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What is meant by a plenary in dulgence and how does it differ from a partial indulgence? 2. What condi tions are necessary to gain an indul gence? 1. A plenary indulgence, as the Catechism teaches, is one by which the whole of the temporal punishment due to sin is remitted. Whoever gains a plenary indulgence is just as if he had rendered satisfaction to God for all the sinB of which he may have been guilty. A partial indulgence, as the name indicates, is one by which only a part of the temporal punish ment due to sin is remitted. Thus, for instance, an indulgence of seven years or forty days means a remission in the sight of God of as much of the tem poral punishment due to sin as would have been expiated in the early days of Christianity by a public penance of as many years or days. 2. In or der to gain an indulgence, whether plenary or partial, it is necessary first of all, to be in the state of grace, that is to say, a person who seeks to gain an indulgence must be free from mortal sin. Secondly, he must perform whatever good works are prescribed as conditions for the gaining of the in dulgence, such as Are any of Vi^or Hugo's books on the index and, if so, which ones? According to the Roman Index of Forbidden Books by Rev. F. S. Bet ten, S. J., two of Victor Hugo's works are on the Index, namely, Notre Dame de Paris, and Les Miaerables. 1. Is it proper to attend public dances given in a Catholic Foresters' hall? 2. Is it a sin to attend plays that are not good, such as are com monly given in our theaters? 1. Certain kinds of dances are for bidden by the Church because of their danger to the morals of those who indulge in them. The Church, however, does not condemn all dances as forms of legitimate amusement. If the dances referred to are public in the sense that any one and every one who has the admission fee may par ticipate in them, they should not be patronized by respectable people no matter whether they take place in a Catholic Foresters' hall or not. But if these dances are under proper supervision and chaperonage it would seem that there is no reason why people who desire to attend them should not do so. Of course, there is always the possibility that, owing to circumstances, they may be occasions of sin for certain individuals, at least, in which case they would not be justi fied in attending them. 2. As a gen eral rule it may be said that it is wrong to attend plays of a doubtful and suggestive, not to say, immoral character. There are many good plays presented in reputable theatres which people may attend without detriment to their moral welfare. In this department, questions of general interest in regard to religion will be answered each week in the order in which they are received. All communi cations must be signed, though the name will not be published. Address: "Question and Answer", care The Catholic Bulletin, 315 Newton Bldg., St. Paul. fasting, almsgiving, prayers, or visits to certain churches. Is there any difference between Archbishops and Bishops? As far as the fullness of the priestly power conferred by the Sacrament of Holy Orders is concerned there is no difference. The distinction is one of rank only. The Bishop has his Dio cese as well as the Archbishop and is its chief pastor. An Archbishop, how ever, exercises a certain amount of supervision over a number of Bishops in the Dioceses which constitute his ecclesiastical province. The Arch bishop is known as the metropolitan because, in the beginning, he had his residence in the chief city, or, metrop olis, of a province. The other Bishops of the province are called his suf fragans. 1. What is the difference between a chalice and a ciboruim? Must the former be made of gold or silver? 1. The chalice is a cup-shaped ves sel in which the change of the sub stance of the wine into the substance of the Clood of Our Lord takes place at the Consecration in the Mass. The Ciboruim is the receptacle in which the consecrated hosts are preserved in the tabernacle and from which the priests distributes them in Holy Com munion to the people. It is shaped somewhat like the chalice, but has a larger cup. In regard to the material of which the chalice is made it may be said that according to the existing law of the Church, the chalice or at least the cup of it must be of gold or of silver lined with gold. Nothing else is permitted except in a case of great necessity and poverty, when pewter may be used, but even in this case the inside of the cup must be gold. 1. If God is the good God they claim He is and that He knows where a person is going regardless of the so-called "free will" why does He create sorre persons for what is seemingly hell? 2. What is the sin against the HoJy Ghost? 3. Is the Independent Church in any way con nected with the Roman Catholic Church? 1. The person who asks this ques tion seems to be in doubt about the goodness of God. He may take that for granted because the Christian conception of God demands that He be goodness itself. Hence when a person is condemned to hell that fact does not militate against this attribute to God. The objection here proposed involves the question of predestination ANSWER into which we do not intend to enter except to say that God does not create any person and condemn him to hell independently of what he may do in the exercise of his free will. God knows all things, therefore, He knows the fate in store for each soul because He is aware of the manner in which that sould will exercise its freedom. God sees all things in the present and the fact that he knows a soul will be condemned to hell does not make Him responsible for that condemna tion. If one sees a person running towards a precipice and know that, if he continues in that direction, he will inevitably be killed by falling from the brink his knowledge of that fact does not make him responsible for that person's death. So it. is with God. He knows what use each one will make of his free will and knows likewise the result, but that does not make Him responsible for the unhappy ending of the one who misuses his free will. 2. The sin against the Holy Ghost spoken of in Scripture as the one unpardonable sin is final impenitence, that is to say, the con tinual and wilful resistance of God's grace until death. Absolutely speak ing, this sin is not unpardonable for God is always ready to forgive the sinner who repents but, as a matter of fact, the sin is not pardoned be cause the? sinner deliberately refuses to co-operate with God's grace and do what he knows is necessary for salvation. 3. No. POPIU CITHOLIC LITEM Chats by the Fireside. A study in Life, Art and Literature. By Thomas O'Hagan, Ph. D. Published by the Rosary Press, Somerset, Ohio. Price $1.00. In my early days, books were not so plentiful as later, and my chief sup ply came from a brother who was away in college, and who had a faculty of winning prizes. One of these prize books made a great impression on my mind or rather on my literary tastes. It was "Evenings in the Library," by Maurice Francis Egan, our present minister to Denmark, but then a com paratively unknown writer. The name itself had something suggestive of comfort and coziness in it. I have been in many a library since but never enjoyed myself more than in that one "not built by hands." And what noble acquaintances I made there—Longfellow, Tennyson, Bryant, Aldrich and a host of others who are now old friends. Just such a feeling of satisfaction comes over me today on reading "Chats by the Fireside," though the book is along a different plane, and contains more mature thought and criticism. The "chats" give you the delightful feeling that you are learn ing a lot of things without being lec tured at. They are so much a part of the author that just a few words about him will add to the pleasure of the reading. There never was a red cross knight of olden times more de voted to his cause than Dr. O'Hagan is to the advancement of Catholic litera ture. His whole life has been a prep aration and he brings to his work not only a mind endowed by nature with a philosophical turn but rigidly train ed in the best schools of this country and of Europe. Nor is he a stranger to the reading world, having quite a number of books already to his credit and having sung his way to its heart in "The Songs of the Settlement." "Chats by the Fireside" is, just as the name implies, a desultory conver sation, one sided, of course, on the various subjects that come under the observation of a Catholic editor but every page has an educative value by reason of the wide and varied informa tion of the man behind it. Sometimes it is a nebulous thought crystallized into expression, a clear-cut differentia tion or a well-expressed definition, and whether he criticises or commends there is always evidence of balance and absence of rancour. As an example of his style, here is his distinction between Catholic and secular education: "The former em phasizes the things of the soul, the latter the things of the mind." His literary creed is summed up in the following, "I hold that what is strong est, best, most enduring, and abso lutely essential in all great English poetry is Catholic." He is a foe to superficial education as he delightfully puts it: "Those little educational skiffs, that* skim the high seas of knowedge, yet seldom linger to study the mysteries of the deep." The Eaglish language he uses with respect and judgment. "It is pitiable," he says, "to see a thought buried un der a great boulder of words." In one chat he pays a much-needed atten tion to our magazines, and again here is an example of his nice differentia tion: "We have too much smart writ ing, and not enough of scholarship and thought." Again: "Criticism should be the conscience of art, and should have in it more of construction than destruction." And yet with all his kindliness his "temperament" once and a while gets away with him, as witness the case of the Englishman who attempted to criticise the works of Michael Angelo and Raphael: "This son of the North from the island of fog and mist, whose people were busy bear-baiting and beer-drink ing, dreaming of conquests on land and sea, and burning martyrs at the stake when Latin Italy and Spain were glorifying the canvasses of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with the visions of a Murillo, a Titian and a Raphael, now assumes to lecture on the principle of sculpture and painting to the most inspired art chil dren of the earth." This avalanchal criticism might be excused on the plea of "holy indignation." That admirable quality in a teacher, his ability to cor-relate facts, is often seen, as in this sentence: "The Gothic Cathedral in its ripened fullness marks the culmination of the age of Faith, it is coeval with Dante's Divine Com edy, St. Thomas' Sum ma and the Red Cross Knights of the Holy Land." You can hardly open the pages of "Chats by the Fireside" without coming on same thought presented in the very kernel without any flimsy decorations, but just ready to slip into a little pocket of your mind, such as, "No age is greater than its spiritual en dowment and no art is greater than its vision of God." "Great books em balm the soul of their age." And so through the whole volume pleasure and mental improvement go hand and hand. Notwithstanding Dr. O'Hagan's prudence and judgment he was not able to resist the lure of the "eternal feminine" and he devotes a chapter and more to that elusive subject he writes, of course, with the character istic freedom of one whose imagina tion is altogether untrammelled by experience. When he turns to poetry, however, he is more at home, and there is a flash of the sublime in his definition of true poetry. "Fire from the altar of true inspiration, borne by the thurifers of God." I could go on endlessly digging up nuggets from this little mine of thought but the only way to enjoy it properly is to sit down and have a "chat by the fireside" yourself. I am pleased to see that, unlike so many Catholic books, it is put on the market for the modest sum of one dollar. The general make up of the book is really elegant—cloth in dark green and gold, and of a very convenient size. It will make a very pretty gift or remem berance book. It comes from the Rosary Press and can be had by ad dressing the author, "New World," Chicago, 111. -, *•»Helen Hughes Hielscher. Secular News of the Week. Transportation of United States mail across the continent by aeroplane, over an officially designated route, by a special mail messenger appointed by Postmaster General Hitchcock, is a test that will be undertaken this week. Earl L. Ovington, who carried mails between Nassau and Brooklyn, will transport mail from New York to Los Angeles in his airship, over tne long est mail messenger route ever estab lished. A special mail pouch has been made for Ovington to carry, the ordi nary pouch being too cumbersome and unwieldy. The pouch will contain let ters for Chicago delivery, as well as for delivery in Los Angeles. The aero plane will carry a small sign* "United States Mail." Ovington assured the postoffice department that he will start from New York within a day or two. Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley, U. S. N., retired, fell dead in front of the Berkeley Lyceum on West Forty fourth Street, New York, on October 2. The admiral's sudden death is at tributed to cerebral hemorrhage which attacked him shortly after he, with Mrs. Schley, reached New York from a visit to Mount Kisco and had called at the New York Yacht Club for his mail. The burial will be in Arlington cemetery. His grave will be in front of the historic Lee mansion, i n close proximity to the plot assigned to Ad miral Dewey and the members of his Asiatic fleet, and overlooks the Poto mac river and the city of Washington. The trouble between Turkey and Italy, which culminated in a declara tion of war at Rome on September 29, dates back to 1878, when, with the making of the treaty concluding the Russo-Turkish war, the powers are understood to have agreed to permit Italy "a pacification of Tripoli." Tur key claims that this right has been respected ever since Italy has colon ized Tripoli until her interests in that African province are very great. She has asserted, however, that her sub jects have been mistreated by the Ottoman authorities and constantly discriminated against. At the time that the Franco-German differences re garding Morocco were acute, Italy turned her attention again to Tripoli and in subsequent negotiations with Constantinople set forth that many outrages against her subjects had been perpetrated for which no redress had been made. R. A. Ballinger, former Secretary of the Interior, who threatened legal ac tion against Gifford Pinchot in the heat of the Alaska coal land contro versy, and whose friends have been urging him to sue the former national forester on Mr. Pinchot's arrival at Seattle from Alaska, has announced that after long and careful considera tion he has decided not to make a legal attack. The chief feature of interest in connection with the opening of the postal savings bank in St. Paul has not been, as expected, the large num ber of deposits made by foreigners, but the numerous savings accounts opened by students and school chil dren. Cretin school has led all others in the number of students who have started accounts, due, it is thought, to the great interest which has been shown in the bank by the instructors., Hancock, Jefferson, Neal and other schools have been well represented. It is estimated that there were 10, 000 persons at the four registration points, Gregory, Dallas, Chamberlain and Rapid City, awaiting the opening of the registration on October 1. Five hundred thousand acres of Mellette county land appraised by government experts at from 25 cents to $6 per acre will be awarded to the lucky winners of the drawing, which is one of the biggest ever undertaken in the United States. The first blow in the Turko-Italiah war was struck by Italy within 24 hours of the declaration of hostilities. Italian warships under the command of the Duke d'Abruzzi bombarded the Turkish seaport of Prevesa, destroyed the government houses there and dis abled a Turkish torpedo boat. A report submitted by the Great Northern to the New York Stock Ex change shows that the company for the fiscal year ended June 30 last had available dividends equal to 8.34 per cent on the $209,981,875 capital stock, as compared with 8.47 per cent for the previous year. The balance for divi dends amounted to $17,516,927, a de crease of $274,898 from the year pre vious, leaving a surplus of $2,818,338, a decrease of $274,824, compared with the year previous. The bronze statue of Parnell, one of the finest achievements of the great sculptor Augustus St. Gaudens, which has been erected largely through sub scriptions by American admirers, w£& unveiled in Dublin on October 1 by John E. Redmond, leader of the Irish parliamentary party. Throughout the Harriman and Illi nois Central systems from Chicago to the Pacific coast the order to the shop men to strike at 10 o'clock on Septem ber 30 was generally obeyed and union leaders estimated that over 25,000 men were out. The gross earnings of the Minne apolis & St. Louis for August were $412,545, a decrease of $20,755 from August, 1910. The expenses and taxes were $309,116, a decrease of $6,409. On September 30 the Turkish Gov ernment addressed another appeal to the powers, expressing pained sur prise at Italy's action in declaring war and saying that there is still time to prevent the disastrous and evil effects of a war which nothing in the attitude of the Turkish empire justifies. The porte appeals to the peaceful humani tarian and friendly sentiments of the powers to assist in convincing Italy of the conciliatory intentions of Turkey, and so prevent the useless shedding of blood and grief to thousands -of families. Since the introduction of modern methods in the Minnesota state prison, Dearly twenty years ago, many changes have been made, the latest being in the clothing worn by the con victs. In the past few days the gray and checked uniforms have been dis carded for a natty looking khaki suit, the only distinction tb be noticed be tween the first and second grade in mates being that the first grade men have chevrons, while the second grade suit is plain. The third grade inmates wear the old striped suits and there is so much contrast as to make it an in centive for the illy behaved inmates to improve their conduct. Light khaki suits are to be furnished for the sum mer and heavier suits of the same kind of goods for winter. Four hundred thousand citizens of the Ottoman empire living in the United States may be called upon to furnish an army of fighting men to take the field against the Italians, ac cording to a declaration made by Dgelal Bey, the new Turkish consul general at New York. Dgelal Bey said there were 50,000 Turkish subjects liv ing in New York City, or about one eighth of the entire number of Turks in the United States. "Such a call is entirely possible," he said. "It would be issued by the Ottoman embassy at Washington." (Continued from patre i GLORIES OF CATHOLIC SCOTLAND. stayed the drain of emigrants in some measure, since, till he built chapels and demanded for his people the right to worship in the Faith in which their ancestors had lived and died, their only alternative was to cross the ocean or give up the Faith. Most of -them to their honor, but to the irreparable loss of Scotland, chose the former, and their descendants are to be found today in the New Scotland of Canada —Nova Scotia—where so many names remind one of the old hills and lochs of their native land. English Cathedral Consecrated. And England has been witnessing another step forward towards the goal when the abbeys and stately shrines of the past shall again dominate the land, for another Cathedral has been freed from debt and consecrated to the service of God. This is in the North, the Diocese of Middlesborough. The edifice was built thirty-seven years ago to serve a Catholic popula tion which had so increased that an old Diocese, that of Beverley, had to be divided between two chief pastors. The Cathedral of Our Lady is a noble building, and is presided over by the first Bishop of the Diocese, Bishop Lacey, who still retains the office he was the first to fill and has won the deep affection of his people, being par ticularly the friend of the poor, while he is also very popular with the non Catholics of Middlesborough. The actual consecration was performed by the Bishop of Leeds and large crowds gathered to witness the imposing and picturesque procession of the relics around the building. Afterwards an important and appropriate, sermon was preached by the Bishop of Northamp ton, who warned the people to cling to their Bishops in the crisis and up heaval against all authority which is already manifesting itself in the coun try and will soon be upon us. The .five Bishops attending the consecra tion ceremony were present in the Town Hall when several addresses were presented to Bishop Lacey, amidst much enthusiasm. Explorations in Jerusalem. The first account of the British ex plorations in Jerusalem which raised such a storm at the beginning of the year is just to hand. It will be re membered that a party of English offi cers and others made excavations about the Pool of Siloam, which re sulted in their obtaining admission to the Mosque of Omar, a fact which roused a storm of indignation against them amongst the Turks. But it was the old Jewish city, now largely sub terranean, which the explorers sought and Omar was but an incident to them. They have succeeded in locat ing exactly the position and extent of David's city and have discovered traces of Jebusite occupation extend ing back two thousand years before David's time. They have also made most interesting excavations about the Well of the Virgin and have discov ered a communication between it and the Pool of Siloam, while finds of an cient Jewish pottery about the well have been both numerous and interest ing, some of the fragments dating back to nine hundred years before Christ. A find which was of particu lar interest was an ancient Jewish earthenware lamp of a date apparent ly eleven hundred years before the opening of the Christian era. More interesting particulars of this center of Christian thoughts are expected during the next few days. (Continued from pairei)' GERMAN CATHOLIC FEDERATION. the large cities for the purpose of looking after the welfare of unpro tected girls recommended the estab lishment of free parochial schools," the organization of young men's clubs, and the erection of suitable club houses for their benefit advocated a course of instruction on social ques Established 1870 KNOX HATS WANTED Priest's housekeeper—one who could direct choir preferred. Good wages. Apply: "J. J. M.," Catholic Bulletin. Wanted. By an experienced cook and house keeper a position as housekeeper for a priest. Address: M. S. Care: The Cath olic Bulletin. FOR SALE A modern seven room home in Father Cleary's Parish. Terms reasonable Ap ply to owner, 3711 Pleasant Ave., Minne apolis, Minn. MERCHANTS HOTEL UE.U. R. KJIIBE, Manager ST. PAUL. MINN. RATES tCnraman Plan i $1-00 t0 fwofilbcki $3.00 per day. BBMpean Flan With bath tl.50t()NJ0 per day Hot and Cold Running Water in Every Room. FOR UNEXCELLED SERVICE and unequalled cniaine give our cafe a trhUL from Union Depot andOfeut one Steamboat Landing'. Street Car in (roat of the Hotel for 4U #eia*« la, the City. tions, the establishment of industrial centers, the abatement of the treating habit, the placing of Catholic books in public libraries, the inauguration of laymen's retreats, the establish ment of a house for the study of so cial problems at some Catholic in stitution, and more liberal legislation in favor of workingmen. German Aid Association. The last day of the convention was devoted to the work of the German Catholic Aid Association. The High Mass was celebrated by Monsignor Wurst of Wabasha, and the sermon was preached by Rev. Valentine Nelles, O. F. M., of St. Paul, who took for his text the "Apostolate of the Laity." The German Aid Association has on its roster the names of eight thou sand one hundred and ninety-eight men in one hundred and .fifty-one so cieties, and three thousand three hun dred and twenty-eight women in eighty-eight societies. Its reserve fund amounts to $418,773.99. The grand council of the society was authorized to erect an office building in St. Paul at a cost not exceeding $24,000 which was appropriated for that purpose. A site" for this building has already been secured for $10,500. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, George N. Gerlach, St. Paul Vice President, Louis Mayer, Mankato Secretary, J. Q. Juenemann, St. Paul, and Treasurer, John A. Schroeder, Minneapolis. The grand council will be composed of WT. Eibner, New Ulm Julius Coller, Shakopee Paul Kemp, Winona George W. Stenger, St. Paul, and Rev. P. Wiesner.1 St. Paul. Dele gates to the meeting of the National Federation to be held at Toledo, Ohio, a year hence, were named as follows: Mgr. Max Wurst, Wbasha Rev. F. H. Smalian, St. Peter George N. Ger lach, St. Paul J. Q. Juehemann, St. Paul George Stelzle, Minneapolis Paul Kemp, Winona Joseph Matt, St. Paul Frank Jungbauer, St. Paul Rev. Alfred Meyer, O. S. B., St. Cloud, and. Rev. P. ^Vei'sner, O. S, B. St. Paul. Mankato was chosen" as the next place of meeting and the work of the convention was brought to a close with the singing of the Te Deum. The following morning, after the cele bration of the Requiem Mass for .the deceased members of the federation, the delegates spent the day in sight seeing and returned to their homes by the evening trains. df Tmu/ GOOD CLOTHING SPECIALISTS HANNAN SHOES STAR SHIRTS FALL HATS Our new fall Derbies and Soft Hats now rule the field. Nobby, shapely, becoming we'll back the quality, the mirror will tell you the rest. Come in and try on the different shapes. It's the only way to choose a be coming hat. KNOX, stiff ami soft $5 STETSON HATS $3.50 to $8 GORDON HATS $3 and $4 SILK HATS $5 and $8 OPERA HATS $6 and $10 CAPS for alt purposes- -50c to $2.50 *5\ve CVoWvvwci Co. SIXTH AND ROBERT Wanted. A refined, experienced woman wishes to keep house for a priest. She is neat and a good cook. Address X. Care of The Catholic Bulletin. SAINT AGATHA'S CONSERVATORT A SCHOOL OP U S I A ELOCUTION and tbe LANGUAGES Conducted by the SISTERS OF ST. JOSEPH 26 East Exchange Street SAINT PAUL MINNESOTA Remove the Headache through the Eye Many Headaches come from eye strain amd the sufferer does not know the source of the discomfort We have permanently cured hundreds of headaches by fitting the pa tient with proper glasses. F. H. Harm & Bro. 14 Bast 6th St. St. Paul, Minn.