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QUESTION In this department, questions of general interest in regard to religion will be answered each week in the order in which they are received. All communi cations must be signed, though the name will not be published. Address: "Question and Answer", care The Catholic Bulletin, 315 Newton Bldg.( St. Paul. (1) Can a good God be so unmerci ful as to condemn to Hell a person who, at the close of a good life, com mits one mortal sin and dies suddenly before he can go to Confession and be forgiven? I, as a Catholic, do not be lieve it. (2) What are the Franciscan Tertiaries? Is it an order for men and women in the world? What are its rules? (1) It is the teaching of the Catholic Church, and every Catholic is bound to believe it, that if a person dies with the guilt of even one mortal sin on his soul he is condemned to Hell. No mat ter how holy his previous life may have been, if he deliberately commits a mortal sin and dies in that state he is doomed. This does not militate against the goodness and mercy of God, because of His very nature He must be opposed to sin, and His jus tice obliges Him to punish it in accord ance with its heinousness. We must not seek to enhance God's mercy and goodness at the expense of His justice. He is as just as He is merciful. He can not forgive a single mortal sin un less the sinner sincerely repents of it and does what he can to atone for it. While Confession is the ordinary means by which sin is forgiven, it is not the only means. Perfect contri tion, also, wipes out sin and it may be that a merciful God gives a person who dies suddenly after committing a mor tal sin an opportunity to make an act of perfect contrition. It is not for us to set a limit for the exercise of God's mercy. Neither are we to presume on it and delay conversion to Him after we have fallen into sin, in the hope that we will be made the recipients of such extraordinary grace. (2) The Tertiaries is the name applied to the members of the Third Order of St Francis, founded in 1221. This order occupies, as it were, a middle place be tween the world and the cloister, af fording opportunity for semi-religious life to men and women in the world who desire to cultivate in a marked degree the Christian virtues suitable to their condition in life. Its rule was formally approved by Pope Nicholas IV. in 1289, and was modified by Leo XIII. in 1882. It requires of those who wish to enjoy the privileges of the Third Order the daily recitation of twelve Our Fathers and Hail Marys, monthly Communion and two fasts an nually. Do you think that if a person is once converted he can go astray and be lost. Most certainly. St. Paul (I. Cor. ix. 27) says: "I chastise my body, and bring it into subjection lest, perhaps, when I have preached to others, I my self should become a castaway." No one can doubt the sincerity of St. Paul's conversion, yet he fears loss should he sin, which to his mind is pos sible, unless he keep down his sions by strong measures. Why do women wear hats in church? How far back does the custom date? A custom that traces itself back to the Apostles and which bears the force of law demands that women should have their head covered while in church. Generally, the covering used is a hat, though any covering will answer the requirement of the law. In convent schools for girls and often in our city churches on the days when the young women sodalities re ceive Communion, a veil is worn in stead of a hat. A shawl is a common head covering for the women of some nationalities. The first epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians (XI-5, 13) is usually cited in support of the pres ent custom forbidding women to en ter church bareheaded. "Every wom an praying or prophesying with her head not covered, disgraceth her head for it is all one as if she were shaven." "You yourselves judge doth it be come a woman to pray unto God uncov ered?" It seems to be the opinon of St. Paul that a woman's hair which "it is glory to her to nourish," is shown to the best advantage when it is crowned by some head-dress. A woman should show to her best advan tage when she is talking to God in prayer. While the cus tom requiring women to pray al ways with head covered, has ceased to govern them when they pray in other places than church, here the tra dition noted by St. Paul as always been observed. It may be that the style of head-covering worn by women, the inconvenience of its removal and the! lack of provision for keeping the hats of the vast multitude of women who have ever frequented our churches, have all combined to keep alive the custom approved by the Apostles and in vogue in their day whereby women in church said their prayers with cov ered heats. What must one do in order to make a good confession? If one forgets a sin is the confession bad? The catechism says that, in order to make a good confession one is required (1) to make a careful examination of conscience (2) to confess all the sins of which one is conscious (3) to have a sincere contrition for having commit ted them and (4) to make a firm reso lution not to commit them again. If one has made bad confessions, it is necessary to confess the number of times one was guilty of sacrilege. God will forgive everyone who turns from ^ANSWER, mm the evil of his ways and purposes amendment. The fact that one has forgotten a sin after doing one's best to recall all sins to memory, does not make the confession unworthy. It is only wilful concealment of sin, or slip-shod exami nation of conscience, or absence of sor row or of determination to avoid sin for the future, that can render a con fession null and void. Is there any harm In attending a traveling show when one has gone to Confession and intends to receive Holy Communion in the morning? It is not a becoming preparation for the reception of Holy Communion. It shows a lack of reverence for the Blessed Sacrament, and may be the cause of scandal to those who are aware of the facts. We take it for granted that it is not an occasion of sin to the individual in question. Are canceled postage stamps in de mand by any religious order, and of what use are they? For full information on this point, write to Rev. Father Director, of the African Missions, 37 Rampart street, Quebec, or to Bethlehem Institute, care 2427 Christian street, Philadel phia, Pennsylvania. POPULAR CATHOLIC LITERATURE 'Philothea", or Introduction to a De vout Life by St. Francis de Sales. 'A good book," wrote Milton, "is the precious life-blood of a master-spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life." These words are singularly applicable to the little book called "Philothea or, Introduction to a Devout Life", by St. Francis de Sales. The gentle saint, one of the sweetest and most lovable in the calen dar, seems to speak to you with the winsome grace, the charming courtesy, the genial, sparkling pleasantry so characteristic of him. His sympathy and earnestness and desire to help you make you feel yourself in the company of a personal friend and although you smile at the quaintness of some of his illustrations—he is very rich in them— in most he delights you with his close, congenial observation of nature. Many of them, indeed, have the freshness of Alpine air in them for he lived and labored in the vicinity of Geneva. The saint tells us that the origin of the book was a series of letters he wrote for the spiritual guidance of a pious and virtuous soul, who desired his particular assistance for this pur pose. Hence, it contains nothing specu lative, abstract or impersonal, and may be read with as much profit by a child as by an adult, by the uncultured as by the cultured, by the poor as by the rich. It is a book for all time because the truths it explains and applies are eternal. "Heaven and earth shall pass away but My (Jesus Christ's) word shall not pass away.'* After telling what true devotion is and its compatibility with every sta tion of life, "Philothea" teaches that the beginning of all true devotion is purgation of the soul from sin, from all affection toward it, and from unprofit able amusements that might be an oc casion of it. It treats, next, of prayer, the virtues we ought to acquire, and the chief temptations we must guard against. Finally, it recommends the yearly renewal of our good resolutions, and shows how it is to be made. The book may be purchased for fifty cents at any Catholic book-store, and we earnestly recommend it to our readers. Secular News of the Week. The Interstate Commerce Commis sion has decided unanimously against the railroads in the important in creased rate cases that have been pending for several months. The de cision is sweeping beyond anticipa tion, even of the shippers. It declines to allow a single increase by the six hundred or more railroads in the Bast and the Middle West. It throws aside as unsubstantiated the contention of the railroads that they must have in creased revenues to meet the increased cost of equipment and operation, and cuts off between $50,000,000 to $60,000, 000 a year in revenue which the rail roads had expected to realize from the proposed increases. On the other hand it means a saving of that amount to the shippers of the country. The gross earnings tax -for 1910 amounted to $3,894,482.65, which amount was paid into the State treas ury within the required time, by the railroad companies operating in the state of Minnesota." The gross earn ings of railroads in the state for the year ending December 31, 1910, was $97,362,066.75. The increase for the year 1910 over that of 1909 was $6, 347,843, in gross earnings, which yield ed the state an increase of $250,00U from the gross earnings tax. Prac tically every road in the state showed an increase in earnings, but not as much as was anticipated. •v: The work on the Belle ffetrrefie^g. D., irrigation project is nearing com pletion. Bids for the last piece of JL. 7^ .V -. work to be done, the construction of the north canal, have been forwarded to Washington, and it is expected that the contract will ^awarded this com ing week. Through the medium of the depart ment of extension at the North Dakota Agricultural College, a campaign has been started under the direction of Prof. A. G. Arvold to foster public speakiAg and debating contests in the country schools of North Dakota. In the beginning the extension depart ment expects to reach 5,000 schools throughout the state and get them in terested at once in the work. Farm ers and agricultural clubs are also be ing organised with the some purpose in view. V The time for the appointment of the St. Cloud charter commission has been extended by Judges Nye and Hale. The extension was granted to allow the commission to draft amend ments to the charter embodying the commission form of government. Some time next summer another special elec tion will be held, at which time the amendment will be voted upon. The decision of the Interstate Com merce Commission reducing the pre cooling charges on fruit from Cali fornia is of wide interest. The out come of the decision must mean cheaper oranges. The reduction in charges is a cut .of 75 per cent, and while no such proportional reduction can be expected in the price of Cali fornia fruits, yet a heavy cut must result. An earthquake shook Central Italy last week, especially the provinces in the compartments of Emilia, in the Marches and in Tuscany. The dam age, however, was not great. Several buildings were damaged at Forli and Casena. One occupied house collapsed and many chimneys fell. The shock was less violent, through considerable elsewhere. The work of raising the wreck of the battleship Maine from Havana harbor is about three-fourths com pleted, according to the estimate of the officers of the War Department. Sixteen of the twenty cylinders of the cofferdam now being constructed around the hulk have been put in place. It is expected that the coffer dam will be completed about the mid dle of April. When the dam is fin ished the water will be pumped out so as to expose the hull of the wreck. The bodies of the victims still remain ing* in the hull will be removed and buried in the Arlington National Cem etery. The main mast of the Maine will be erected over the graves lis a memorial. Italian anxiety regarding American designs on the sulphur mines' at Cy rene, has been considerably deepened by a dispatch to the Corriere d'ltalia to the effect that Americans have got possession of the mines and that an American steamer is patrolling the coast oi Tripoli with the consent .of the Ottoman authorities. Pennsylvania, New Jersey and adja cent states are sounding an alarm, warning farmers to be prepared for an invasion of seventeen-year locusts due to come this spring. These pests, known to agriculture as periodical cicada made their last visitation in Eastern states in 1894. The larvae of the insects live underground feeding on the roots of trees and shrubs for seventeen years, when the insects emerge out into the outer air with wings. The average life is three weeks. They appear with the coming of warm weather and remain unwel come visitors until cold weather sets in. During the summer of their winged existence the females deposit eggs in the twigs and branches of trees, boring holes for this purpose, and the twigs and branches penetrat ed, die. This as about the extent of the damage that can be charged to the insects. A fund of between $35,000 and $50,000, which is still growing has been subscribed to by various maga zines in New York and Philadelphia to combat pending legislation in con gress providing for increased postage rates on the advertising pages of pe riodical literature. .General Rosales, peace envoy of President Davilu of Honduras, says the people of his country will never accept General Bonilla for president, declaring the rebel chief to be in league with an American^ fruit trust.. The first dividend to be paid on the preferred stock of the Southern Rail way Company since October, 1907, is to be distributed on April 2.4th, the di rectors of the road having declared a dividend of one per cent. The pay ment is made for no specific period, and the management intends to main tain dividends in the future, although no information has been given as to what yearly rate is contemplated. THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, MARCH 11, 1911 Marconi, the inventor of wireless telegraph, has won his suit against the British Radietelegraph and Telephone Co. The case,-which has lasted for two months, was tried in the Chan cery Court at London before Judge Parker. Electrical scientists from all over the world were called as expert witnesses and the court room was transformed into what looked like an electrical laboratory. Marconigrams were sent and received in court, the waves being caught on a receiver fixed to the flag pole of the Law Courts. The presiding judge is'an expert and the testimony was punctuated by air waves. siasaaswi ..Ia _e? V vA T. Colman du Pont has announced that he will advance $2,000,000 if that amount is necessary, to the state of Delaware for the construction of a highway the length of the state. The proposal is for a modern highway from sixty to one hundred feet in width. It is to run from the Pennsylvania line above Clay Mont, Del., on the north, to Selbyville, Del., on the Maryland boundary on the south. The distance is 130 miles. Mr. du Pont's counsel is now trying to envolve a plan under which the legislature can pass a bill accepting the advance to the state. The great British law schools are trying to improve legal education by adopting American methods. The benchers of Grey's Inn are dissatisfied with the result of lectures and exami nations. Finding that the young men admitted to the bar know nothing of practice, a sum of money has been set aside to enable such of them as need assistance to read in Chambers, which is the English for studying in a law yer's office, before they are made bar risters. Grey's Inn will offer prizes also for passing honor examinations and intends to establish Moot Courts. The legislature of Connecticut has taken up airship legislation. A bill has been drafted in accordance with Governor Baldwin's recommendation which will compel aviators, if they wish to fly over premises other than their own, to take out a state license. The licenses regulations are to be similar to those in force regarding au tomobiles and chauffeurs. The aviator must be twenty-one years old, and shall pay a fee of not more than $25. The airship license is placed at $5. Each machine must bear a registry number in figures not less than three feet in length. Machines are to he licensed annually. The Commonwealth of Australia served notice on the business world February 27 that it would not harbor foreign "trusts." This action was pre cipitated through the American meat trust's representatives recently visit ing Australia with a view to building a large plant and extending its field of operation in Oceania. The present government in Australia is a labor party government and the premier, An drew Fisher, is a shrewd leader, whose object is to build up Australian trade and commerce from within. The Australian meat dealers have a large trade with the Philippines and Asiatic ports and export considerable beef and mutton to England. While this action is primarily to protect and fos ter home industries, it is intended to discourage and prohibit, if necessary, the operations of "trusts," and avoid the repetition in Australian of the scandals and merciless methods char acterizing monopolies in other parts of the world. The remainder of the buffalo herd sold to the ^Dominion of Canada by Mr. Pablo of Montana are soon to be shipped to Wainright, Alberta, where the Dominion1 Government has estab lished a buffalo preserve. Owing to a stampede, twenty or thirty old bulls evaded capture when the first ship ment was made last year. It is now expected that the majority of these can be rounded up and shipped some time in April. In the North Yakima fruit district, state of Washington, smudge pots are being used in every orchard to ward off any danger of freezing. The pots are filled with a thick oily material mixed with wet straw and the smoke being produced from the thousands in use hangs over the dales and valleys like a huge pall. The dense clouds of the heavy smoke clinging to the trees and shrubbery prevents the forma tion of frost by the rapid condensa tion of the moisture and vapor from the warm earth. The immense holdings of the Colo rado Fuel and Iron Company in Las Animas County, Colorado, have been attached in a suit filed by United States Attorney General Wickersham in the federal court at Denver. About 5,800 acres of the most valuable coal lands in the state, estimated to be worth $3,000,000 are involved. The government asks that this land be re turned to it, alleging it was obtained by fraud, deceit and conspiracy. BIG CATHOLIC COLONY ESTABLISHED v At Onarnia, Minn. BEING The Catholic Colony being estab lished at Onamia, Mille Lacs County, Minn., by Bishop James McGolrick of Duluth, is now the scene of much ac tivity. The prospects now that spring is at hand presages great progress this year. A number of colonists have already moved there, houses are being built and ground prepared for this year's crop. The essentials of substantial and constant growth have been liber ally supplied by nature and the set tlers speak in high praise of the land, the soil, the climate and surroundings. To make easy the problem of hauling supplies and products there are twenty miles of wagon roads being built un der the supervision of the Minnesota State Highway Commission, an encour aging factor which emphasizes the fact that everything in the line of improve ment is being well done. To provide for the spiritual needs of the colony two priests and a lay bro ther are stationed at Onamia. A church and pastoral residence have been built and a movement is on foot to establish a monastery, land having already been secured for that purpose. Onamia is a division point on the Soo Line and its location, near the beautiful Mille Lacs Lake, the natural productive qualities of the soil, the religious and educa- \w & .ill" .igp if iy)|pi[ i. iu i,hii ii mi i iii.jyii ii President Great Northern Ry. Co. AMBROSE GUITERMAN GuitermanBros., Wholesale Men's Furnishings J. M. HANNAFORD Vice-President Northern Pacific Ry. CHAS. H. F. SMITH BEN BAER C. C. EMERLON A CAR tional advantages, all combine to as sure the colony a bright future. Colonists continue to arrive from va rious parts of the country, and from present indications it seems reasonable to predict that this locality is destined to be a garden spot—not only in name, but in reality "The Cow's Paradise." e Merchants National Bank OF ST. PAUL, MINN. UNITED STATES DEPOSITORY CAPITAL $1,000,000.00 SURPLUS $800,000.00 KENNETH CLARK, President GEO. H. PRINCE, Vice- President H. W. PARKER, Cashier H. VAN VLECK, Asst. Cashier R. C. LILLY, Asst. Cashier DIRECTORS: CRAWFORD LIVINGSTON Capitalist THOMAS A. MARLOW President National Bank of Montana, HMmi KENNETH CLARK President W. B. PARSONS Vic*Pxwident Western Elevator Co., Winona, Minn. LOUIS W. HILL Co. GEORGE H. PRINCE Vice-President We Pay JAMES H. SKINNER Lanpher, Skinner & Co., Wholesale Hats, Caps, Gloves, etc. E. N. SAUNDERS President Northwestern Fuel Co. V. M. WATKINS Trustee Wilder Estate CHARLES P. NOYES Noyes Bros. & Cutler, Wholesale Drugs L. P. ORDWAY General Manager Crane & Ordway Co. Ry., Mill and Plumbers Supplies FRANK B. KELLOGG Davis. Kellogg & Severance, Attorneys CHARLES H. BIGELOW President St. Paul Fire & Marine Ins. Co. 3% Interest Paid on Time Deposits Northern Savings Bank AMERICAN NATIONAL BANK BUILDING Cor. Fifth and Cedar Streets ST. PAUL, MINN. We offer you the facilities of this institution for savings accounts OFFICERS: BEN BAER, Pres. rfAROLD THORSON, Vice-Pres. TRUSTEES: OTTO BREMER J*S WEED C. P. HOWES 31% THE STATE SAVINGS BANK Father Van Dinter, Onamia, Minn., takes pleasure in giving information to those who inquire, as well as the Minnesota Catholic Colonization Soci ety, 400 Germania Life Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. ANNOUNCEMENT. Young ladies desiring to become grad uate nurses, will be admitted to Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital Training School, until June 1, 1911. For further information address: SISTER SUPERIOR, Hot Springs, a D. 93 E. 4th Street, ST. PAUL, MINN. 3 e e n i n e e s o u e s e i- a n n u a y Every dollar deposited in this bank is secured by first mortgage or a high class bond. DEPOSITS $4,169,000.00 CHARLES P. NOYES, President KENNETH CLARK. Vlco.Pres. F. O. WILLIUS, Ass't Treas. LOUIS BETZ, Treasurer. JOHN C. ENGEN. Ass't Treas. JOHN R. MITCHELL, Pres. WM. B. GEERY, Vice-Pres. JAS. L. MITCHELL, Cashier EDWARD H. MILLER, Ass't Cashier. GEORGE M. BRACK, Ass't Cashier. The Capital National Bank IS THE BANK equipped to handle all classes of business. Checking accounts of corporations, firms and individuals solicited, and will receive every favor and courtesy con sistent with conservative banking. Our Savings Department Pays interest at the rate of 3% per annum This department is equipped in every way to handle your savings account. Separate Department for ladies Capital National Bank, HUPP-YEAI "ELECTRICS" $1,750.00 L. H. ICKLER, Cashier HAROLD THORSON C. J. PEEPLES L. H. ICKLER Interest On Deposits SAVE YOUR MONEY and deposit it in Corner Fifth and Robert Streets ST. PAUL F. 0. E. DETROIT WHY PAY MORE? Let Us take You Out for a Ride OF FRENCH SIGN OF THE VERY LATEST FASHION Northwest Branch: 1334 Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis PHONE M. 3867 PHONE C. 3866 St. Paul Agent: H. K HARRISON, 650 6rand Avenue PHONE DALE 1568 LENT IS HERE MALTED Hearts of Barley and Barley Flour Are splendid substitutes for meat. Babies as well as office men like it. Mothers hail it with delight. More strengthening than meat for the working man. Ask your grocer for ML Acc«pt no substitute* Mlffliesnt? BarleyCerealfoodCe. MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.