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»*W r^y^vhmfivv-mf (ffhthotic&^uftefin. Published every Saturday at 315 New ton Bldg., Fifth and Minnesota Streets, St. Paul, Minnesota, by The Catholic Bulletin Publishing Co. SUBSCRIPTION PRICE: $1.50 a year, payable in advance. Advertising Rates on Application. All advertisements are under editor ial supervision. None but reliable firms and reputable lines of business are ad vertised and recommended to our read ers. A mention of THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, when writing to advertisers, will be mutually beneficial. The mailing label on your paper is a receipt for your subscription, and a re minder of the date of its expiration. To insure change of address, the sub scriber must give the old, as well as the new, address. Remittance may be made by Draft, Post Office or Express Money Order or Registered Letter, addressed to THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, 315 Newton Bldg., St. Paul, Minnesota. REV. JAMES M. REABDON, Editor. S. L. O'CONNOR, Business Manager. B. P. KOLESKY, Advertising Manager. Entered as second-class matter, Jan uary 12. 1911. at the post office, St. Paul. Minn., under Act of March 3. 18?!. SATURDAY, AUGUST 3,1912. During the month of August the most important event com memorated in the Church's liturgy is the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary which is celebrated on the fifteenth of the month. It is a holyday of obligation and the vigil of the feast is a day of fast and abstinence. Those who wish to take advan tage of one of the best advertis ing mediums in the Northwest should patronize The Catholic Bulletin which goes into thou sands of homes each week and is read by all the members of the family. A postal card will bring full information regarding rates, etc. The very latest fashion in wed dings calls for the plighting of the marriage vows in the basket of a balloon. Such a performance was staged at Kansas City last week. It was a fitting climax to this latest craze for novelty that the balloon which carried the couple landed in a pig pen. It would not be a surprise if the final act would occur in a divorce court. There are nearly five thousand Catholic schools in the United States attended by upwards of two million students. These schools, says the Catholic News, cost the Catholic people about fifteen mil lion annually for maintenance and ordinary expenses. Every school under Catholic direction is and ought to be a fortress against anarchy, disorder and irreligion. The Catholic school, is an Ameri can safeguard. Investigation into the saloon business in Minneapolis shows that conditions in that city do not dif fer very much from those which obtain in all the larger cities of the country. Ninety-five per cent of the saloons are either owned or controlled by brewers who have formed a trust in order to monop olize the business. Some months ago a writer in the Brewer's Review, the official organ of the traffic, said that the brewers, and not the saloonkeepers, were re sponsible for the evils of the liquor traffic. Under the conditions that prevail irj the larger cities of the United States it cannot be gain said that the brewers are respon sible. directly or indirectly, for the evils which have brought the liquor traffic into disrepute. They can remedy these evils if they will but their well-known greed and rapacity stand in the way of any reformation that will tend to diminish the profits of the brewery trade. Last Peek's issue of the New Orleans "Morning Star'* is a Louisiana State Centennial Num ber commemorating the one hun dredth anniversary of the en trance of that state into the Union. Within its seventy-four pages are compressed a valuable resume and record of the growth and develop ment of Louisiana during the past century. The natural resources of the state, its industrial and com mercial importance, its civic, edu cational and charitable institu tions and organizations are set forth in an interesting review. Particular attention is devoted to the history of the Catholic Church The story of the heroic labors of Catholic missionaries and pioneers in the valley of the Mississippi is vividly portrayed, and the present conditions of the Church—its in stitutions, organizations, and ac tivities—is fully dealt with. We congratulate the "Morning Star" on the very successful outcome of its endeavors to issue a special number worthy of the event which called it forth, as well as of the enterprise of our esteemed con temporary from the Southland. "Our Colored Missions," the annual publication of "The Cath olic Board for Mission Work Among the Colored People," con tains a varied assortment of inter esting reading and information re garding the status and prospects of Catholicity among the colored people of the United States. Its editor, the Rev. John E. Burke, Director General of the Bureau, is endeavoring to secure an annual fund of one hundred thousand dol lars for the purpose of placing a Catholic priest and a Catholic Church in every negro section in the country. He wants one hun dred thousand people in the United States to contribute one dollar a year towards this great work, and, no doubt, he will get it —in time. But, how soon? The need is urgent and few will be poorer for the dollar given for this purpose. POPE PIUS X. Next Sunday, August 4, is the ninth anniversary of the election of His Holiness Pope Pius to the Supreme Pontificate of the Catholic Church. Little did the Patriarch, Joseph Sarto, dream when he left his Venetian palace to participate in the solemn conclave which was to elect a successor to Leo XIII, that the mantle of Christ's Vicarship would descend upon his shoulders. When the voice of his colleagues in the Sacred College of Cardinals called him to the Chair of Peter he ac cepted the responsibility of this exalted office with the greatest reluctance. During the nine years which have since elapsed he has striven to fulfil the task to which he set himself at the beginning of his reign, namely, "to restore all things in Christ.'' It has been an eventful period in the history of the Church. The Bark of Peter has been tossed on troubled wa ters hidden roeks and treacherous shoals have threatened its safety the angry waves of human passion and political ambition are still beating mercilessly upon it but it has weathered the storm which, we hope, will soon abate its fury. But even when the outlook was most unpropitious the guiding hand of Christ's Vicar never wavered on its controlling helm. Pius has entered upn his seventy-eighth year, less robust, it is true, than he was nine years ago, but still vigorous and active in the discharge of the sacred duties of his exalted office. The weight of years and the ravages of disease, far from counselling the husband ing of physical vigor and suggest ing the advisability of relaxing somewhat the constant strain and watchfulness which the varied in terests of the Universal Church make upon hiin, have rather in tensified his desire to hasten as far as possible, during the years allotted to him, the work of restor ing all things in Christ. To that noble task he has devoted all his energies and the history of his pontificate shows how much he has accomplished. The fervent prayers of Christen dom are poured forth for him on this anniversary and his faithful children throughout the world re joice that the evening of his life has been prolonged to enable him to accomplish still greater things for the welfare of religion. They pray that He Whose vicar he is may continue to enlighten and strengthen him in tMe 'discharge of his sacred duties. IMPORTANT DECREES RE GARDING MIXED MARRIAGE?. Three important decrees of the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office have just been promulgated, says the Liverpool Times. In the first it is laid down that the dis pensation for the impediment to marriage of difference of creed must never be given unless fulfil ment of all the conditions required by the Church in such a case is promised by the contracting par ties. The second decree ordains that a dispensation for the mar riage of a Catholic with a person of a different creed granted with out the necessary promises hav ing been given is null. In this instance the nullity can be de clared by the Ordinary without having recourse in each case to THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, AUGUST 3, 1912. the Holy See for a definite pro nouncement. The third decree provides that when the contract ing parties have obstinately re fused to agree to the conditions laid down by the Church, viz., that they should bring up all the chil dren in the Catholic Faith, etc., the observance of what has been prescribed by the decree "Ne Temere" n.iv., 3, concerning the asking and acceptance of the con sent of the contracting parties by the parish priest as a necessary condition of the validity of the marriage will henceforth be pro hibited and the former concessions and instructions given in regard to such cases, especially by Greg ory XVI in his Letter Apostolic to the Bishops of Hungary on the 30th April, 1841, will be strictly adhered to. THE CHURCH AND SOCIALISM. In the course of an address de livered at the Hibernian Conven tion in Chicago, the Right Rever end John P. Carroll of Helena, National Chaplain of the Order, took occasion to contrast the atti tude of the Church towards the laboring class with that of So cialism, and pointed out how antagonistic to the welfare of the working man are the doctrines of the latter. He said in part: "The Church, animated by the spirit of her Founder, always has espoused the cause of the poor and the downtrodden. Her teachings and her legislation have caused slavery to disappear from the world. She has rebuked kings and deprived them of their crowns that justice might be done to their oppressed subjects. The workingmen's guilds of the Middle Ages, which secured the rights of the laboring man, were her creation, and they are the models of the labor unions of our own age. From the very begin ning of our modern industrial development the Church has espoused the cause of the laboring man. The great Von Ketteler, who led the social reform movement in Germany, was called 'the laboring man's bishop.' The London dock workers will never forget the friendly interest of Cardinal Man ning, and we are all familiar with the efforts of Cardinal Gibbons on behalf of the Knights of Labor. "But it was reserved for the great Pontiff Leo XIII to define the attitude of the Church itself towards the great economic prob lems of our modern life. His ency clical on the condition of labo has become the textbook of states men and churchmen, of leaders o capital and labor—in a word, all who sincerely strive to solved the problems of modern indus trialism. "After the splendid record of nineteen centuries Socialism dares to whisper in the ear of the labor ing man that the Church is his enemy that she is allied with capitalism for the purpose of keeping from labor its just re wards. "It tells him the war of class against class is inevitable that the present 'capitalist system' is the source of all the evils of modern society that labor is the source of all wealth and should, therefore, receive as its reward all the wealth that it pro duces. It regards the present so cial order as bankrupt and to be replaced by the new co-operative commonwealth. Its aim is no social reform but social revolu tion. The Church would warn the laboring man of the false pre tenses of Socialism. She would again re-state the old doctrine of the dependence of men upon on# another, of their inequalities re duced to harmony by mutual co operation, of their equality of nature, origin and destiny and the affection they should have for one another as members of the same mystic body of which Christ is the head. She would teach him the earth and all it contains—the sunshine, and the rain, and the air we breathe, as well as labor of brain and brawn—contribute to the pro duction of material blessings. She admits the greed of capitalists is T^-»7V^&y»v. take from the laboring man the things he needs most—religion and home. In vain did the fram ,ers of the national platform of the Socialist Party of America declare Religion is a private matter,' and that 'Socialism has nothing to do with any religion.' The declara tion was hypocritical, for the debate that preceded its adoption showed the purpose of the non religious plank was simply to get votes. "To say Socialism is merely an economic theory is to treat it in the abstract. Those who do so are severely condemned by Belfort Bax, probably the most eminent exponent' of Socialism today, for throwing dust In the eyes of the laboring man. Socialism, he teaches, is materialistic. It re moves from man his trust in God and His providence and places it in himself. It regards all the woes of the world as coming from the present social order. "It looks upon all the religions of the world as an outgrowth of economics. With a change of the economic system, therefore, there will have to be a new religion to supplant Christianity. Karl Marx declares that 'man makes religion, not religion man.' 'The abolition of religion as the deceptive happi ness of the people is a necessary condition of their true happiness,' is urged by him too. "The indissoluble union of one man and one woman in marriage is in conformity with the laws of nature and revelation. But Marx and Bax tell us 'a new develop ment of family through Socialism' would take place on the basis not of a predetermined lifelong busi ness arrangement to be formally and nominally held to be irrespec tive of circumstances but on mutual inclination and affection, an association terminable at the will of either party.' "Engel writes: 'Three great ob stacles block the path of social reform—private property, relig ion, and the present form of mar riage.' We are not surprised at this blasphemous teaching of the great leaders of Socialism when we remember their materialistic conception of history and their materialistic philosophy of life. "The history of the world, they claim, and all its evolutions are but the outgrowth of economic conditions. Man is but the ex crescence of matter and the grave is the end of all, they contend. What wonder that they exhort their followers in the language of pagan unbelief, Let us eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we shall die.' MORE DOGMA NEEDED. Last week a Methodist minister in Chicago declared that what the world needed was another Inger soll to arouse the people out of their lethargy towards religion. "They sit in the pews," he said, "with dull, dead indifference that breaks our hearts. It would be bet ter if they threw bricks at us as they did at Wesley and they don't even talk back. This is an age of doubt. We ministers need more than apostolic succession in this scoffing, indifferent and Godless age." Few will disagree with this min ister's contention that the follow ers of the different sects are in different to religion. But grant ing that his diagnosis is correct, what is the remedy? Not another Ingersoll, but more definite dog matic teaching £rom the pulpit. The people crave for something substantial in the way of doc trinal teaching and are not satis fied with the milk-and-water dift with which they are fed Sunda\ after Sunday. The list of sermon subjects published in some of the daily papers evidences the fact that few ministers attempt to ex pound dogmatic or moral truths. They devote their attention to the topics of the day which have but a passing interest and avoid entirely the great questions inseparably bound up with consid erations of God and the soul. If the ministers really had apos tolic succession and all that it implies they would have little ^difficulty in arousing their hearers, 'for they would then preach "as one having authority." It would, doubtless, be better for religion if responsible for many of the ills I bricks were thrown at some of that afflict the laboring man, but them for then fewer platitudes she knows that to destroy capital jto tickle the fancy of their hear itself and all productive property would do irreparable harm to the laboring man himself. "She is willing to use all her influence to bring about the. social reforms that are needed to im- e& would emanate from the pul pit. If this minister attended the Methodist General Conference held in Minneapolis last May he must have been chagrined at the results. It was a good opportunity prove the condition of laboring for the Methodist Episcopal men, but she will never consent to the total destruction of the social order itself. In other words, she condemns Socialism as the enemy of the laboring man. 'Worst of .Socialism would 'leaders of the blind. Church to make an official pro nouncement on doctrinal matters, but none was forthcoming and hence its ministers must, each in his own way, continue to be blind kt ill Sixth International Gathering 'Will Convene at Treves Next Sunday. The sixth International Marian Con gress will be held at Treves, Germany, commencing next Sunday, August 4, and continuing for three days. These congresses, says "America," have for a number of years taken place biennially in different countries. Like the Eucharistic congresses, which originally were confined to cer tain territories and countries, the Marian congresses were gatherings of the inhabitants of a single diocese in honor of the Blessed Virgin. The first was held at Livorno, Italy, Au gust 18-21, 1895, and was followed by the congresses of Milan and Turin in 1897 and 1898. In 1900 a similar congress was held at Lyons, France, when for the first time the idea of an International Marian Congress was broached. A permanent committee was appointed, and it was especially through the ef forts of its chairman, the Very Rev Mgr. J. Kleiser, P. A., canon of the Church of Our Lady, at Fribourg, Switzerland, that in 1902 the first In ternational Marian Congress was held in that city on the occasion of the seven hundredth anniversary of the erection of the Church of Our Lady. Together with the learned Dom Re naudin, O. S. B., he worked out a pro gram and, with the approval of Bishop Deruaz, of Lausanne-Geneva, sent it to all the Bishops of the world. The letter that accompanied the program enlarges upon the history and bless ings of such international congresses, and gives two reasons for the selec tion of Fribourg as the first place where it was to be held first, because it had the oldest church erected in honor of the Immaculate Conception, and, second, because it held as a prec ious relic the remains of Blessed Peter Canisius, the second apostle of Ger many, who was such a staunch de fender of the Blessed Virgin against Luther and his followers and the so called Reformers of the sixteenth cen tury. First International Congress at Fribourg. Leo XIII, by special brief of June 10, 1902, blessed and commended the congress, and more than 200 Car dinals, Archbishops and Bishops sent letters of approval twelve Bishops headed the solemn procession in which 15,000 members of the congress took part. An International Marian expo sition had been arranged in conjunc tion with the congress to which no less than 50,000 objects had been sent from various parts of the world. The idea of a World's Marian Congress had been realized. To perpetuate it the Holy Father was asked to appoint a Cardinal Protector who should be the honorary president. Fribourg was to be the headquarters, and the Bishop of Lausanne-Geneva, honorary vice president. The committee to be appointed was to meet there at Jeast once every year to arrange the bien nial gatherings to decide upon the place and time of the congress to work out a program of study, to be ap proved by the Holy Father, and to look after every other matter con nected with the congress. From 1902 a congress was held every second year. Each succeeding gathering surpassed the preceding one in importance, number and solemnity. In 1904 the congress was held in Rome. Its numerous resolutions and other practical suggestions for the worship of the Blessed Virgin for Italy in particular were a proof of the growing interest in the undertaking. Space does not permit a fuller ac count of the conventions at Einsie deln, Switzerland, in 1906, at Sara gossa, Spain, in 1908, and at Salzburg, Austria, in 1910. At the latter meet ing the transactions and discussions were held in seven different lang uages. At the general communion in the Cathedral there were 2,500 par ticipants, and the pilgrimage to Maria Plain was attended by 12,000 persons, among them 300 priests and 24 Bishops. Sixth Congress Meets at Treves, In Germany. At Salzburg it had been decided that the next congress should take place at Rheims, France, but owing to the present sad condition of the Church in France the international committee decided to select another place, and thus the venerable city of Treves was chosen. No happier choice could have been made. Located on the charming banks of the Moselle, surrounded by wooded heights and picturesque rocks, it is not only the most ancient, but also one of the most attractive cities of the Fatherland. In early times it was the seat of the Roman emperors, and many of the ancient Fathers and Doc tors of the Church have been connect ed with its history. St. Ambrose was born there, and St. Jerome, who lived at Treves, was full of praise for this seat of learning and high culture. St. Athanasius took refuge within its walls, and the venerable Church of St. Matthias, the Apostle, where St. Ber nard raised his powerful voice, is still standing. It is even claimed that its first Bishop, St. Eucharius, was sent there together with Valerius and Ma ternus by St. Peter himself. The Ro man Martyrology tells us that early in the third century at Treves number less martyrs—innumerabiles martyres —laid down their lives for Christ. Thus its history, churches, monu ments, and relics speak of the Church and Christianity. V l-L DOMAIN OF TEMPERANCE. T.HE NEED OF THE HOUR. A member of the hierarchy said at the opening of a convention of the C. T. A. Union: "Intemperance, of course, is not of recent date in the world. The frequency and violence, however, of the evil which alarm us so much today are traits peculiar to our own times. A most unnatural thirst for alcoholic drink devours the population of America. The first work of the Union, I believe, should be to bring men to know and realize the full extent of the evil of intemperance. When this will have been done, they will readily admit the importance of the evil. The need of the hour is a tidal wave of total abstinence sweep ing over the land. The strongest pro test possible must be made against intemperance total abstinence is the protest. Will it be made with suffi cient force to save the people? This is the vital question. Total abstinence is the saving principle. Will the men be found in required numbers to make it a living power? The answer rests with the priests and laymen of the country, with those whose position and influence mark them as the lead ers of their fellow men. With the priests of the Church who labor to further the cause of total abstinence pre-eminently rests the future of their people. Their earnest co-operation is all that is needed to insure the suc cess of the total abstinence movement. The people loyally follow their priests, and where the priests fear to walk the people will not dare to advance. Heavy responsibilities weigh upon priests, but at the same time how hopeful is the field before them, if, with firm hand, they grasp their mag nificent opportunities, and with un wavering heart follow them out to victory.'* BANEFUL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL. Of the mental diseases that we can cope with and teach others to prevent the greater part are caused by alcohol. Whether alcohol in limited quantities, and under certain conditions, acts as a food is still a mooted question. Suffice it to say, that it is always a dangerous beverage, and that its con tinued use or over-indulgence is post* tively baneful. —Prof. Scott Neartng. THEORY AND PRACTICE. To argue that because millions drink without becoming criminals, liquor is not a cause of crime is just as reasonable as to argue that con taminated water is not a cause of typhoid fever, because millions who drink it do not contract that disease. In theory there might possibly be some use of alcoholic liquors so min ute as to be without injurious results in practice there is no such use. RAILROADS DEMAND SOBRIETY. The Railroad Association Magazine, a periodical devoted to the interests of the railroad men, recently published a series of articles on the effect of slcohol and its relation to the efficiency of the men. The subject was treated from the standpoint of the various officials. The following is the state ment of E. E. Williams, chief conduc tor for twelve years on the St. Louis division Nt). 3, Order of Railway Con ductors: "Alcohol is a foe to efficiency in railroading. I regret that I have not sufficient command of language to ex press what I know and feel in support of the above statement from the view point of the man in train and engine service. There is perhaps no other calling in which such a high degree of efficiency is essential as in the work necessary to insure the safe and prompt meeting of emergencies of which the general public know little or nothing and which cannot be an ticipated by operating rules. They are constantly arising and are accepted as a matter of course by the men in the service. These emergencies must be met with quick thought and immedi ate action to insure as far as possible safety to life and property. It is con ceded by all authorities that the pres ence of alcohol in the system creates an abnormal condition both mentally and physically which renders the vic tim (the word is used advisedly) inca pable of concentrated thought and in itiative action, and unfits him for that alert attention to duty which is the primary essential of safe and success ful railroading. "The young man entering the serv ice should be fully impressed with the importance of three things: First, the duty he owes to the public in safe guarding as far as possible their lives and property second, the duty he owes his employers in giving value received for every penny of his salary third, the duty he owes to himself and family and his fellows in the service. The habitual use of alcohol has a ten dency to eliminate from the mind all sense of responsibility, and even if a man does his work it is in a mechan ical way and simply from the force of habit. He is not a safe man to trust when the lives of the public, his fel low workmen and the property of his employers are at stake. As a duty to himself and his family he should con serve his resources and be prepared as far as possible for the accident or misfortune which will probably come sooner or later even to the sober man. and which is much more liable to come when alcohol becomes a factor to be reckoned with among our asso ciates."