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la thia department, questions When New Year's Day falls on Fri day and a person is allowed to eat meat, must he fast from meat the day before New Year's, and is it a sin to •ftt meat on both days? Nvttcn New Year's falls on Friday, Catholics are allowed to eat meat. Ttie usual law of abstinence does not •bind. The day before New Year's is not a fast day and, hence, Catholics may eat meat on both' days without being guilty of sin. May a person who desires to be en tirely consecrated to God and who re ceived almost miraculous assistance by invoking Our Blessed Lady, enter convent dedicated to her honor after spending five years in another order, influenced by relatives who were lead ing holy livesT The fact thftt a person has spent some time in one religious Order does not necessarily prevent her from join ing another if she feel that her first choice was not the proper one. Whether or not such a person would be received into a second Order de pends very largely on the reasons why 8he left the first one. If she left of her own accord and was not asked by her superiors to leave, it would probably be much easier for her to be afceepted in another community. But the fact remains that her first experi ence does not necessarily preclude her joining another Community if, after having satisfied themselves in regard to her qualifications and sincerity, ttoey are willing to accept her. When did Advent start in 1914, and when did it end in 1915? In 1914 the first Sunday of Advent fell on November 29, and the Advent season ended with Christmas. Ac cording to present usage, the season of Advent begins with the Sunday nearest to the Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, which is celebrated on November 30, and embraces four Sun days. The first Sunday may be as early as November 27, and then Ad vent has twenty-eight days, or it may be as late as December 3, in which case it will have only twenty-one days. Aa the name indicates, Advent is a period of preparation for the coming of the Savior and, therefore, it does Hot extend beyond Christmas, the day on which we celebrate His Nativity. The part of the foregoing question re ferring to the ending of Advent in 1915, If it refers to the Advent season through which the Church has just passed, implies a misunderstanding of what Advent is on the part of the per son who asks the question. Since Ad Vent is a preparation for Christmas, as we have already stated, it does not extend beyond that date in any year and hence if the question refers to the Advent of 1915, it must be answer ed by saying that in 1915 Advent will end on Christmas eve. It may be that the questioner has confused the season of Advent with the period dur ing which the Church forbids the sol emnization of marriage, namely, from the first Sunday of Advent until after the Feast of the Epiphany. During •this time, in some dioceses, there is a special diocesan regulation prohibiting certain kinds of amusements, enter tainments, etc., which are generally fPowncd upon during the Advent sea son. But this has nothing to do with the question of the season of Advent in itself. Will yeu pdeate inform me of the numbers of Catholics, agnostics, heathens, atheists and non-Chris tians? An agnostic told me that there were but 15,000,000 in the U. S. and takes great pleasure in saying that the number is decreasing. Also that the standard of morality is lower in Church than out of it and he has sta tistics to prove this. Are Catholics decreasing in number? The foregoing question is so vague that it is impossible to give a definite answer. In the first place one does not know whether the questioner wants the number of Catholics, etc., in the whole world or only in the United States, and in the second place one does not know whether the "15,000,000 in the U. S." refers to Cath dlics or not. We presume it does. At the outset it must be noted that agnostics, heathens, atheists do not constitute definite religious bodies in the sense that Catholics do. Atheism, agnosticism and heathenism are not re ligions in the sense that Catholicism la a religion. In round numbers it may be said that there are about 1,600,000,000 people in the world. Of these 500,000,000 are Christians, which Includes about 300,000,000 Catholics. From this it is easy to determine the filimber of non-Christians as well as the number of Christians in the world. Ati atheist is ono who denies the ex istence of God a heathen is one who rejects the true God and an agnostic ts one who says that God is unknown And unknowable. In other words, if y$u ask an agnostic whether there is HjGod or a religion or in fact any thing, his answer is "I do not know." An agnostic, as the name implies, is ofie who does not admit that we have »tty real knowledge about anything, "the agnostic, therefore, who said that Here were "15,000,000 (Catholics) in the U. S.," made a statement about Itfhich he knows nothing. If he is an agnostic, how can he know that, or how can he know that the number is decreasing, or how can he know that the standard of morality is lower in church than out of it? When an ag nostic says he knows anything, or is sure about anything, he contradicts Itfs profession of agnosticism and no Attention should be paid to his state ment. Now, in regard to the number ctf Catholics in the United States, this jterticular agnostic is very much in •rror. There are about 18,000,000 Catholics In the Utiited States: at the (resent time and the number is In ANSWER. of general interest in regard to religion will be answered each week in the order in which they are received. All commnni* wfttionsBmust be signed, though the *name will not be published. Addresa: "Question and Answer", car*: The Catholic Bulletin, 315 Newton BldgM St. Paul* creasing every year, both from natural growth and from conversions from Protestantism which number about 35,000 a year. We would like to see the statistics which this agnostic has to prove his statement in regard to morality. "The statement is absurd on the face of it. We would like to know why the person to whom he made this statement did not challenge it and ask for proofs. It is another caso where one who, we presume, is a Catholic, allows himself to be bluffed by every Tom, Dick and Harry who makes a statement about the Church with a degree of assurance entirely unwarranteed by his knowledge. Some Catholics are so timid that they are afraid to ask for proof when such absurd statements are made. It is time for such people to wake up and assert themselves. ELECTim if hit seui PERSONNEL OF THE ELECTORS MANNER OF CONDUCTING THE ELECTION. By the death of Father Francis Xavier Wernz, which occurred on Au gust 20, the office of Superior-General of the Society of Jesus has become vacant and now a new General of the Order is about to be elected, writes Rev. B. Guldner, S. J., in "America." No doubt, many of our readers will be interested to learn something about the mode of choosing a Jesuit General. The laws and rules which must be fol lowed in the election are laid down in the Institute, the corpus juris of the Society of Jesus. The "Institute" now adays is an open book to scholars, and may be read and studied in any of the large libraries of the learned world. The most important part of the "Institute" are the "Constitutions," iu the writing of which St. Ignatius spent more than ten years, and they have been extolled by scholars and even by statesmen as a work of sur passing genius. The "Constitutions" of St. Ignatius contain much of orig inality, for the saint was in advance of his time as regards the government of a religious Order. The Church has set the seal of her approval upon the work, and many of the later religious Orders or Congregations have profited by liiB bold initiative. The Society of Jesus is a monarchy, from the nature of the case an elective monarchy, and it is ruled by one su preme head called tho Provost-General (Praepositus Generalis). He is the on ly superior holding office by election, as well as the only one elected for life. All other superiors derive their au thority from him. He is not an abso lute monarch, but what we may call a constitutional monarch. His will is not law he is bound to rule in accord ance with the "Constitutions," and he has official advisers and an admonitor given to him by the Society. He is the chief executive and has vast ad ministrative powers, but he is not a law-giver. He is the one man above all others in the Society of Jesus who is bound to enforce the law. The legislative power and function belong to the Society itself as represented in the General Congregation. The Gen eral Congregation not only makes laws, but also elects the Superior-Gen eral, and has even the power of depos ing him from office. The General, before he dies, leaves, in a sealed document, the same of a distinguished Professed Father who is to govern the Society as Vicar-Gener al pending the election of a successor. Should we have omitted to do so, the Professed Fathers in the neighborhood of where he has died meet, and by a majority of votes elect the Vicar. The Vicar gives official notice to the Society of the death of the Father General and calls a General Congrega tion for the election of a new head of the Order, naming the time and place of the meeting. The place, usually, but not necessarily, is Rome, and the time five or six months after the no tice has been sent out. The time, if necessary, may be extended. During this period Provincials and Rectors of Colleges are not removed from office. The notice is sent to the Provincials of the various provinces and by them promulgated. As soon as this notice has been promulgated all members are strictly forbidden to seek votes for themselves or others, and no member of the Society is ever permitted to cast a vote for himself. In due time the Provincial Congregation meets for the purpose of choosing electors. This Provincial Congregation consists of fifty members made up of the Provin cial who presides the Rectors of the Colleges and the senior Professed Fa thers, also the Procurator (treasurer) of the Province. Their chief businesB is to choose by a majority of votes and by secret ballot two distinguished Professed Fathers who, together with the Provincial, who Is always an offi cial elector, arc to go to Rome for the election of the new General. They also elect three substitutes who will take the place of tho electors in case any or all of themkshould he prevent ed, by death or any^other cause, from fulfilling their mission. The Society of Jesus at present is divided into five "Assistances": the Italian with five provinces the Ger man with six provinces (Austria, Bel gium, Galicia. Germany, Hungary, Hol land) the French with four provinces the Spanish with five provinces the English with seven provinces (Eng land, California, Canada, Ireland, Maryland-New York, Missouri, ?"ew Or leans). The twenty-seven provinces send, each, three electors to the General Con gregation. The Vicar-General, who presides, and the five Assistants i of the late Father General also have votes. In the next. General Congregation there will be, therefore, eighty-seven electors. The method of electing the General is laid down, in the minutest details, in the eighth part of the "Constitutions" of St. Ignatius^ The saint enumerates the qualificat ions of the General. Briefly, he must be a man of rare virtues, and possess ed of the highest and noblest gifts of mind and heart. Ignatius expects each elector to act in accordance with the loftiest principles of the spiritual life, and, moreover, he takes every pos sible precaution that human ingenuity could devise to secure a pure election. On the day appointed for the open ing of the General Congregation, if at least two-thirds of the electors are present at Rome, the Vicar-General may open the congregation. The elec tors present must show their creden tials for examination. The next day, after the recitation of the "Veni Creator," the Vicar gives an account of his administration, and then the Secretary of the Congrega tion and his assistant aro elected by secret ballot and plurality of votes. One elector is chosen in the same way to give an exhortation on the day of the election another, not a member of the Congregation, is chosen to be door keeper. The severest penalties are enacted against any one who has been con victed of having coveted the General ship, directly or indirectly, by word or act or sign. Three more days are spent by the electors in prayer and austerities, ari& in taking information among them selves as to the virtues and other qual ifications of any professed father who might be eligible for the office of Gen eral. They are not, however, to ask whether this or that individual Pro fessed Father is fitted for the General ship. At the end' of the four days the Congregation assembles for the elec tion of the General. The Mass of the Holy Ghost is celebrated, at which all the electors receive Holy Com munion. An exhortation is given by the Father elected for that office and then follows an hour of prayer. All the electors take a solemn oath be fore the crucifix that they will vote for him whom in the presence of God they regard as best fitted for the office of General of the Society. The first method of electing the General would be by "acclamation," that is to say, if the whole body of electors arose and by unanimous con sent proclaimed one of the Professed Fathers general of the society. The second and usual method is by secret ballot. If any one has re ceived a majority of the votes of all the electors present, i. e., more than half the votes, he is elected. If the General has not been elected after the fifth balloting, the congregation may continue the balloting, or may decide, by a two-thirds' vote, to elect the general by "compromise," which would be the third method of elec tion. By majority of votes of the elec tors. one from each assistance would be chosen and these five would choose the General from among those who had received votes in the ballotings. As soon as the election is completed, the Vicar-General proclaims the new General, all approach to pay him hom ago and then repair to the church for a solemn "Te Deum." The newly-elected General from now on presides over the congrega tion, which assumes its legislative function. The Congregation can not be dissolved by the General without its own consent. It remains in session till it has considered each and every important need of the society, enact ing laws to meet the exigencies and committing the statutes to the care of the General, who watches over their observance. IT1LIM JESUIT DEM Rev. Aloysius Romano, the oldest member of the faculty of the College of the Sacred Heart, Woodstock, Md., died in Baltimore, on January 19. Only three priests of the Maryland-1 New York Province have seen longer service in the Jesuit Order. Father Romano was born in Naples, Italy, in 1842, and entered the society in that city when sixteen years old. While pursuing his theological studies in the Collegio Romano, the city of Rome was taken by the Piedmontese troops in 1870 and Father Romano and the other Jesuits fled the country. He continued his studies at Innsbruck, Austria, where he was ordained a priest in 1872. After ordination he came to the United States and was professor of Dogmatic Theology for Beveral years in the newly founded College of the Sacred Heart at Woodstock. Later on, he went to New York city where, with the Rev. Nicholas Russo, he founded the mission of Our Lady of Loretto, the first mission of the Jesu its among the Italian of New .York. SAINT CLARA COLLEGE. Mr. B. A. "Baldus, Managing Editor of "Extension" Magazine, lectured at St. Clara College, Sinsinawa, Wiscon sin, on the afternoon of January nine teenth, on "How to write a Short Story." Aside from the fact that the subject in itself was attractive the lecturer's treatment of it from the point of view of an editor lent addi tional interest and driving force t6 his remarks on the technique of the short story and the requirements which it must meet in order to gain acceptance from the editor of a Catho lic or secular magazine. Among the most pleasing and profit able musical treats of the school year was the violin recital given on Satur day evening, January twenty-third, by Mr. Hugh Kortscbak assisted by Mr. Isaac Van Grove, pianist. On January nineteenth, the students of the Department of Home Econom ics prepared and served a four-course luncheon to the students of the Col lege, thus practically demonstrating the excellencp of thcir woric and train ins- ..... ... jr*#Sj£f"3T•»**'* •#*.««# THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, JAN. 30, 1915. A "Pair of Beads" from ... Ireland. (WrtttW for The Catholic Bulletin by Conai Ceainach.) The Christmas season brought them to my hand the other day, A "pair of beads" from Ireland, dear Ireland far away. The postman smiled so gaily when he gave it to my hand, He must have known the package held a bit of the dear land. It was not a bulky packet,—how I clasped it to my heart, How my eager fingers trembled as I broke the seal apart. For it held a bit of Erin that would answer my heart's needs, And there within my fingers lay—ft "pair of Irish beads." You may well say that their value is at best a trifling one, True, the pennies were not many with which the purchasing was done. But, O, the love that prompted that gift so dear to me, That eases my heart-hunger for the land across the sea. A "pair of beads" from Irfelaiid, faith my eyes were dim with tears, In a beat my heart went backward across the vanished years, And I'm lingering at the cross-roads where the kindly people pass, For it is a Sunday morning and we're walking home from Mass. I am seeing Carrickmona with its shield of living green, And the glen of Piper Rory witn tne bog-land spread between. And down the winding boreen comes the lilting of a song, My heart is sore with aching for that same all the years long. Ah, the things that I am seeing with the eye-sight of my heart, The little daily visions that are of life a part. The rosy-tinted dawning with the grass a-damp with dew, The lacing tliorn-tree branches with the sunlight streaming through. The long, sweet, golden noonings in the hawthorne-scented lane, The butter-cups and daisies, and the robin's call for rain. The purpling, dusky twilight with its shadow on the meads, •i And my mother softly saying, 'It to time to say the beads." My word, that same's the binding to the old land for us all, For however far we wander we heed the homing call. And the weary miles seem shorter that lie across the foam, Citation for HmrlnK Will. ST ATM OF MINNESOTA. COUNTY OF Kamsey, ss. In Probate Court. In the Matter of Proving- the Alleged Last AVlll and Testament of Thomas F. Kmltli. Decedent. The State o% Minnesota to All Whom It May CpnCern: Whereas, Saratr Smith, of the City of St. Paul, and State of Minnesota, has delivered to the Probate Court of the County of Ramsey, an Instrument in writing purporting to be the !*ast Will and Testament of Thomas F. Smith, late of Ramsey County, Minnesota, de cedent, and filed therewith her peti tion to paid Probate Court, prayinp that the said instrument may be proved and admitted to probate and that Tet ters Testamentary be granted thereon to said Sarah Smith It Is Ordered, That said petition be heard and that, all persons Interested in said matter be cited and required to appear before this Court on Monday, the 8th day of February, 1915, at 10 o'clock a. m., or as soon thereafter as said matter can be heard, a the Pro bate Court Rooms, in the Court. House in the City of St. Paul, in said County, and show cause, ifiany they have, why said petition should not be granted and said Will admitted to probate and that this citation bo served by the publica tion thereof in The Catholic Bulletin according to law. and by mailing a copy of this citation at least 14 days l.efore safd day of hearing, to each of the heirs, devisees, legatees of said dece dent whose names and addresses are known and appear from the files of this Court. Witness the Judge of said Court, this 12th day of January, A. D.1!U5. E. W. BAZILJiB, Judge of Probate. (Seal of Probate Court.) Attest: F. W. Gosewlsch, Clerk of Probata. T. J. Doyle, Atty. INVESTORS SYNDICATE: 6% CERTIFICATE WHEftE DID LAST J. S. H1BBERT, Vie* Prwldint and Aimcy Manager, Investors Sixth Floor, Lincoln Building, Minna*polU, Minn. Bur Sir i I am int*r*ud im mm your Bond*. Mviwe md «mild Uko te ., ™,. i„ When we know that they are saying.? the "beads" for us at home. I have very many keepsakes as you well may know, For I am well remembered as the seasons come and go. And some I treasure dearly for the memories they recall, But the "pair of beads" from Ireland is the dearest one of all. Order for Creditors to Present Claims, Ktc. STATE OF MINNESOTA, COUNTY OF Ramsey, ss. Probate Court. In the Matter of the Estate of Mary Murawski, Deceased. Letters of Administration with Will Annexed on the Estate of Mary Mu« rawski. Deceased, late of the County of Ramsey and State of Minnesota, be ing granted Edward Kasmirski. It Is Ordered, That six months be and the same is heK^by allowed from and after the date of this Order, in which all persons having? claims or demands against the said dec6h.sed. are required to file the same in thff Probate Court of said County, for examination and allowance, or be forever ba»rred. It Is Further Ordered, Th&t the first Monday In August, 1915, at 1*? o'clock a. m., at a General Term of s£vd Pro bate Court, to be held at the £ourt House, in the City of St. Paul, in »'aid County, be and the same hereby is appointed as the time and place whfiv and where the said Probate Court wilr examine and adjust said claims and demands. And It Is Further Ordered, That no tice of such hearing be given to all creditors and persons interested in said Estate, by forthwith publishing this Order once in each week for three suc cessive weeks in The Catholic Bulletin, a legal newspaper printed and pub lished in said County. Dated at 8t. Paul this 25th day of January, 1915. By the Court: E. W. BAZFUkE, Judge of Probate. (Seal of Probate Court.) Doherty & McNally, Attys. 'j i Citation for Hearing on IVtltlOl for* Administration. STATE OF MINNESOTA. COUNTY OF Ramsey, ss. In Probate Court. In the Matter of the Estate of Michael Holleran, Decedent. The State of Minnesota to All "Whom It May Concern: The petition of Mary E. Holleran having been filed in this Court, repre senting that Michael Holleran, then a resident of the County of Ramsey, State of Minnesota, died intestate on the 25th day of December, 1914 stfjd praying that letters of administration of said estate be granted to Charles Fv Holleran It Is Ordered, That said petition be heard and that all persons interested in said matter be and hereby are cited and required to appear before this Court on Tuesday, the 23rd day of February, 1915, at 10 o'clock in the forenoon or as soon thereafter as said matter can be heard, at the Probate Court Room, in the Court House in the City of St. Paul, in said County, and show cause, if any they have, why said petition should not be granted and that this citation be served by the publica tion thereof in The Catholic Bulletin according to law. and by mailing a copy of this citation at least 14 aays before said day of hearing, to each of the heirs of said decedent whose names and addresses are known and appear from the flies of this Court. Witness the Judge of said Court, this 26th day of January, A. D- 1915. E. W. BAZIIXE, Jud£e of Probate. jSeal of Probate Court.) Attest: F. W. Gosewisch, Clerk of Probfcfa Willis & Cahill, Attys. Citation for Hearing Will. STATE OF MINNESOTA, COUNTY OF Ramsey, ss. In Probate Court. In the Matter of Proving the Alleged Last Will and Testament of William Itiordan, Decedent. Tho State of Minnesota to Ail Whom It Miiy Concern: Whereas, John Ireland of the City of Saint Paul and State of Minnesota, has delivered to the Probate Court of the County of Ramney, an instrument in writing purporting to be the I^ast Will and Testament and codicils thereto of William Riordan, late of Ramsey County, Minnesota, decedent, and filed therewith bis petition to said Probate Court, praying that the said instrument may be proved and admit ted to probate and that Letters Testa mentary be granted thereon to Cady Hayes of Danesboro. Minnesota, Ce celia Vaughan of Duluth, Minnesota, and John Ireland of Saint Paul, Min nesota It Is Ordered, That said petition be heard and that all persons interested in said matter be cited and required to appear before this Court on Tues day. the twenty-third day of February, 1915. at 10 o'clock a. m., or as soon thereafter as said matter can be heard, at the Probate Court Rooms, In the Court House in the City of St, Paul, in said County, and show cause, if any they have, why said petition nhould not be granted and said Will admitted to probate and that this citation be served by the publication thereof in Tho Cath olic Bulletin according to law, and by mailing a copy of this citation at least 14 days before said day of hearing, to each of the heirs, devisees, legatees of said decedent whose names and ad dresses are known and appear from the flies of this Court. Witness the Judge of said Court, this nineteenth day of January, A. D. 1915. E. W. BAZILLE, Judge of Probate. (Seal of Probate Court.) Attest: P. W. Gosewi«ch, Clerk of Probate. f. kaom bw almat CM9M fc Store closes 5»30 o'clock SI3-5I7 Nicollet Avenu*,Mimift*|»tta A specially interesting Comprising a group of dainty Danse frocks-— originally much higher priced—also a group of New Serge Frocks showing the early Spring style points for 1915—This Sale Price $10.00. Women's Taflleur Suits Featuring the newer fashionable colorings in the choicest of mid»wintjter materials—some of the models fur-trimmed. Original prices $75.00, $65.00, $55.00 to $45.00—this sale '00"X- Women*s Coats Newer models featuring the narrow shoul der with set-in sleeve and full flaring skirt— some have fur collar—come in winter's favored materials and colors. Bought to sell at $35.00, $29.50 aad:$25.00—this v sale $10.00. A PIG IN A POKE DO YOU KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT COAL? Somhody said "A little knovj^edge is a dangerous thing." But just the same a little knowledge, judgment and dis cretion in the purchase of coal would mean dollars in your pocket. v •. AT*. ESTABLISHED 189* MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA Therein* coal exactly stffted to your use. A coal that will yield you a maximum of heat, and a minimum of waste. That will save you labor, woriy and expense. The HANNA DEALER in your town can tell jfcfU ex attly the kind to fit your needs. Learn from him $bout coal. HANNA HARD COAL HANNA WHITE ASH LUMP HANNA BLUE GRASS BLOCK The M. X. Haniia Coal Co. SAINT PAUL MINNEAPOLIS DULUTH RICHARD MULLIN CONTRACTOR Plain and Ornamental Plastering Repair Work Promptly Attended to Tri-State Phone North 35S 2200 Oupant N., Minne»pelia Minn. YOU DON'T NEED TO HAVE A $1,000 TO BE A BOND BUYER. Many people think ft is necessary lor them to have a large surplus before they can invest in Bonds. This is a very mistaken idea. Anyone having $1,000 can buy one of our Coupon Bonds which pays 6% interest in cash every six months for the aext ten years and returns the principal at maturity date. These Certificates are issued in denominations of $100, $250, $500 and $1,000. It is the desire of this Company to serve the small investor as well as the large one. v I/ IwJ WE PAY 6% INTEREST WE GIVE 100% SECURITY. 91% all men arc dependent financially when they reach the age of 65. If the average man has not begun accumulating money when he reaches 40, the chances are that he will never acquire a competency. HOW IS IT WITH YOU? llAVE YOU PREPARED, OR ARE YOU PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE? It is better to sacrifice a little now than to want later. ixtUt 60? DID YOU SAVE 10% OF IT? IF MOT, YOU MADE A CBk^ li^iE. However, it is never too late to learn wisdop. The time to save money is while you aire, earning it. Write for our literatuae. It will interest you* v* Sale Price $10 ft JOHN J. DOWD OPTOMETRIST Expert Optical Service Fourth Floor MINNEAPOLIS DRY GOODS CO.