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Jawif-^t«» V -1^ v 'W-* «*s= May the ashes of a Catholic whose body was cremated, receive Christian or ecclesiastical burial? No as may be gathered from a Roman decrce of May 19, 1886, con firmed and approved by Pope Leo XIII who expressed his wish "that Bishops take measures to have the faithful in structed about the detestable abuse of cremating the human body, and do all in their power to deter their flocks from the practice.'' But in a decree of December 15, JSS6, we learn that in the case of persons who had not before death directed that their bodies be cremated, so that cremation takes place, not by their will, but by the will of others, it is lawful, if there be no danger of scandal, to use the rites of the Church in the home of i he deceased, in the church itself, but not at the place of cremation. May a Catholic have anything to do with cremation? Ry a decree of July 27, 1892, we are told that it is unlawful to order or advise cremation. Catholic workmen, however, may take part in the process, provided (1) they do not in their own minds identify themselves with the cremation as a rite of a sect, (2) the cremation be not designed as a pro fession of belief in a non-Catholic or anti-Catholic sect, (3) that there be nothing in the process that is in tended directly and solely as a repro bation of Catholic teaching and an approval of the sect, (4) that the workers and officials, who are Catho lics, be not forced to do the work merely out of contempt and hate for the Catholic religion. 1.- Is it true that in the early his tory of the Church, or at the time of Martin Luther, people had to pay to get indulgences. 2. Will you kindly explain the use of indulgences? i- it. is not true that, at any time in thn history of the Church, people hnd to pay lor indulgences. It was not true at the time of Martin Luther though it has often been asserted that this was one of the reasons why I.uther was led to break away from the Catholic, Church. Archbishop Spalding in his "History of the Rel' ormation," says: The abuse and al leged sale of indulgence affords the principal pretext for the first move ments of the Reformation. The Church had always maintained her power to grant indulgences she never sanctioned in her official capacity the abuse which, at some time and in some places, grew out of the exercise of this power." After explaining the na ture of indulgences and the circum stances attending the erection of St. Peter's, he adds: "We have no mis sion to defend the extravagances im puted to this man (Tetzel). To us it appears that much injustice has been done him, and that his errors have been greatly exaggerated by his enemies. *. One thing is certain, that the abuses of which he is accused were not authorized by tin Church or the Pontiff. The acts of Tetzel were officially disavowed by the representatives of the Roman Court. In ir.19. Charles Miltitz, the papal envoy, openly rebuked him for his conduct, in the affair of the indulgences: and even charged him with having been the occasion of most of the troubles which during the previous two years had afflicted German?. Tie, however, condemned the friar unheard, relying entirel\ upon the exaggerated representations of his enemies. He would not even allow the Dominican to defend himself against the grievous charges brought against liini by Luther and he (Tetzel) died soon after, most prob ably of chagrin." 2. The truth of the foregoing is evident to all who understand what is meant by an indulgence. The enemies of the Church persist in misunder standing what an indulgence is and, before explaining what it is in reality, it may be well to state what an indul gence is not. '"It is not a permission to commit sin, nor a pardon of future sin neither could be granted by any power. It. is not the forgiveness of the guilt of sin it supposes that the sin has already been forgiven. It is not an exemption front any law or duty, and much less from the obliga tion consequent on certain kinds of sin, e. g., restitution on the contrary it means a more complete payment of the debj. which the sinner owes to God. It does not confer immunity from temptation or remove the possibility of subsequent lapses into sin. Least of all is an indulgence the purchase of a par don which secures the buyer's salva tion or releases the soul of another from Purgatory. The absurdity of such notions must be obvious to any one who forms a correct idea of what the Catholic Church really teaches on this subject." An indulgence fit the remission, either in whole oY in f»art, of the tem poral punishment due to sin the eter nal guilt of which has already been T-p r~ ~*v7rr#»Ki3i'^- In this department, qucstk-us of ueral hitfre i,i regard to religion will be %aswered each week ia the order in which they arc received. All commani ^tionsSmtisfc he signed, though the *name will not be published. Address: "Question suul Answer1', cart 1'lie Catholic .Bulletin^ 315 Newton Bld£t St. What is Christian burial, and to whom is the privilege denied? Christian burial is the burial of the remains of the faithful in a place set apart and blessed or consecrated for that purpose, and with the rites ap pointed In tin* Roman Ritual. The common law of the Church denies the privilege of Christian burial to the following: Infidels, atheists, apos tates, heretics, those who are notor iously and publicly excommunicated, or put under interdict by name, suicides, duellists who die in the con flict itself, public, notorious, scan dalous sinners who died impenitent, th'osc who, in the presence of wit nesses, refuse to receive the last Sacraments when ottered to them, members of societies condemned by the Church. rANSWER. PSALM LIV. EXAUDI, DEUS. (Written for The Catholic Bulletin by Helen Hughes Hielscher.) God of pity hear my prayer, Give me not unto despair, The voice of foes is in my ear, I am filled with deadly fear. Who, I cried, will give me wings, That I may leave behind all things, And fly away and be at rest, And in the desert make my nest. I waited Him within the wild, Who saved from coward heart His child, Cast down, Oh Lord, confttse the tongues Of sinners who would do mo wrongs. Iniquity .spreads like a pall, Both night and day from wall to wall Within the city and its streets Are filled with usury and deceits. Where labor bends its straining form, Injustice sits secure and warm. For il mine enemy had made A scorn of me, I eould persuade My soul to let its auger cease, And bear Jus bitter taunts in peace. 11' one that hated me hnd said These things I might have hid my head, But thou, my comrade, friend and guide, Who in God's temple by my side Hath walked—Let death about them swell, May they be swallowed up in hell, For wickedness is in their race, Their houses are sin's dwelling-place. But, I cry out and God will hear, Night, noon and morn unto His ear My prayer goes up and He will save, And draw my soul from out the grave. They change not from their wicked way, God's hand is stretched out to repay, They have defied His covenant, His brow in wrath is on them bent. His word is smooth tmto the heart, But sharper than the winged dart, Oh, cast thy care upon the Lord, He will sustain thee with His word. The sinners guiles the Lord repays, He shall not. live out half his days, But I will put, my trust in Thee, In mercy, Lord, abide with me. •''Minis' ME REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF HOME FOR PROTECTION OF IRISH IM MIGRANT GIRLS GIVES INTER ESTING STATISTICS. From the annual report of the Rev. M. J. Henry, director of the mission of Our Lady of the Rosary for the I^otection of Irish Immigrant Girls, New York, we learn that 33.S98 Irish immigrant's arrived in the United States during the past fiscal year— 16,793 males and 17,10." females. They brought with them to this coun try the large sum of $1,673,875. Of the entire number 29,479 were be tween the ages of fourteen and forty four and 30,309 came to relatives or friends. "As heretofore," says Father Henry, in his report, "the mission uses it, influence to protect Irish girls while on shipboard. It maintains representatives at Ellis Island to meet and assist them on arrival. It exam ines the claims and fitness of the rela tives or friends who call for the im migrants discharged to the home. It provides a home free of charge for such girls as are discharged to the mission by the immigration authori ties. It tries to locate rela ives of those who bring indefinite addresses. It secures positions in good imilies for those ready to go to work. It supplies the good offices of the priest, whose presence and advice .-e: ever welcome to the Irish exile. And, in keeping with a rule observed since the founding of the mission thirty •M\*,*i«*-*,»^*n'--t* -—*•-.-V* ri i —V "i»~i»rtflMW* mi i myt' fiV i^-^44.. -..- v V •. •iwfc.S, '(•'.. j,, V 1 1 ..,• •. 1 .HI i 1 t' „.X&. *.«•»* "i &***. -i. -I 'SPI-^ ....J1..'.. ^p^-i y*wV »»Jv 'i'»tji.w* »». «».»je.y ..jfw^^»M., '. i .l^t-t *i vs,'i ," *J 1 aul. forgiven. It, therefore, supposes that a person who gains an indulgence is in the state of grace. In return for certain acts of religion or charity n person in such a state can avail him self of the treasury of merits gained by the Blessed Virgin, ass well as by the saints who more than satisfied Al mighty God lor the sins of which they may have been guilty. The Church has the power to dispose of these mer its as she wills and she lays down certain conditions which must be com plied with in-order that an individual may draw upon this bank, as it were. The indispensable conditions for gain ing an indulgence are confession and communion and the performance of certain other acts such as the visit ing of a church or churches, the reci tation of certain prayers, the giving of an alms, etc. It readily follows thai pe'ople who wish to misundenstand the nature of indulgences may claim- that this alms is given as a payment for the indulgence but Catholics know that this is not the truth and non Catholics of intelligence also know that the Church would not tolerate such a thing. It. is hard to convince those who want to believe the worst of the Church, that this accusation against her is not true but intelligent Catholics have it in their power to remove this and many other false no tions by giving a true explanation of the doctrine of indulgences. years ago, the service, in whatever form, is Kratuitous. That this ran be done is due to help from the parish, to voluntary contributions* from friends and to the Rosary Society, in which annual membership is renewed in October." IFIICIIt BJSHDP DEAD MGR. VIETER OF WEST AFRICA SUCCUMBS TO BLACK FEVER. Grief over the ravages of the great European war, whose ramifications ex tended even as far as to destroy the building which he had erected in var ious settlements on the West Coast of Africa, is assigned as the contribu tory cause of the death of Right Rev erend Henry Vieter, B. S. M., Aposto lic Vicar of Kamerun, West Africa, which is German territory. News of the death of fJishop Vieter was received in a cablegram to the General of the Pallatine Fathers, Rev. Charles Gosseler, P. S. M., in Rome, on December 15. When the war broke out Bishop Vieter was in the interior on a Con firmation tour. When he returned to Duala, the capital of Kamerun, he found that all his co-workers had been transported to England as prisoners of war. The French officials were living in his house and the Cathedral was being used as a stable for their horses. The transformation that had come over his diocese was such a shock to Bishop Vieter that it sapped his vitality and he fell a victim to the black fever, the ravages of which he had been able to avoid for twenty four years. FIFTY GOLDEN YEARS The jubilee Mass was celebrated by Auxiliary Bishop Corrigan and the sermon was preached by the Right Rev. Mgr. C. F. Thomas. Many prom inent priests were in the sanctuary. TO ELECT JESUIT GENERAL #*v11'^ '4ti^n 4*c**'' '.JJBJL ^*-3» I BALTIMORE NUN CELEBRATES GOLDEN JUBILEE OF RELIG IOUS LIFE. On January 6, Sister Mary Bernard, superioress of St. Peter's Convent,, Baltimore, Md., who, as a girl of twelve landed in America from Coun ty Tyrone, Ireland, just prior to the Civil War, observed the fiftieth an niversary of her taking of vows as a Sister of Mercy. Sister Bernard's family name is O'Kane. In 1863 she became a novice in St. Peter's con vent, and two years later she pro nounced her vows before Archbishop Spalding in the convent chapel. She served as superioress in sever al convents of the community. She was for several years Mother Superi or in charge of novices at Mount St. Agnes' College, Mount Washington. At the outbreak of the Spanish-Amer ican War she was in charge of a band of Sisters of Mercy who saw hospital service in Knoxville, Tenn., and Co lumbus, Ga. SOME AMERICAN JESUITS WHO WILL TAKE PART IN THE ELEC TION. Among the delegates chosen tyy the Jesuits of the United States to repre sent them at the coming election of a General for the Society in succession to the late Father Wernz, are Very Rev. A. J. Maas, Provincial of the New York-Maryland Province, Rev. Thomas Gannon, former Provincial, Rev. W. F. Clark, Vice President of Brooklyn College, Very Rev A. J. Bur rowes, Provincial of the Missouri Province, Very Rev. Joseph Grimmels nftan, President of Marquette Univer sity, Very Rev. E. A. Mageveny, Presi dent of Creigliton University, and Rev. J. Marra of the Mexico and Colo rado Mission. It is expected thbt the conference will take place in Rome, although the place and date of holding it have not been definitely announced. IMY CHAPLAIN CUES TWO CATHOLIC CHAPLAINS GIVEN NEW POSTS- The Mavy Department has just is sued orders transferring. Chaplain William Henry Ironsides Reaney, the senior of the Catholic chaplains United States Navy, from duty at the Navy Yard, New York, to the Battle Sip "Connecticut," the flag ship of the 4th Division, Atlantic fleet. Father Edmund A. Brodmann, an other Navy Catholic chaplain, has also been transferred from the "Mis souri" to the Battleship "New Hamp shire" of the 2nd Division of the At lantic fleet. IISWEB PRIEST IT 1ISS RESPONSES MADE BY CONGREGA TION INSTEAD OF BY ALTAR BOYS. In Belgium the "Liturgical Move ment" has spread to fjueh an extent that the people even at Low Masses in many places make the responses which are commonly made by the acolytes as representing the congrega tion. They also join with the priest in the recitation of the Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnes Dei, and in fact all the choral parts of the Holy Sacrifice. These 'Messes Dialogues," writes Dom Benedict Stewart, O. S. B., in Pax, the quarterly of the Caldey Bene dictines, are spreading throughout Bel gium—in the parishes, colleges and seminaries and are both approved and encouraged by ecclesiastical author it/.. Vv." Jrk tmnamm 11 1 THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, JAN. 23, 1915.r- THE IDEAL ARBITRATOR NON-CATHOLICS ADMIT THE IN FLUENCE OF THE VATICAN FPR PEACE. We find in'the New York Evening Post, say the Monitor" of New Jer sey, an interesting article entitled "Influence of the Vatican for Peace," in which the role of Benedict. XV as peace-maker is described. Never in modern times has the Successor of St. Peter faced a condition of things such as exists at the present moment. Two-thirds of the habitable world is involved in war. Millions on land and sea are engaged in wholesale killing. Each day the holocaust to Mars grows reater and greater. Battles, lasting not for days but for weeks and months, are heaping the plains of Europe with the dead. It is a state of things that fills- all men with a sense of horror. Pius X, before he closed his earthly career, witnessed the preliminaries of the world-tragedy, and the sight hastened his death. His successor in the Chair of Peter took up the heavy burden of his ex alted office amidst the roar of cannon announcing that millions of his spirit ual children were at death-grips. His first thought: was to dd all that lay in his power to put a stop to the carnage that is an impeachment of our much boasted civilization. As Father of Christendom, he ap pealed to the rulers of the warring nations in these terms: "Hasten, therefore, to enter into a council of peace. Grasp the right hand of friendship^ and receive a special re ward from God for yourselves and your nations and earn the greatest praise from the brotherhood of man." If the Kaiser, the Emperor of Austria, the Czar, the King of England and the President of France would enter into peace negotiations in the spirit that breathes through the invitation ten dered them by Benedict XV, there would be good grounds for hoping that before the new year is miicli older, the last gun in the greatest of wars would have been fired. But accursed greed stands in the way. The lust for trade and territory keeps the cannons at their deadly work. The Holy Father in his first Encyclical thus referred to the effect of this lust in the way of t^pstroying the spirit of brotherhood. "The Spirit of Christ, does not. reign today. The people talk today of brotherhood more than they ever have before, yet brotherhood is ignored to day to a degree greater than ever be1 fore. Nations, races, cities and in dividuals are divided today by a ran cor and selfishness more than they are by political frontiers." We have here a faithful description of the real cause of the present deplorable con dition of things. It is an all sufficient explanation of the armed struggle that is deluging a great part of Europe in blood. The civilized world for many years has given itself over to materialism. The ideal it has placed before it has been the gratification of the senses at the sacrifice ttievrrything else. Now, the possession of money is regarded as the indispensable prerequisite for the attainment of this sordid ideal. Hence, international rivalry for trade that will fill the coffers of the nation that succeeds in getting possession of the markets of the world by any and every means. What matters it. if thousand^ of precious lives are sacri ficed in a war waged for the capture of markets that will bestow untold wealth upon the nation that will con trol them. A recent editorial in the New York Evening Sun stated the case with brutal frankness, when, in re ferring to the prolongation of the pres ent war, it declared: "War, on the other hand, means the further extension of the time when German shipping is excluded from the sea. Every casualty list of the Kaiser's army is a victory for British industry, for the dead and wounded in increasing numbers represent the highly trained industrial army which has challenged British industrial su premacy successfully. More and more the pressure of French, Russian, Bel gian armies will draw German me chanics, skilled laborers, into the ranks, while German factories must shut down. Meantime British fac tories go on, British ships sail the seas, British trade gains time to sup plant German in the markets of the world. Certainly England has no rea son to pause now that she did not have in the far-off Napoleonic says, when she fought for more than a de cade." We have here in a nutshell the cause of the bloodshed at which the world stands aghast. Never was there a time when there was a more urgent need for influences, other than the sordid ones that have been hitherto shaping European affairs, asserting themselves in world-politics. Look in what quarter we may, we can find no better and more authoritative repre sentative of these Influences than he who sits in the Chair of Peter. He would be an ideal arbitrator between the warring nations, whose decision would carry with it far more weight than would be accorded to any judg ment rendered by a Hague Peace Con ference. This is not the opinion of Catholics alone. It is shared by many Protestants, as is shown by the com munication sent to the Christian Com monwealth, Londcm, by the Rev. R. Cambell, the leading Non-conformist Of England. After suggesting ai general council of Christian Churches to discuss the war. he adds: "Who is to* summon such a conn cil? There is only one person who could with any chance of success, and perhaps he would not dream of at tempting it. I mean the Roman Pon tiff. The Archbishop of Canterbnry could not do it. Rome would not lis ten. The Metropolitan of the Eastern Church, or the largest portion o£ it, could not do it„ "Rome holds the key of the situa tion. Let he# try, and Protestants will think better of her than has been the case for nearly 400 years. There is a precedent for it. It is generally known that Protestants were sum- nown that Pj-otestan^s were MM fifoffetl f5 the Council of Trent, in the sixteenth century? They did not go, but they were Invited, and had they gone who knows but that the scandal of divided Christendom might have been averted." We quote the above for thn purpose of showing how even non-Catholics are beginning to recognize the impor tant rolo tho Father of Christendom enacts in the affairs of the world. A few weeks ago he proposed to the Governments of the countries now waging war that they should exchange prisoners of war physically incapaci tated for further military service. All the belligerent nations, with the exception Of France and Montenegro, have acceded to the Holy Father's proposal. A cablegram thus de scribes tho beneficeut effects of the Holy See's plea in behalf of wounded prisoners of war. "The Pontiff's no ble initiation will be the means of restoring to their families some 150,000 men put out of action for out of 1,500,000 captured since the war be gan, fully 10 per cent, come within the category for which the Pope pleads." It is tho latest illustration of the truth of the statement made years ago by Cardinal Newman, when he as serted of the Successor of St. Peter, "according to the need of the day, and the inspiration of his Lord, he has set himself now to one thing, now to an other but to all things in season, and to nothing in vain." Benedict XV is following in the footsteps of his pred ecessors in the Chair of Peter. The need of restoring peace to the world takes precedence of everything else at the present moment. The Holy Fa ther, recognizing this, had applied himself to the task of bringing about a termination of hostilities between the belligerent nations. In his efforts be crowned with suc cess, he will but. prove to the world that in the- twentieth century the Papacy is what it has ever been in the past—the bulwark of Christian civilization. FITHEB OFJCEfflli FRANCISCAN FRIAR WROTE FIRST BOOK ON THE SUBJECT —AN OTHER OF THE "LAZY MONKS" OF THE MIDDLE AGES. Among the book reviews of the Journal of Accountancy for November is a notice of a new book, "Ancient Double-Entry Bookkeeping," by John B. Geijsbeek. We are told by the re viewer, says the Sacred Heart Review, that this book is primarily a volume for the bibliophile and the scholar. The following extract from the review er is of special interest: "The author of the present volume contends that the profession of ac countancy is almost as ancient as that of law, and ho has taken his readers back to the first printed work on the subject written by a Franciscan friar. Lucas Pacioli, who lived and wrote in the little Italian village of Sancti Sep ulchre, near Venice, in 1494. From this early work it is plainly shown that even at that time there were well defined principles of bookkeeping and accounts, and that then as now tho la bors of the accountant were bent towards systematizing and making uniform the many methods in vogue. The making of 'Ancient, and Double Entry Bookkeeping' shows the result of years of research through many European libraries, the acquisition of several rare books, and finally the la borious translation of medieval ver nacular and the compiling of the thoughts of several early writers which show that the modern account ant plods faithfully in the footsteps of the Franciscan friar of five centuries ago." The Catholic Encyclopedia has a brief biography of this father of ac countancy. It is really astonishing, when one stops to think of it, how many things that appear very modern may be traced back to a "lazy friar" of the Middle Ages. PBIESI CHAPLAIN FATHER STARK, C. S. P., ELECTED CHAPLAIN OF CALIFORNIA SENATE. Rev. Henry I. Stark, C. S, P., of San Francisco, was unanimously chosen chaplain of the California senate to serve for the current session of that body. The nomination for this posi tion and his election without a dis "senting vote is a great compliment to Father Stark personally, since he neither sought nor desired the office The new chaplain is one of the first priests to enter the Paulist commun ity from the Tacifie Coast, REFORM OEMMEEKM JULIAN AND GREGORIAN CALEN DARS. The Julian year consisted of 365*4 days and exceeded by 11 minutes in.95 seconds the solar year of ?,Co days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 46 seconds. In consequence of this the equinox in the course of a few centuries fell back considerably. In the time of Julius Caesar, it corresponded to March 25, and by the sixteenth cen tury it had retrograded to March 11. It was at this time that a physician of Verona named Ghiraldi proposed plan for amending the calendar. He died before he had oppotrunitv to car ry it forward, but his brother pre sented it to Pope Gregory XIII, who assembled a number of learned men to discuss it. It was passed upon favorably and adopted, and thus was given to the world what has since been known as the Gregorian calen dar. In 15S2 Gregory issued a brief, abolishing the Julian calendar in all Catholic countries, and introducing the reformed one. The reform of the Gregorian or new on the Julian or old consisted in dropping ten days after October 4, ^ggfypip^pwM^^«^fMippipMWWBMpipwwpwpgBgg *i'" l- "». li:.'V £.:t'k ...•,-.».= .*, j, v. There hi ifitfLjlU' SYNDICAi -6% rrMT,"4T NAME. A PIG IN A POKE DO YOU KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT COAL? Sohibody said "A little knowledge is a dangerous thing." But just the same a little knowledge, 'judgment and dis cretion in the purchase of coal would mean dollars in your pocket. i coai exactly suited to your,,use. A coal that will yield you a maximum of heat, and a minimum of waste. That will save you labor, worry and expense. •f The HAN.NA DEALER in your town can tell yoif Ex actly the kind to fit your needs. Learn from him a little about coal. HANNA HARD COAL HANNA WHITE ASH LUMP HANNA BLqE GRASS BLOCK The M. A. Hanna Coal Co. SAINT PAUL MINNEAPOLIS DULUTH To Ireland's Sons and Daughters, Especially: We are presenting at the Metropolitan Opera House, St. Paul, the week commencing Sunday, January 31, and in Minneapolis the week of January 24, the photo play masterpiece entitled "IRELAND, A NATION," which is causing the biggest sensation in theatrical history throughout the United States. This picture was made entirely on Irish soil with Irish actors and actresses, which must appeal particularly to you. The story is racy of the soil and conjures up before you the real throbbing pages of Irish history from the passing of the Irish House of Parliament through Castle reagh's perfidy up to the present date. It introduces characters that flood the memory with proud recollection. Henry Grattan, John Philpot Curran, immortal Robert Emmet, brave Michael Dwyer, Daniel O'Connell of impei ishable fame, and sweet, gentle Sarah Curran, all march in procession before you, telling the story of the brave deeds and noble sacrifices made by Irish men and women in making "Ireland, a Nation." THE ENTIRE WEEK WILL BE UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE A. O, H. & L. A. HIBERNIANS, AND TICKETS MAY BE PROCURED FROM ANY MEMBER. As the enterprise is a costly one and designed to reach the heart of every Irish man, woman and child, we trust that you will make a special effort to give all the assistance you possibly can. A program of Irish music, including folk-songs by Richard S Tuttle, the operatic barytone, and P. J. Linehan, America's foremost exponent of genuine Irish Bag-Pipes, will be presented. 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