a choice programme of mu sic. Among the guests were the following priests: Rev. J. M. Cleary, Rev. R. felughes, Rev. J. Gaughan, Rev. J. Guil lot, Rev. J. C. Byrne," Rev. E. Wilbee, Rev. J. M. Reardon, Rev. P. Bandini, Rev. R. J. Fitzgerald, Rev. M. O'Brien, Rev. W. Hart, Rev. J. J. O'Brien, Rev. T. Rehill, Rev. Dr. Ryan, Rev. J. Cor "igan, Rev. T. Minogue, Rev. J. Klein, iev. P. Lucey, Rev. Fr. Victorin, Rev. Kaesan, Rev. F. McCarthy, Rev. C. 3remin, Rev. P. Loeffen, Rev. W. 3iisch, Rev. W. P. Walsh. Besides the visiting priests there vere also present forty-five students of he St. Paul Seminary—deacons and tlumni of the College. At the High Mass Rev. Dr. McGin lis preached an eloquent eulogy on 3t. Thomas Aquinas. We subjoin a synopsis: "St. Thomas," he said, "was blessed y God with prodigious intellectual powers. His mission in the Church Was of a particular nature. He ap pears to have beeti selected by circum stances and nature to make a syn thesis of Christian doctrines. The preceding ages were periods of pure, tjnalloyed, and unquestioning Faith, pearly all the controversies were cen tered abotit the doctrines of faith: the freapons used in the combat were |rawn chiefly from the armory of the Divine Deposit revelation, rather than reason, was appealed to in the ma jority of cases in order to settle an disputed question. In Alexandria there soon arose a school of teachers who endeavored to resuscitate the defunct and the dying doctrines of Plato', and to apply them in whole or in part to an explanation or a refutation of Christianity. Clement and Origen placed themselves as a strong barrier between the Church and the array of Neo-Platonists who would mar her beauty. Even these two champions, however, as a last resort would have recourse to the Scriptures to defend their positions. "Speculation in matters of religion had ever produced heretics, because they had followed the principle that Faith and Science were irreconcila ble—a principle that to the present hour continues to count its votaries among the misguided minds of the day. "Here and there during the Middle Ages a sporadic 'gleam in the gloom' of the circumambient darkness and withering blight that had fallen upon Europe revealed a man who, like Erigena, strove to apply the principles of pure reason to matters of Faith, for the elucidation of the latter. Former ly when a heresy had reared its pois onous head above the horizon of the Christian world, a valiant champion— an Augustine, a Jerome, a Basil, a Chrysostom, a Cyril—had suddenly arisen and had struck down the traitor, and eradicated the venomous reptile from the fair world-garden of the Church. But these were more or less individual efforts aimed at a particular foe. Later on Abelard with his Dia lectics introduced considerable con fusion in the contemporaneous world of thought. "The thirteenth century witnessed a revival of the work begun by Anselm. St. Thomas Aquinas now appeared as the divinely-sent genius who was to gather up the scattered fragments of arguments, doctrines, and disquisitions left by the early Fathers, and in one synthetic grasp to present them to the Church as a compact, solid and thoroughly rational body of teachings. He was eminently fitted for this hercu lean task. Endowed by nature with the prestige of noble birth, incompara ble talent, and an unusually powerful mind with a soul embellished in the order of grace with the choicest gifts of purity, humility, and intense faith with a spirit free from the cares of the world, and safe under the white mantle of St. Dominic—St. Thomas stood forth as the rightful representa tive of all that was high, and pure, and intellectual in the Church. His profound grasp of Scripture, patristic teaching, and the power of reason were all turned upon the task of reconciling Faith with the highest principles of rational thought. Sounding the very depths of the Aristotelian system of thought he extracted therefrom the quintessence of logical demonstration, and applied it to the doctrines of Faith with such consummate success, that v®*-' '.-v/ •$»*• ::-r 1 y from the most ordinary matters of Christian polity he soared to the im penetrable maze of the divine mys teries, proving the perfect accord be tween revelation and reason, andidem onstrating the reasonableness of those very ^mysteries which transcend the perfect comprehension of the human intellect. This complete synthesis of Christian economy was so masterful that it not only cleared the intellectual atmosphere of every mist of heresy, but furnished weapons for the utter discomfiture of all future heresies that might possibly arise. In the words of Pope John XXII. he "wrought as many miracles as he wrote articles" words confirmed by the testimony of Christ Himself: "Thou hast written well of Me, Thomas." GIFT TD CATHOLICS OF Ludwig Auer, Schoolmaster, Printer, Publisher, Founder of the "Cassia neum," Gives Product of Forty Years' Labor to the Cause of Catholic Education. We' do not often hear of Catholics giving large sums for purely pedagogi cal purposes, says a correspondent of the Philadelphia "Catholic Standard and Times." Hence when some one, no matter where, breaks the rule his example deserves to be held up not only for admiration, but also for imita tion. Forty years ago Ludwig Auer was a country schoolmaster. Schnufen hofen, the little Bavarian village in which he dispensed knowledge and other things, could not be expected to pay a very large salary for the edu cation of its few hopefuls, but he had a talent for writing little things that were read with eagerness by the sim ple country folk, and in this way he turned many an honest penny. In 1875 he founded a boys' training school at Donauwoerth, which he called the "Cassianeum." The little institute grew rapidly under Auer's able man agement. An elementary school and a preparatory gymnasium, a pedagogical library, scientific collections, a tech nical school, an up-to-date publishing house and second-hand book store were called into existence in rapid succession. No less than six excellent monthlies—"Monika" (for Christian mothers, circulation 95,000), "Schut zengel" (for children, circulation 120, 000), "Notburga" (for servant girls, circulation 85,000), "Raphael" (for young men), "Stern der Jugend" (for students, circulation 5,000) and "Pharus," founded just a year ago, which is considered by many to be the best educational review in Ger many—owe their existence and almost unexampled success to the indefatiga ble energy of "Uncle Ludwig." At the close of the last business year the "Cassianeum" represented a cash value of 1,404,670 M., and this product of forty years of incessant self-sacri ficing labor in the glorious cause of Catholic education Auer presented to the Catholics of Germany as a Christ mas gift. The generous donor has him self set forth the purpose of the foun dation, viz., "the promotion of educa tion in the spirit of the Catholic Church, with due regard to the legiti mate requirements of the age." The institute is to be immediately supple mented by a model training school, the object of which is to furnish object lessons for correct home training. The experiment will, no doubt, be watched with the deepest interest by all edu cators. In spite of his multitudinous duties and cares as director of the "Cassia neum," Auer's pen has never been idle, and German educational literature is indebted to him for several high-class treatises on the theory of education. CANADA'S CHIEF JUSTICE Is a Catholic and Loves the Land e# His Forefathers. Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, Chief Jus tice of the Supreme Court of Canada, is a Catholic and was born in Sillery, a suburb of Quebec, on December 19, 1853. His education was received at Quebec Seminary and Laval Univer sity. After being graduated from the last-named institution in 1876, he be gan the practice of law, and three years later he was appointed Crown Prosecutor for the city and district of Quebec. He was at one time presi dent of the Irish Land League of Cana da. In 1890 he entered the Legislature of Quebec. The following year he was offered, but refused a portfolio in the De Boucherville ministry. On Sir Wilfrid Laurier assuming office in 1896 he invited Mr. Fitzpatrick to join him as Solicitor-General, and since then his relationship to Federal affairs has been constant and unremitting. In 1901 he was promoted to the post of Minister of Justice, where he remained until his appointment to the Supreme Court In 1906. -v v MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Number 10 BRIAND'SJOWNFftLL THE LATE PREMIER OF FRANCE WAS FORCED TO RESIGN. The closing days of last month wit nessed the downfall of Aristide Briand, Prime Minister of France, and his cabi net. The religious policy of the min istry had been the subject of discus sion for some days in the Chamber of Deputies. Complaint was made that the laws against the religious associa tions were not being enforced and it was practically charged that evasions of the law were being winked at. President Fallieres tendered the Prime Ministership to Antoine Monis, who accepted, and, after some delay, succeeded in forming a new ministry. In view of these changes the following communication which we have receiv ed from a well-informed correspondent sheds light on the causes which led to the overthrow of the Briand min istry. He says: Public worship in France was until late years looked after by a special Minister of the Cabinet it is now included in one of the other minis terial portfolios. Aristide Briand was "in charge" of this supplementary port folio in the long Clemenceau ministry, and prepared the famous and iniquit our Spoliation and Association Laws. In July, 1909, he succeeded Clemen ceau at the head of the Government, and retained the portfolio of Public Worship, to finish the work he had begun. Whenever the representatives of the French people in the Chamber of Depu ties show by their "interpellations" that they are dissatisfied with the pol icies of the Cabinet, it is customary for the Premier to "put the question of confidence" and call for a formal vote of approval or disapproval. Well, after having for years been the tool of the Masonic persecutors of the Church in France, Briand saw himself taxed with "laxity in the carrying out of the Laws against Religion." Thus had fared before him Waldeck-Rous seau, who began the persecution against the religious orders ten years ago, and Clemenceau, Briand's imme diate predecessor. They also had de lighted the Masonic lodges in the be ginning of their administrations, but when their anti-religious zeal no longer kept pace with the rabid instincts of the anti-Catholic Deputies, they were by them called "clericals," to the utter astonishment of outsiders, and dis charged. Briand declared last week that he was disgusted, and "tired of it all," and put the "question of confidence." He was given a majority of but 15 votes out of 550, which meant disap proval. A conference of the Ministers followed, and it was decided that the members of the Cabinet would tender their resignations after the funeral of the Minister of War, who had died suddenly. This has effectively been done, and President Fallieres has ac cepted the resignations. The downfall of the Briand Ministry is of great interest to Catholics, inas much as it indicates how much head way the Church has made in her war against Masonry in France. If Briand became "lax in carrying out the Laws against Religion," it is because he saw "that the task had be come difficult and impolitic. When the persecution began, some ten or twelve years ago, it was said on all sides that until the Bishops would be thrown into prison, there would be no stemming of the tide. Now Bishops and Cardinals have been indicted and condemned, and Catholic France is finally believing that a persecution ifc going on. These words may seem strange, but they contain the key to the situation. The number of Bishops appointed on their merits, and not in consideration of the patronage of the Government, has been considerable since the "rupture" of the Concordat and these Bishops have fearlessly spoken of late. Books, detrimental to the innocence of chil dren, have been condemned, although they had been approved of by the Gov ernment. Newspapers, openly attack ing the) Church, have been forbidden to Catholics. Hence the above men tioned indictments and condemnations. But the Bishops, nothing daunted, are continuing their apostolic mission with apostolic liberty and courage. What can the Government do? Indict the Bishops "en masse?" This would un questionably be a very impolitic move. What then? Close its eyes? That is what Briand thought wise to do, and it has been his downfall—"lax in car rying out the laws." The situation is interesting and mo mentous. On both sides the leaders are conscious of the fact that the moment for a pitched battle has come. Who will be the next leader of tha Masonic forces? No prominent one is in sight.. It is to be hoped that he will be a servile executive of the Grand Orient, ready to double the persecu tion for that will bring the final tri umph of Hotly Church so much the nearer. -iv* 1 i -v' i -t W. "su.1 iShk'