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Published every Saturday at 315 New ton Bldg., Fifth and Minnesota Streets, St. Paul, Minnesota, by The Catholic Bulletin Publishing Ci. SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $1.50 a year, payable in advance. Advertising Rates on Application. All advertisements are under editor ial supervision. None but reliable firms and reputable lines of business are ad vertised and recommended to our read* trs. A mention of THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, when writing to advertisers, will be mutually beneficial. The mailing label on your paper is a receipt for your subscription, and a re minder of the date of its expiration. To insure change of address, the sub scriber must give the old, as well as the new, address. Remittance may be made toy Draft, Post Office or Express Money Order or Registered Letter, addressed to THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, 315 Newton Bldg., St. Paul, Minnesota. REV. JANES M. REARDON, S. L. Editor. O'CONNOR, Business Mapager. B. P. KOLESKY, Advertising Manager, Entered as second-class matter, Jan uary 12. 1911. at the post office, St. Paul. Minn., under Act of March 3, 1879. SATURDAY, OCT. 28, 19V1. One of the most prized gifts which His Eminence Cardinal Gib bons received on the occasion of his recent jubilee celebration was a handsome gold chalice presented by the suffragan Bishops of the Archdiocese of Baltimore. The presentation was made by the Right Reverend Bishop Keiley of Savannah, on behalf of his breth ren in the episcopate. During the week a decided change for the better has taken place in the condition of the Right Reverend Bishop Heffron of Wi nona, who is ill in St. Mary's Hos pital. Rochester. He is now able to sit up for a while each day and before long will be strong enough to leave the hospital, though in all probability he will not be able to resume his visitation of the Diocese for some time. The new Attorney-General for Ireland, Charles Andrew O'Con nor, is a Catholic and a native of Roscommon, where he was born fifty-five years ago. He is an old pupil of the Jesuits at Tullabeg and was gold medalist of his year at Trinity College, Dublin. He was appointed Solicitor General in 1909 and has just succeeded the Honorable Redmond John Barry in the Attorney-Generalship. Among those who were honored with seats in the Canadian Cabinet which recently assumed the reins of power at Ottawa, are four Cath olics, worthy representatives of their co-religionists throughout Canada. They are the Honorable C. J. Doherty, Minister of Justice the Honorable L. P. Pelletier, Post master General the Honorable F. D. Monk, Minister of Public Works and the Honorable W. B. Nantel, Minister of Inland Rev enue. Mayor Fitzgerald, of Boston, has placed the ban on stage mar riages. He says: "The marriage Service should be carried on with dignity and a proper appreciation on the part of those joining in Wedlock of its solemn responsibili ties. Any one who will take the pains to glance at the figures in qur divorce courts must be con vinced that it is time for those entrusted with power to curb the present tendency to make light of this most sacred obligation." Some of our subscribers, in send ing notices of change of address, have failed to give the old ad dress as well as the new. Unless the address to wThich the paper has been going is given it is im possible to make the required change as the jnailing list is made Hp under the head of postoffices. We ask our subscribers, therefore, to make a note of this and when ever they desire thejr papers sent to an address other than that giv en on the mailing list to send both the old and the new addresses. The calendar for the year 1912 published by "Der Wanderer" of St. Paul has just been issued and is up to the usual high standard Of excellence. In addition to the calendar of feast days it contains a varied assortment of interesting and instructive reading matter for adults and children, a summary of some of the more important events of Catholic interest that have occurred during the past year, and other useful informa tion. It is handsomely illustrated ind should prove interesting to a large class of readers. Next Wednesday, November 1, is a holyday of obligation dedi cated to all the saints, and the fol lowing day is set apart for the commemoration of the souls of the faithful departed. On these days the members of the church mili tant on earth recall to mind their brethren of the church triumphant in heaven and suffering in purga tory. They invoke the prayers of the former in their battling with the world during their period of probation and they pour forth their petitions in behalf of the latter that God may be pleased to release His suffering children from their purgatorial prison-house. These feasts admonish each one to be mindful of his relation to those who have passed from earth and to give practical expression to his faith in the communion of saints. Since it is a holy and wholesome thought to remember the needs of the souls in purgatory, it is no less advantageous to have recourse to the powerful intercession of the saints in heaven. fHE ARMENIAN COUNCIL. The program which is to occupy the attention of the Bishops of tht Armenian Rite who are holding a council in Rome has already been mapped out in detail. One of the most important topics that will be discussed is education. There is a scarcity of schools in their dioceses and undoubtedly an •effort will be made to establish a system of religious education upon as secure a basis as possible. This educational program includes the erection in Constantinople of a •seminary for the training of young men for the priesthood according to the Armenian Rite. The orien tal prelates in attendance at the council have decided to found a newspaper for the exposition and defence of Catholic doctrine and practice. While the council is in session a weekly bulletin will be issued by them in Rome under the title of the "Eeo Cattolico," which later on will be transferred to Constantinople and made to do service as a full-fledged Armenian Catholic newspaper, TAFT PRAISES CATHOLICS. "Instead of being a reason why you cannot be patriotic, loyal sons of the United States, willing tq yield up your lives, if occasion calls, the fact that you are mem bers of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States is an assurance that you are such patri otic, loyal citizens,'' said Presi dent Taft, in his address before the Knights of Columbus of Port land, Ore. "You live in a country where all religion and religious worship are free, and you live where the state supports no church, and where there is no state church, but the fact that the constitution does not recognize a state church is far from .being an indication that we do not favor churches in this country and do not give them the highest protec tion and do not feel that they are essential to the life and moral be ing of the country. "The church that has no state support is much better for the church than the condition where the state exercises some control. It has been my good fortune to come closely into relationship with some of the hierarchy of the Catholic Chureh in the settlement of problems in the Philippines and with the Pope himself. "We have had in the Philip pines to separate the Roman Church and the state, and I am bound to say that this process of separation presents a serious crisis, because the people of the Philippines had been used to state support of their Church. It is nott so easy to change a people like that frojm one condition to the other, but I am very hopeful that the problem is being worked out difficult as it is." A BENEFICENT POWER. 4 4 yoi THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, OCTOBER 28,1911. ago. "Out of \he chaos of the Middle Ages," continued the speaker, with its barbarous peo ples and its crude customs were laid the beginnings of the modern civilization and liberty by means the papacy.'' These words from the lips of one has no inconsiderable follow ing among the non-Catholics of St. Paul ought to be the means of removing prejudice and causing many to look with kindlier feel ings on the mother Church of Christendom, whose power to rem edy the evils and solve the prob lems of our complex modern life is not less today than it was in the Middle Ages. As she then laid the foundation of true liberty founded on the recognition of a divine source of power, so now she is capable of opposing an ef fective barrier to the advance of that modern spirit of anarchy and socialism which would uprooi the foundations of society if men will only accept her teachings and abide by her laws. Her century old wisdom has solutions for the questions which agitate the think ing minds -of the present genera tion if they will only have re course to her fount of knowledge. PAROCHIAL SCHOOL AT TENDANCE. A summary of the report of the Superintendent of Education for the month of September, published in the Pioneer Press, shows that the public schools of the city of St. Paul had an enrollment of 25,189 during the month as com pared with 25.072 for the corre sponding period last year. This is an increase of one hundred and seventeen, avery small one, it must be admitted, for a city whose popu lation is growing as that of St. Paul. A canvass of the parochial schools of the city reveals the fact that their enrollment for the same period was 8,401, an increase of six hundred and thirty-six over that of last year. The parochial schools, therefore, with an at tendance about one-third as large as that of the public schools show an increase in enrollment more than five times as great. Many causes, no doubt, have contributed to this large increase in the enrollment of the parish schools. But if we would assign any one cause, it is safe to say that the result is due largely to the fact that Catholics have begun to realize more and more the need of just such a training as that given in these schools. At no time in the past have they shown, in a more practical way, their appre ciation of the advantages to be gained by sending their children to schools conducted under the auspices of the Church. The parochial schools of the city are,taxed to the utmost to accom modate their present numbers and if it were possible to provide more room the attendance would be still greater. Every effort will be madfe to enlarge their capacity before the opening of another year and in the course of the next two years, at least three additional parochial schools will be estab lished in the Twin Cities, one in St. Paul and two in Minneapolis where the congestion is as notice able as it is in this city. If we compute the cost of build ing, equipping, and maintaining the parochial schools of St. Paul it must be admitted that our Cath olic people have been more than generous in supporting their own educational institutions. These schools afford unassailable evi dence of a laudable desire on the part of Catholics to place within reach of their children the best educational advantages obtain able. In addition to this outlay for their own schools Catholics contribute their share for the erec tion and maintenance of the public schools to which they cannot, in conscience, send their children. In the course of a sermon on "The Papacy and Liberty' preached at the People's Church St. Paul, last Sunday night, the pastor, Rev. Samuel G. Smith, de clared that the "papacy, with all its faults, with all its evils, was God's instrument in advancing civilization and fostering liberty.' That modern civilization, modern personal liberty and modern democracy were the result of the ever-present influence of the pa pacy throughout the Middle Ages was the assertion of Dr. Smith This was never more strikingly brought out, he said, than when the Magna Charta, insuring free dom of religion, trial by a jury of peers and many other fundamen tal liberties upon which nations are built even now, was thrust upon a protesting English King by the head of the Church in Eng land almost one thousand years I the moneys contributed by Cath In this connection it is well to note that if *the parochial schools did not exist or were to be closed for any reason, additional public schools would have to be provided for the accommodation of the Cath olic children now in the parochial schools. This would be an added drain on the public ^school funds which under present conditions hardly suffice to provide public schools for those who attend them. One can easily see that this double burden borne by Catholics for edu cational purposes confers great benefit on the citizens at large. It is a comparatively easy matter for the city to erect commodious school buildings, equip them with the most modern conveniences, and provide a staff of teachers more than adequate for their needs when all classes of citizens—in cluding those who cannot patron ize them—help to defray the cost. Those who send their children to these schools are benefited by olics for their maintenance. One would think they would be ashamed to take so much from Catholics in the way of taxes for the erection of public schools with out making any return for this outlay. However, Catholics are willing to do their share towards the support of the public schools and, in addition, provide their own schools in order that their children may receive, besides the ordinary intellectual training given in the public schools, a religious education which will fit them for the duties of highest citizenship. The development of .the par ochial school system during recent years is a great consolation to Catholics and at the same time a stimulus to more united effort for its further extension. They gladly deny themselves many things that their children may receive an education whieh takes cognizance of the child's nobler nature and, while fitting him for his earthly career, prepares him, likewise, to recognize and discharge aright the sacred claims which religion makes upon him. Year after year Catholic schools graduate into all the walks of li^fe young men and women whose moral characters have been mould ed under the influence of religion, while their minds have received a training unsurpassed by that given in any other institution of- learn ing. Public-spirited citizens are be ginning to realize the debt which they owe to. Catholics for the work they are doing in educating their children without cost to the com munity. In many states they have shown their appreciation in a practical manner by admitting the parochial school pupils to the domestic and the manual training departments of the public schools Of late, this has been discussed in St. Paul, and the Attorney General of Minnesota holds that the public schools can receive the parochial school children for training in these branches without any legal objection being made. Such system is in vogue in many places throughout America and has proved successful. From one point of view, at least, this innovation is welcome to Catholics as an in dication that their fellow-citizens are anxious to make some return to them for their contribution to the public school funds and to show due appreciation of efforts that cannot but redound td the welfare of the nation. PARISH CORPORATIONS. Elsewhere we publish a decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Council wherein that august body lays down certain regulations re garding the tenure of church property in the different Dioceses of the United States. This decree was issued in response to the petition of several Bishops who re quested the Holy See to designate a method of holding ecclesiastical property to be followed in this country. Three methods of holding chureh property have been in vogue in the United States and are known as "in Fee Simple," "Cor poration Sole," and "Parish Cor poration." Property held "in fee simple" is the absolute possession of the person, in the case of church property, the Bishop of the Diocese, in -whose name it stands. It is the personal possession of the Bishop as much! as if it were his private property. In "corporation sole" the Bishop is considered as a corpora tion for the control of the church property in his Diocese. No dis tinction is made between what be longs to one parish and what be longs to another and, therefore, every parish is effected by any financial disaster that may over take any one of them. Where title to property is vested in a "parish corporation" each parish is a unit distinct from every other similar organization in the control of the property belonging to it. The corporation consists of the Bishop of the Diocese, his Vicar General, and the pastor of the parish, who are members ex officio. They select two laymen of the parish who, with them, com pose the parish corporation. This makes the tenure of fchurch prop erty in each parish a local affair— one in which men living in that locality are directly interested. In the Diocese where parish corpora tions exist there is found, likewise, a diocesan corporation in which is vested the title to all property not directly controlled by, the parish corporations. The decree of the Sacred Con gregation of the Council abolishes entirely the style of tenure known as "in fee simple." It prescribes that the form of title known as "parish corporation" must be adopted in preference to that of "corporation sole" wherever tlft law of the State permits and if there is no legal authorization for the formation of such corporations step's are to be taken to procure the necessary legislation for that purpose. In the meantime, wherever parish corporations cannot be formed the tenure of property by "corporation sole" is permitted, provided, however, that the Bishop takes counsel of his diocesan con suitors as well as of others in terested in the transaction, before adopting that method in his dio cese. v* ,P .. This, decree necessitates no change in the manner of holding church property in the Province of St. Paul where the form of title known as "parish corporation exists in each parish. It is a system that cannot be improved upon, as, under it, the administra tion of the property involved does not appertain to any one indi vidual but to several acting in their corporate capacity. This was the method agreed upon by the Most Reverend Arch bishops at their meeting in Wash ington last spring. They consid ered that it afforded the greatest guarantee of safety and stability and it was largely on their recom mendation that the Sacred Congre gation of the Council acted in pro mulgating the regulations em bodied its recent decree. THROUGH THE ROSARY CONVERSION OF A TO IT. QUEfiN DUE The conversion, in 1874, of the Queen-Mother, Mary of Bavaria, relict of King Maximilian II, caused a great sensation throughout Germany for she was by birth a Prussian- prin cess, and had hitherto been a zealous Protestant. Her liberality to the poor and her charities of various* kinds had made her an example among her co religionists of high and low degree and from the day of her conversion she became a model of still greater piety practicing the virtues of a good Catholic with charming simplicity and admirable fervor. It is not generally known, perhaps, that Queen Mary's conversion was due to the Rosary, says a writer in the Ave Maria. When, in 1842, she was married to the heir of the Crown of Bavaria, she was in the prime of life and gifted with the most brilliant qualities Great, presumably, was the influence she was destined to exercise over the hearts of her people. Her Catholic subjects began to feel uneasy on the score of their religion. To ward off the impending danger, some pious ladies of Munich formed among them selves an association, the sole object of which was the conversion of their future Queen and they decided upon the daily recitation of the beads for this intention. When death claimed the King, her husband, Queen Mary was cast into deep sadness, and began to see the futility of Protestantism as a comfort er to the dying or to their surviving loved ones. She was forcibly struck, on the contrary, with the prayers and ceremonies with which the Church aids her departing members, and not ably-with the common practice of its devout children in reciting the Holy Rosary. Thenceforward she deter mined to seek her consolation in prayer. As she often visited the pub lic hospitals, she became closely ac quainted with the Sisters of Charity, and frequently recommended her de parted husband and herself to their prayers. On one occasion she asked the good Sisters to instruct her as to the meaning of the beads and the manner of saying them and, turning their explanations to good account, she set herself to reciting the Rosary with a fervor which grew more and more intense as the days and weeks went by. Passing a part of the summer at one of her country seats in the heart of the,Alps, she came in contact with a well known priest of the neighbor hood. By slow degrees she obtained from him instruction on all the points of the Catholic religion. The more she listened, the more she reflected and prayed and the more completely, too, did her Protestant prejudices vanish. At last, after long and fer vent prayer, accompanied with deep study, she determined to become a Catholic. As soon as her resolve was reported in Berlin, every effort was made to induce her to change her mind. They sent her one of the chief Protestant pastors, in whom she formerly had great confidence. He put forth all his arguments to prevail upon her to re main a non-Catholic. It was all to no purpose for, after having fruitlessly expended ali his logic, and losing his temper, he added: "Then, Madam, all you have to do now is to say your beads." "I am already," said the Queen with a smile, "in the habit of saying them every day." Incidents like this should have the effect of increasing our confidence in the efficacy of prayer and our devo tion to the Holy Rosary. "More things are wrought by prayer than this world dreams of," says the poet and, as everyone knows, the Rosary has been the source of innumerable blessings, not merely to the Church at large and to nations, but also to families and In dividuals. DOMAIN OF TEMPERANCE. ALCOHOL ANO THE LABOR PROBLEM. What i* the alcohol question to the workingman—-the day laborer? Why, there is no question of such imminent and foremost importance to him, says Axel Gustafson, the Social Science Ex pert in a lecture at Exeter Hall, Lon don. As things have been and as they are today, this life of the laborer and of his family is an existence in conditions of unrelieved drudgery. And this existence is dragged on within sight of life passed in condi tions of the fullest power and priv ilege. The cruel contrast does not inspire him—it dulls him—or it in furiates him—yet it is the power of the working-classes to peaceably and certainly change all that is really false in this inequality, if they will unite against the drink traflic if they will only see that there is no sobriety but abstinence if they can only be taught to see that this is really the true practical working truth, and the cardinal truth for the best outcome of work. The fact that the workingman be lieves, as many of them do, that beer taken in moderation, is good for him, does not change the physiological fact that it is bad for him, that it will do his body only harm and not good. His ignorance, if he is honestly igno rant in the matter, will not save him from any of the physical and spiritual consequences of taking this poison: and as he goes on taking it he has to pay for it. What will he have to pay? First and always the money which buys it next more or less slowly and half-unconsciously, he must pay away his health, his energy, his clearness of minll, his natural ambitions, his bet ter hopes, his honesty, sincerity, ten derness, his manliness, the rights of his family, fche claims of his God. And during this process, as he gradually sinks under the combinations of greater outlay, decreased income, wan ing health, fading prospects and sense of ill-desert, he seeks more and more for the deathful oblivion of alcohol Finally, the drink crave sets in, and he completes the sacrifice, adding him self and his poor family to the pauper or criminal lists, and his end is the grave of the drunkard. The contri butions of the working-classes to the tills of the public houses are one great source of the very revenue by which conscienceless capital is able to go on degrading and subjecting labor. A Bane to Business. As to the capitalist, he looks at the drink problem from a different point of view. He has plenty of amuse ment, plenty of money, plenty of di version. He is thus not so constantly driven to alcohol as the one only means for drowning care. Self-inter est has taught him that alcohol unfits a man for the conduct of business, and therefore a large business is often a strong safeguard against indulgence in alcohol. But even the most moderate use has a hardening and coarsening effect and leads the capitalist to treat his poor employe more harshly than he would if his habits were, such as fitted him to realize that the workingman was his brother in God's sight. How clearly is this condition if things visi ble in this country (England) at the present moment. We find that when wages are low, the labor market disturbed and agi tated, business generally depressed, thousands and thousands starving, the drink traffic still flourishes. Business may be bad, but there is one business that prospers at the expense of all other business, and that is the drink trade and if business men would but really consider the facts in this direc tion they would find that they would sell infinitely more of their goods if they would help to crush out this awful traffic. Why, by the destruction of the drink evil some two or three hundred million pounds—taking the direct and indirect effects of alcohol—would actually be distributed in a ratio of five-sixths among the laboring popu lation. And would not that practically solve all the difficulties about rent and tenancy, food and education, which now are so to the fore? The higher possibilities of the hu man race depend upon the proper so lution of this problem for if our highest faculties are the first to be struck down by alcohol, surely we must destroy this destroyer, or there will be practically a stoppage to the civilization. NEITHER PAUL NOR TIMOTHY. "I often hear it thrown at us," said an Irish teetotaller recently, "that Paul told Timothy to take a little wine for the stomach s sake, and his many infirmities. That reminds me of a man who had been a pretty heavy' drinker. He saw the folly of his ways, and took the total abstinence pledge. Passing the public house door one morning the publican said to him, '(Jood morning.' "•'Good morning,' replied the man as he was going on. 'Hello,' said the publican, 'are yon not coming in to have a glass?' 'Oh, no,' was the reply Tm not taking anything now, I'm a tee totaller.' 'Oh,' said the publican, 'that la ridiculous. Didn't Paul tell Timothy to take a little wine for the good of his stomach, and when the Scripture tells you, why not do, itr 'Well,' said the man, 'you are not Paul, and I am not Timothy, and— there is nothing the matter with my Stomach.'' -Sacntd Heart Review.