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QUESTION ANSWER. In this department, questions of general interest in regard to religion will be answered each week in the order in which they are received. All communi cations must be signed, though the name will not be published. Address: "Question and Answer", car°. The Catholic Bulletin, 315 Newton Bldg., St. Paul. Why does a Catholic population like that of France elect such anti-Catholic officials? Since 1875 the "Grand Orient," in which the Jewish element pre dominates, has gradually been gather ing into its hands all the reins of government—not a very difficult task, seeing that as a rule, respectable, in dustrious Frenchmen will not touch politics, while the emissaries of the lodges go out into the slums of min ing and industrial centers, and organ ize primaries and Socialist clubs that defeat any respectable candidate who dares to enter the lists against the candidate of the government. France's great misfortune was that respectable people would not, as a rule, enter politics, or, if they did, soon give up in disgust, whilst denaturalized French men and naturalized foreigners did nothing else for a living. That small coalition of Jews and other Freema sons have gained control of the coun try by capturing the Socialist vote. The latter do not yet see that they are being used as a cat's paw. Whilst prating about liberty, fraternity, equality and the rights of'man, they prepare to deal a death blow at the most sacred rights of the individual, to overstep the most arbitrary act of any regime. Around election time as the great mining and industrial cen ters and the slums of large cities furnish practically all the voters. This proletariat is lured on by brilliant prospects of the collectivist Utopia that is coming, when the Congrega tions and the Church have been abolished. Anti-clericals or lodges of the Grand Orient, largely composed of Jews, Protestants, and naturalized for eigners, are hard at work preparing the election of their candidates and feeding the minds of the working classes on immoral, irreligious publi cations, and above all by the multipli cation of drinking places where adul terated strong drinks are sold for the merest trifle. Respectable Frenchmen, who try to serve their country by taking a hand in politics, usually with draw in disgust, and thus the scum comes to the top and is utilized by unscrupulous ambition. Unscrupulous politicians and secret societies have worked, steadily and intelligently, in that same way, for the last thirty-five years and more, while the great majority of the people has been absolutely indifferent to politics. The task was still easier from the fact that they had destroyed in the masses, from infancy, all rever ence for God or man. Furthermore the French are an op timistic people. From year to year, they keep repeating that matters will soon improve, that the next election will make everything right and restore liberty. Again, there is no such thing as proportional representation in France, and the whole electoral machinery is manipulated to give the government a majority. Each precinct having a deputy, it is only necessary to cut up a given district, notably anti-clerical, into a great many precincts, in order to secure an increased number of deputies and vice versa, the process need only be reversed in districts sus pected of "clericalism." For in stance, the department du Nord has 500,000 more inhabitants than six de partments of the Southeast, yet it has five deputies less. Roubaix, with 125, 000 inhabitants, has one deputy, while the department of Basses Alpes, with 115,000 inhabitants has five deputies. You see how a little judicious elector al geometry and arithmetic there will always give the government a ma jority. Finally, we must bear in mind that there are in France 400,000 function aries, who get from the government bread and butter for themselves and their families, and even their relatives to a great extent, as anybody can readily understand. Those who have not frequented state schools are to bte made pariahs, ineligible for the army, the navy, or any civil position. Therefore, to suppose that the cham bers in any way represent the French nation is an egregious mistake. Did some of the French Catholics join with the government in driving out the priests and nuns and in con fiscating the Church property? No. The French Catholics never joined with the government in driving out the priests and nuns, and confiscat ing the Church property. One can can easily see how the right-thinking French people have to stand for such treatment, but are not guilty of the criminal legislation of which they are the victims. The "Grand Orient" is at the head. It rules France with an iron hand by means of the Socialist vote. It aims at the destruction of religion, and its moral teaching, and all this in the name of liberty, Any president or minister who would dare to stem the tide will fall. They must go ahead, temporize, resign or die, as the "Grand Orient" has decided. The laws will be masterpieces of guile and arbitrary tyranny. Any meaning will be given to the ambiguous language in which the most important articles will be couched, and their interpretation will not be left to ordinary civil tribunal, but to the Conseil d'Etat. In other words, the Grand Conseil of the Grand Orient is the Supreme Court of -first and last appeal. The others, the cringing, crouching millions, called the sovereign people, in whose eyes dust will be thrown now and then— such as that most elaborate document regard ing pensions and retreats for aged congregationists, ruthlessly thrown in the streets, and for workmen—those millions, that is the right-thinking Frenchmen, have nothing left but to obey the edicts of the omnipotent, in fallible State, the only teacher, preacher and general purveyor, as it calls itself. Everything is one in the name of liberty, equality and frater nity. Why does the right-thinking Fren^ people stand for such treatment^ It is simply impossible to retrieve the situation in France today by any ordinary le&al rheans. To suppose that the people are in sympathy with the government because they do not over throw it implies total ignorance of the situation. POPULAR OATHOLIG LITERATURE The Holy Bible: Translated from the Latin Vulgate, diligently compared with the Hebrew, Greek and other editions in divers languages. Pub lished with the imprimatur and ap probation of Cardinal Farley by the C. Wildermann Co., New York. Price $1.00 and upwards according to binding. This is a new edition of the Holy Bible containing the Old and New Testament with annotations, refer ences, historical and chronological index and many maps and illustra tions. The publishers' claims for the excellence of this edition over other editions are based on the following features: New and uncommonly clear type, more copious commentary notes, more numerous illustrations, with twice as many colored maps as can be found in other editions. The pa per is strong and opaque, the binding and printing are done in the style which has made the publishers famous for producing the finest prayer books in the English language. Not the least important feature of this edition of the Bible is the price, which puts the work within the reach of the humblest home while preserv ing the beauty and durability of the volume. The prices range from a good substantial cloth binding at one dollar to the 'finest Rutland Roan leather binding, leather lined, divinity circuit silk sewed, printed on best Ox ford India paper which sells for six dollars and a half postage twenty five cents extra thumb index fifty cents extra. Its Early history—Franciscan and Jesuit Missionaries—Bishop Gordon —Catholic Education—Bishop Col lins—In Recent Years. The Spaniards of the sixteenth cent ury were the famous christianizers of that period. Their discoveries, write*® T. C. Mason in the Catholic Union and Times, were undertaken and carried out under the blessing of Mother Church and were equally for the prop agation of the sacred truths among the heathens, as for the purpose of add ing new colonies to Spain. With all their armies went priests who minis tered to the spiritual needs of the soldiers and acted as missionaries in the evangelizing of the conquered. That there was a priest with Diego Colon when he landed and took posses sion of Jamaica in 1525, may very safely be assumed.- At any rate, with the capture of the island began its his tory as a Catholic possession of the Church, and while the Caribs were gradually exterminated by the secular authorities, it is certain that their spiritual welfare received the attention of the clerical who tried to convert them to the faith. As more colonists came out from Spain the nucleus church grew in' proportion and its ceremonials became the striking fea ture of life at Santiago de la Vega, the Spanish capital (now Spanish Town). Signs of this Catholic occupation still linger in the old city in the names of some of its streets. With the taking of the island in the time of Cromwell, the sovereignty of the Church was ended and Protestant ism assumed its role under the Eng lish. But new life was given to the faith in the colony when Irish exiles were sent out by the Protector to populate the inland, while making of it a sort of penal settlement for the van quished. In the reign of James I, we hear of Father Churchill, the first English priest whose name is recorded in the rather slim annals of the early Christian Church in Jamaica. The first English-speaking priest buried on the island was F. Provost, who had beeiv chaplain of the famous Dillon Regiment in the War of the Revolution. The Work of the Franciscans. The Franciscans, who had ever heetr earnest in missionary work. in the Indies, still labored to advance the Catholic cause under the new rulers, and several notable fathers were amongst them. Chief of these, between 1815 and 1825, yere F. Rodriguez, and, 1820-50, the first Vicar Apostolic, F. Benito Fernandez, both Spaniards, and famous for their evangelical work in the now essentially Protestant colony. With the breaking out of the revolu tion in Santo Domingo, many Haitian refuges fo* nd asylum in Jamaica, and these, being all French Catholics, as sisted materially in strengthening the interests of the Church in that island. So many were they that sermons for the first time were preached in French and French priests replaced the Span iards who had hitherto directed the destinies of their religion. Especially zealous were both priests in the con verting of the slaves, whose souls, if we accept their own statements, were little valued by their Protestant mas ters or by the ministers of other re ligions, who were often slave-owners themselves. It is recorded, arfd on good authority, that baptism by ship loads was no uncommon feature of the early work of the Franciscans among these unfortunate and benighted Afri cans. Under the Jesuits. As successor to Father Fernandez in the Vicarship Apostolic was Father Dupeyron, the famous Jesuit, and the first of his order to arrive in the island. His labors, begun in the early fifties, lasted for close on forty years and are still spoken of in the highest praise by Catholics who remember him. Equally famous was his succes sor, Father Porter, also a Jesuit, and brother of the Catholic Archbishop of Bombay while Father Cothan, a con temporary of Father Porter, and the first English priest of note, has also left his name in the religious history of the colony. These priests were not only the spiritual advisers of their flock, but were also the consulters and assistants in secular matters, even in law and medicine. Distinguished for his ready versatility as a general guide, and friend was Father Dupont, a Jesuit, who died as recent as the early eigh ties, after forty-five years of constant labor on the island. Perhaps more than any other of his noted predeces sors, he was the adored of his flock who knew him familiarly as "Father D." Under the vicarship of this distin guished priest, and mainly through his efforts, the Cathedral Church of Holy Trinity was built in Kingston. The government of the Church had hitherto been directly under the au thorities at Rome, but in 1894 it came under the Maryland-New York Prov ince of the Jesuit Society, by which it is now administered. Prior to this, and shortly after Father Dupont's time, the vicarship was exalted to a See and Father Gordon appointed the first Catholic Bishop. The First Bishop. Under the guidance of Bishop Gor don the Church grew in the number of its converts and especially in the mat ter of education in Catholic schools, and through the strengthening of mis sion work in various parts of the island. A body of Salesians was also encouraged to settle in the island and to devote themselves to the training of waifs and incorrigibles, and a farm for their use was laid out in the sub urbs of Kingston, where with the as sistance of the Sisters of Mercy it was hoped to accomplish considerable good among the uYifortunate youths of the city. Owing, however, to lack of finan cial aid, the scheme was abandoned and the Salesians left. In the early fifties the first convent was established in Jamaica, there be ing at the present time two of these institutions—the older Convent of the Sisters of St. Francis and the Convent of the Sisters of Mercy. English in stitutions both of them, the majority of the nuns were English women, but a few, and some from the more respec table families of Kingston are, Jama ica born. Connected with the convents is Alpha Cottage, an industrial and commitment school that ranks high in the estimation of the general public. As an influence for good, not only along purely denominational lines, but in the broadest possible sense, it is doubtful if any other public institution accomplishes such benefits among the young as does this school under the Sisters of Mercy. One of the most influential of the Sisters, and a distinguished nun, is the superior of the St. Francis Sisters, the Venerable Mother Paula, who has been fifty years on the island. ^Catholic Education- Recognizing the importance of edu cation as a converting influence, as also for the strengthening of Catholic character among its members the 'Church in Jamaica has devoted con siderable attention to its schools There are now some sixty of these in the island with a total attendance of three thousand pupils the principal of which in Kingston are St. George's College the Duke Street School with an attendance of 600 to 700 scholars, the Kingston Kindergarten and the Training School for Girls, under the Sisters of Mercy. The marks obtained by these schools, and especially the Kingston ones, show a most satisfac tory system of training. Out of a pos sible 85 per cent the Duke Street School, for example, secures 75 per cent at the government examinations of public schools. At the college, which is one of the creditable scholas tic institutions in the West Indies, there are now 120 pupils, who are taught by four of the Jesuit Fathers in Kingston. The curriculum embraces a classical education, the usual English studies, French and mathematics, and students are prepared for the Cam bridge local examinations, held annu ally. At the Girls' Training School the usual English studies are taught, as also French, German, the piano and violin, drawing, painting and.Swedish drills. Bishop Collins. Establishment of missions throuj out the island, and the erection si churches where possible, has receiv considerable impetus of recent yet and particuarly since th6 administ tion of Bishop Collins. Of all the ib sions the old one of SS. Peter a Paul, at Above Rocks, is the large with 800 to 900 members. Next to it the church at Mary River, in parish of St. Mary's, established in sixties, and now numbering some 7 1 souls. St. Agnes' Church in Portlai near the town of Bluff Bay, has a mem bership of 600. There is also a churrn in Westmoreland, built by Father Taner for the benefit of German Catholics there, and the Church of St. Boniface. Dry Harbor. As in the old days of Father Dupeyron, however, the port able altar, carried on pack mules, is still a feature of Catholic mission work in the outlying settlements. One of the new churches, very cently dedicated, is that of St. Jan at Montego Bay, the third town of island, where it is also proposed establish a school. For the support of this church the income from Reading Estate, a gift to the Catholics of a Mr Bucannon many years ago, has been set apart with the hearty concurrence of all the members of old Reading Mis sion. In Recent Years.1 In 1907, when the earthquake devas tated Kingston, the Cathedral of Holy Trinity, built by Father Dupont, was entirely destroyed, along with several of the schools. In common with the other denominations who suffered a similar fate, this visitation of Provi dence was a sore affliction for the Catholics at Kingston. With surpris ing fortitude, however, they immediate ly set to work in the restoration of. the schools and the building of a larger and finer Cathedral on a new site. Fortunate for them in the guidance of their affairs at a most critical junc ture, they had at their head a very able priest, Father Collins, former president of Fordham University, who was appointed administrator upon the enforced retirement of Bishop Gordon through ill health a short time before and who has since succeeded him in the bishopric. Under the able direc tion of Bishop Collins a new Cathedral that ranks first among all the churches in the British West Indies has now been built and. dedicated under the same name of Holy Trinity. The building, which has been beautifully decorated by Brother Schrone of St. George's College, is of reinforced con crete, in handsome although simple style of architecture, and is capable of seating some 2,000 people. The total cost, including an organ valued at $5,000 and the gift of a local gentle man, was close on $125,000, towards which Father Mulry, one of the most energetic of the local priests, collected $10,000 during his tour of the United States from Boston to Omaha. Numbering as the Catholic Church does among its membership some of the best families of the island and many of the highest public officials, this work of reconstruction has pro ceeded with commendable rapidity, and for the liquidation of the remain ing debt on the Cathedral it may safe ly be expected that these earnest souls will continue to evince their zeal as the opportunity offers. Two very creditable publications are issued by the Jamaica Church every month—Catholic Opinion, a magazine for the propagation of Catholic faith, and The Banner of Mary, a very inter esting magazine for children, pub lished by the Jamaica Catholic Press Association. The total number of Catholics in the island, as given by the last census, was 16,000, of which 12,000 were in Kings ton alone but the new census, recent ly taken, is expected to show a total membership of over 20,000 Catholics. UNITED CITW ICTIVITIES Cardinal Farley Plans Consolidation -of Catholic Charitable and Frater nal Societies. At the suggestion of His Eminence Cardinal Farley, a .large gathering of the representatives of the Catholic charitable and benevolent organiza tions in New York met at the Hotel Astor on October 16 for the purpose of inaugurating a movement to unite their activities for the purpose of social betterment. Cardinal Farley outlined his plan for an association composed of the members of all the charitable and fra ternal societies in the Diocese for the purpose of assisting, both by personal service and the contribution of money, all the existing works of charity and social reform, as well as others which are about to be'established. Among the practical works to which the or ganization will devote special atten tion are the care of immigrants, the establishment of day nurseries and Catholic social centers for the poor, the care of delinquent boys and girls, and the religious training of neglected children. The meeting adopted resolutions pledging itself to unite, develop and strengthen the various charitable, cor rectional and social Catholic activities in the Archdiocese and appointed a committee to devise ways and means of fringing about the proposed union. It was decided that the organization so formed be known as "The United Catholic Works." It will represent 100,000 Catholic men and women. It was announced that one man had con tributed the sum of five thousand dol lars to start the work. N. W. Nicollet 2820 L. S. DONALDSON CO. WOULD RESPECTFULLY CALL YOUR ATTENTION TO TJ1E FACT THAT WE HANDLE A LARGE LINE OF CATHOLIC GOODS-SUCH AS PRAYERBOOK— Bound in the latest style. All printed in new clear type on good paper, and at reasonable prices. MEDALS—Our stock of these is quite complete and we have them in aluminum, silver, rolled gold and pure gold, ranging in price from Sc to $3.75. MEDALS —Our stock of these is quite complete and we have them in aluminum, silver, rolled gold and pure gold, ranging in price from Sc to $3.75. CROSSES—in rolled gold plate from 25c to $1.25. CRUCIFIXES—to hang and to stand, priced from 65c to $5.00. Pictures of the Saints—Cata logue showing everything needed. Prices right. I 358-360 St. Peter Street SAINT PAUL COAL ROSARIES—Our line of these goods is very complete. We have them priced from 25c to $5.00. 5,10 and 20 year guarantee. You can get them in all the different stones, such as emerald, jet, amethyst, garnet, moonstone, pearl, sapphire, crys tal, topaz, opal, agate, mother of 1 pearl, etc. ROSARIES— Our line of these goods is very complete. We have them priced from 25c to $5.00. 5,10 and 20 year guarantee. You can get them in all the different stones, such as emerald, jet, amethyst, garnet, moonstone, pearl, sapphire, crys tal, topaz, opal, agate, mother of 1 pearl, etc. STATUES—If we do not have just what you want we will get it. We have a complete catalogue to show of these goods. STATUES —If we do not have just what you want we will get it. We have a complete catalogue to show of these goods. STATUES —If we do not have just what you want we will get it. We have a complete catalogue to show of these goods. CRUCIFIXES —to hang and to stand, priced from 65c to $5.00. Improved Sick Call Outfit in case. Very fine. Price $6.00. CANDLE STICKS—Brassorsilver CANDLE STICKS— Brass or silver Improved Sick Call Outfit in case. Very fine. Price $6.00. Small Altar Lamps—With red glasses. Small Altar Lamps— With red glasses. Pictures of the Saints— Cata logue showing everything needed. Prices right. SCAPULARS—from 5c to 50c. Catechisms, $1.50 per hundred, Bible Histories, Bibles, Manual of Prayers, Key of Hea ven, Catholic Girls Guide, My Prayer Book, Young Men's Guide, Pocket Prayer Books PARISHES, SCHOOLS, HOMES SUPPLIED WITH: Edison New Home Moving Picture Machines So easy to operate that a child can run it. No danger of fire or any other trouble. Be the first to get one. Unending in its Educational and Amusement Features. INFORMATION FREE Nco*»oA«rce OPTICIAN S U I V A N O A O 626 FIRST AVENUE SOUTH, MINNEAPOLIS AMERICAN STOVE REPAIR WORKS Manufacturers of STOVE AND FURNACE REPAIRS N. W. Phone Cedar 1404 Trl-State Phone 1404 Office and Warerooms: 186-188 WEST SEVENTH STREET SAINT PAUL, HINNESOTA GIULIANI STATUARY CO., if Manufacturers of Ecclesiastical Statuary, Composition Altars and Communion Rails Importers of Marble Altars, Statuary, Etc. Furnishers of the Church of St. Louis, St. Paul, Minn. Church of the Immaculate Conception, New Munich, Minn. Church of Ste. Genevieve. St Genevieve, Mo. 809-815 Metropolitan Building ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA Celebration of the Sixty-Sixth Anni versary of the Apparition. At the Shrine of Our Lady of La Salette in Villa Salmata, near Nocera Umbria, Italy, was publicly and sol emnly celebrated last month the 66th anniversary of our Blessed Mother's Apparition, which took place on the Holy Mountain of La Salette in the diocese of Grenoble, France, in Sep tember, 1846. Besides the missionaries of La Sa lette and their students the neighbor ing clergy, secular and regular, were also present together with a large concourse of pilgrims. Two eloquent sermons were preached by the Very Rev. Father Prior of the Carmelite Monastery of Nocera-Umbria. One discourse was delivered in the chapel at the Solemn High Mass—the other in the open air when the Solemn Ben ediction of the most Blessed Sacra ment was about to be given at the shrine in the afternoon. SPLADY ALBEE GENEBAL CONTRACTORS REINFORCED CONCRETE WORK A SPECIALTY 414 Plymouth Building MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. LADY OF SALETTE 604 Nicollet Avenue MINNEAPOLIS We make a specialty of Domestic Coal for Domestic Use. Hick ory Hill and Domestic Sootless Egg is ttie best Soft Coal for your range. Why Because it makes less soot than any other Soft Coal. EAST SEVENTH ST. MINNESOTA INTEREST PAID ON SAVINGS 4 4 CHECKING ACCOUNTS I N V I E W. J. HOY, President J. C. ELZY, Secretary and Treasurer HOY & ELZY COMPANY CONTRACTORS Trl-State Center 3047 The Cresent Creamery Company Bottled Milk Is the best Both Phones J04 St. Paul, Minn. The character of a man is formed by his daily thoughts, and daily words, and daily actions, until it becomes fixed. His principles stiffen into habits. As he thinks often, so he Is likely to become permanently.