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(HJE5T16npb^5, ^^^NSWER. j5 In liiw deport mont, questions «f Kcnernl Interent in resnrd to religion will lie atiKucrcil encli week in tlx- order in wlileli tlicy sire received. All eoniniHiil cations iiuiNt l»e Nlcnril, tlioiijtii the mime will not he iiuIiIIhIumI. A«ldren«: "((iirNtiim «iil Answer," care The Catholic Bulletin, 315 \e»vton Blilg., St. 1'atil. What is circumcision? Is it neces sary for some to be circumcised? Circumcision was a religious rite established'in the old Covenant to dis timuinh the chosen people of God tiom all other nations. As a relisious' i o it ceased with the New Covenant tVt Jesus Christ established between v M| and man. If God is all powerful, why does He not destroy the devil? The devil was once an angel of lir.lit, to whom (»od gave immortality. Though the angel abused the gift he received from his Creator, God will not undo His own work, by destroying lite life that lie has given. Besides the devil, in his suffering for his Bins, is fin example of God's justice. What is the "Canon Layv"? Canon law is a fixed code of laws approved by the authorities of the Church for the right government of all things pertaining to the Church. if a student can not go to school and go to Mass on holy days of obligation, which should he do? Is he supposed to stay home from school in order to go to Mass? Tt is a sad fact, which priests, in iite of their best wishes, are forced t" admit, that the holy days of obliga tion are not observed in the religious manner that should obtain nor in the embolic spirit that formerly prevailed. net the reason of this unfortunate su ction implied in the above ques tion? Every child that has learned even •she elements oi. his catechism knows i hat. a holy day of obligation is to be served as the Sunday. The reason of this is plain. The same authority imposes the same obligation and at taches to it the same penalty in one se as in the other. In each case for a Catholic deliberately through his own fault to miss Mass is to be guilty of mortal sin. The scandal resulting from the sin may he greater in one e than in the other, but, in each e, the sin in itself is the same. it, is true that the Church does not hold to the observance of the law those who are ill, or those who would suffer some very grave loss for in stance, if a man by absenting himself from work on a holy day of obligation would be discharged from his employ ment, the one means of livelihood for himself and his family. In such a case, in order that the absolutely essential part of the law may be fulfilled, the Mass is put at an hour early enough to allow the workman to be present at Mass before beginning his day's toil. This does not mean, however, that the mind of the Church is satisfied by ing her members present at Mass .it an early hour on a holy day of obli gation. The Church wishes the whole day to be kept holy, the same as the Sunday, that no servile labor be done jii one case any more than in the other. Many reasons urge the Church to take this course. Her office is to teach the truth. The. mystery of faith com memorated on a holy day of obliga n is a part of the truth the Immao l.ito Conception of the Blessed Vir i Mary the birth of Christ the As -fusion of Christ, etc. These truths u-. not sufficiently taught to the peo rif by the priest announcing .the fes Jival, nor by the people assisting at in early Mass and then spending the luaindor of the day the same as any v. irk day. Further, we owe special gratitude and adoration to God be cause He has manifested this mystery of faith to us. A half-hour taken from the whole day can scarcely fulfill ade i lately this obligation. Again, to the Catholic heart the mystery of faith is the occasion of spiritual rejoicing. His mind and heart are lifted to God throughout the day. This cannot fit tingly be done when his face is turned toward tho earth in servile toil. The day is intended to be a day of rest from labor to be given to the works of religion, to be kept holy to the Lord. To come now directly to the ques tion proposed: Can a child be'ex pected to fulfill this obligation impos ed by the Church by going to school on a holy day could he be expected to learn anything of the mystery com memorated from his school teacher or his school books? If he goes to school on such a day could he be ex pected to distinguish very readily the holy day from any other day? How do we impress upon children, and keep alive in the land, the meaning of our independence as a nation? Is it not by making the day a civic holiday? Do you need to tell children when the Fourth of July is at hand, or what it means? The religious holy days should be equally and even more clear ly present, to the mirtd of the child. Let the child then spend the holy day as he would the Sunday .by assisting at Mass, listening to an instruction, having some hours of recreation, and a better dinner than usual for him will not be out of place. The Church gives us meat even on Friday, when the Fri day is a holy day of obligation. Not only then must the child go to Mass rather than to school on a holy day of obligation, but we believe that the child should not go to school even though he could at an earlier hour at tend Mass on such a day. The loss he will suffer by his ab sence from school will be insignificant and may very easily be recovered. In the whole school year there are at most only three holy days of obliga tion which are not at the same time civic holidays. One of these three oc casionally falls on a Saturday or a Sunday. That no permanent injury need be suffered is evident from the fact that Catholic schools which ob serve these days in a religious man ner do the same amount of work and go it as well or better than public schools. Granting even that the child will lose something by his absence from school, does he not lose more by his absence from Mass, religious in struction and the due observance of the whole day? Is not a knowledge of the faith and a love for it a greater blessing than even a knowledge of ge ography, or algebra? There are more and better things in the world than credits for work done in a school room. Georgia Bigots' Attacks Prove A Boomerang INVESTIGATION SHOWS THAT STATE TO BE SUPPORTING MANY DENOMINATIONAL SCHOOLS. The forces of bigotry in Georgia, in aiming to cripple Catholic education in that state, have overshot their mark. Recently the accusation was made that two Catholic schools in Savannah were receiving state aid "in violation of the policy of our government in regard to the use of state funds for denominational schools." The report reached Mr. Britain, superintendent of schools in Georgia, that the Chatham county board of education was aiding these two Catholic schools. It seems the Savannah schools were established prior to the Constitutional Convention of 1877, and formed an independent local system. However, the state su perintendent directed the superintend ent to see that no sectarian schools were illegally aided. The question was submitted to the attorney general, and it developed that some fifteen Protestant schools, six conducted by Methodists, six by Baptists, one by Presbyterians, etc., with the probabilities of many more, not only were receiving state aid for the conducting of the schools, but that the school buildings had been erected for those denominational schools and the grounds purchased with the state funds. Consternation spread in the Protestant camp when the attorney general announced to the state super intendent that if it was illegal for him to aid the two Savannah Catholic schools, the same rule would oblige him to withhold funds wherever church connections were found. The attorney general also ruled that the state superintendent could not legally withhold funds from the two Savan nah schools, through inability to antic ipate a violation of the law of 1877, although Mr. Walker regarded the ar rangement in violation of the policy of the government. Thereupon the superintendent sent notice last week that he would withdraw state aid from all denominational schools. The Methodist and Baptist schools especially have been hard hit a great many more schools are concerned therein than mentioned, and the legal ity of "the high schools of Georgia under the constitution will be brought into the case. At any rate, the sweep ing changes that will be made, will involve great financial loss and the possible closing of many schools. Thus has the fierce anti-Catholic war waged against two Catholic schools in Savannah resulted in a grand ex pose of how Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians were receiving large sums from the state for the support of their schools, and in some instances these schools will now be compelled to close their doors. THE BISHOP OF GAP AN APOSTOLIC PRELATE AS MILI TARY CHAPLAIN. It was my good fortune to meet the other day a bishop who is now play ing the part of an apostle at the front, writes the Paris correspondent of the Catholic Times. By reason of his age, Mgr. de Llobet, Bishop of Gap, the youngest Bishop in France, was "conscriptioned" lately and appointed infirmarian in a military hospital at Perpignan, his native city. He right ly judged that, if obliged by the mili tary regulations to leave his post at Gap, he owed it to his priesthood to solicit a more useful employment than that of infirmarian in a hospital in Southern France. He therefore asked to be appointed military chaplain at the front, and he fills the post to per fection. Small and slight, a gentle man and an apostle, absolutely devot ed to the soldiers among whom his lot is cast, the Bishop is bravely and brightly performing his new duties. The other day, however, he had occa sion to remember that he is still a bishop. He was at that time in Alsace, where a "cure," hearing that there was a bishop among the army chaplains, begged him to give Confirmation to the children of a certain village who, since August, 1914, had been waiting to receive the Sacrament. Communi cations are difficult in the "zone des armees" and these little ones, in their out-of-the-way home, had small chance of being confirmed before the end of the war. Mgr. de Llobet willingly re sponded to the request. As a chap' lain at the front he had no need of a mitre and a crozier and a soldier* priest was despatched on a motor* cycle to the nearest bishop to borrow both, articles. He returned safely and arrayed in his borrowed mitre, Mgr. de Llobet gave Confirmation to a crowd of happy children. The church, it seems, was filled to overflowing. All the military chiefs, from the general downwards, were present the distant sound of the German artillery accom panied the singing and only added to the impressiveness of the occasion Mgr. de Llobet, a popular and success ful military chaplain, is, above all else a pastor of souls, and the interests of his mountainous diocese of Gap re main close to his heart. He returns there whenever he has a few days' leave ana sadly notices how great a void is created by his absence and by that of many soldier-priests. FAMOUS IRISH NAMES DESCENDANTS OF FORMER LEAD ER# Aft E FOUND IN PRESENT WAR. Some English newspapers, dealing with the sacrifices of Ireland in the war, comment on the frequency with which Irish names crop up in the Gazette (and in the honors and casu alty lists) which have historical asso ciations. Relatives of almost every distinguished Irish Nationalist who figured in either the constitutional or the revolutionary Irish movements for the last century and a half are or have been fighting in the British Army in the present war. Prominent examples are relatives—in some cases direct descendants—of Grattan, Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Robert Emmet, Daniel O'Connell, William Smith O'Brien, Lord Russell of Killowen, Charles Stewart Parnell, and, of course, John Redmond. Lieutenant T. M. Kettle's death supplies the latest instance. One of the most in teresting examples of the kind has just .been revealed by the death in the recent operations of Captain Harvey Lloyd, of the Royal Irish Regiment, who was killed in the whirlwind Irish charge which took Guillemont. He was a lineal descendant of Bagenal Harvey, a county gentleman of Wex ford, who led the insurgents of that county in the rising of 1798 and was executed for his share in the revolt. CHRISTIAN MARTYRS TURKISH MASSACRE OF SYRO CHALDEANS. The following letter, says the Lon don Tablet, has been received by Cardinal Bourne from the Chaldean Bishop, Mgr. Jacques Manna, of Van: The barbarous massacres made by the Turks on the Christians of the East are by now known to all. The Armenians and the Syro-Chaldeans especially have suffered. Though the difference between these two nations is little understood either in Europe or in America, they differ radically as to race, tongue, and rite. it is admitted that the Armenians have suffered the greatest atrocities at the hands of the Turks. Yet they have been, perhaps, less unfortunate than the Syro-Chaldeans. They have been succored by aid from Europe and America, and have several very rich merchants among them in the Cau casus. But up to the present no one has thought of bringing aid to the latter, who are dispersed through Tur key and Persia. It is in the hope, fhen, of bringing their miseries before the eyes of the English that I ask your Eminence to allow me to publish'some of the evils which have fallen upon my people. It is my lot to be Bishop and Patriarchal Vicar at Van, and the only Bishop of my people who has escaped from the Turks. Since the spring of 1915 the most frightful massacres have taken place in the provinces of Diarbakir, of Bit lis, of Charponti, and of Van, where there are more than three hundred thousand Syro-Chaldeans, in addition to the many hundreds of thousands who belong to the provinces of Mor soul and of Bagdad in Turkey and to the provinces of Eurmiah and of Salmas in Persia. These have suffered unspeakable horrors. Thousands of women and young girls have been for cibly taken away by the Mussulmans and horribly violated. Many young people have been forced to become perverts to Islamism pillage every where, houses and villages 'burnt and destroyed, churches desecrated and overturned, and those of my people who have escaped are now dispersed in Persia or in Russia, where they are being decimated by famine and disease. Among the victims may be named Mgr. Salomon, the Chaldean Arch bishop of Diarbakir, burnt alive in petrol Mgr. James Abraham, the Chaldean Archbishop of Djarzireh, of the same province, massacred with his clergy Mgr. Abraham Chimoniteh, Bishop of Hakari, in the province of Van, who was forced to fly to the mountains, and died there of hunger and exposure Mgr. Thomas, Bishop of Atel, in the province of Bitlis, also brutally killed Mgr. Addai Cheir, Bishop of Seert, in the same province, who is now a refugee among the Kurds and many hundreds of priests who have been victims of similar bar oarities. A great part of my people, with their Patriarch and several 'bishops, are in the hands of the Turks. I have not heard of their massacre, but I know only too well that what goods they had left have been taken from them, that the men have been forced into the Turkish Army, and that the women and children are in the direst distress. May I not ask for pity on those mis erable ones—men, women, and chil dren—for whom I plead for help? It is for this that I have made a dan gerous and sad voyage, and now ask the help of all those who can pity distress. CARD OF THANKS The Sisters and boys of the Minne apolis Catholic Orphan Boys' Home wish to express their gratitude to the many generous benefactors and loyal friends who have been constant in their kindly activities throughout the severe winter so far. Their thought ful generosity, particularly during the holidays, added much to the simple joys of that holy season and merited the grateful prayers atyke of Sisters and orphans. THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, JANUARY 27, 1917 CHRISTMAS AT THE FRONT HOW THE MINNESOTA TROOPS SPENT THE HOLIDAYS—CATHO LIC SPIRIT PERVADED THE CAMP —FR. HARRINGTON DE SCRIBES SCENES. Rev. W. J. Harrington, of St. Paul, who is with the Minnesota troops at the Texas border, has sent us the fol lowing letter. He tells of the fervor that actuated the troops at Christmas time. Llano Grande, Texas. Jan. 16,1917. Reverend and dear Father:' I am sending you an account of our Christmas celebration on the border. Despite the fact that we were far away from home, at a time when most peo ple make a special effort to be with their own families and friends, we had a very pleasant Christmas. It is difficult for us Northerners to enter into the spirit of Christmas here in the South where the festivities take the form of a Fourth of July celebra tion—fireworks and illuminations of all kinds. But our boys adapted them selves to the spirit of the locality, and made as much noise as the rest, like real sons of the South. One of the greatest drawbacks to our Christ mas was the almost intense heat it was so warm that one could not com fortably remain outside. One of the boys said he would give the whole state of Texas for as much snow as would make an ordinary Minnesota snowball. The boys decorated our little chapel with large palm branches, Christmas bells and mistletoe. WTe had midnight Mass and all the pomp and ceremony of a large city church. Our choir, under the able direction of Lieut. Slater, assisted by a full orches tra, sang all the Christmas hymns. NEW BANK'S DEPOSITS $205,000 OPENING DAY. Deposits in the National Exchange bank, which opened Monday, January 22, aggregated $205,000. It was one of the most successful opening days of any bank in St. Paul. J. B. Galarneault, president, said no state, county or city funds were included in the deposits. The officers of the National Ex change bank expect to pass the $500, 000 mark this week. The new insti tution is located in the banking rooms in the New York Life building, which formerly were occupied by the Second National bank and the Merchants National bank. Mr. Galarneault, the president*, comes from Aitkin, Minn., where lie conducted a successful banking bus iness for twenty years. Whgn the office of State Superintendent of Banks was created by the Minnesota Legislature he was appointed Superin tendent by ex-Goverijor Johnson, which is a high testimonial to his abil ity and integrity. Mr. Nienhauser, the vice president, has been in the banking business all his life, starting as a young man with the First National Bank, St. Paul, and remaining with that institution for thirty-six years. He was also one of the organizers of the National Bank of Commerce, holding the position of cashier. He resigned from this insti tution early in 1 1. on account, of ill ness. After regaining his health he became associated with the National Exchange Bank which he helped to organize. Mr. Nienhauser is well known in St. Paul business and bank ing circles. Mr. A. L. Roth, for twenty-five years with the Second National Bank, after wards State Bank Examiner, and The chapel was crowded with men, both Catholic and non-Catholic every available space was taken, in fact a large number attended Mass by ar ranging places on the outside of the building, near the open windows. Nor did the boys forget the real signifi cance of the Feast, and a very large number received Holy Communion. 1 heard confessions Sunday afternoon, in the evening from seven till twelve, and again in the morning before the Masses. People who live in the cities where they have every facility for re ligious services seldom think what it would mean were they deprived of the consolations of religion even for a time we do not fully appreciate all that our religion means to us until access to it is rendered difficult. The eagerness with which the boys here avail themselves of every opportunity to partake of the fruits of religion, and their gratitude, are ample reward for any inconvenience or hardship one must, undergo. We are very grateful to the people of St. Paul for their kindly interest in us and for their efforts in making our stay here, especially at Christmas time, a pleasant one. In a particular manner we are indebted to the Knights of Columbus who have not only erected splendid buildings for our services, but who have so efficiently looked after our welfare and comfort in many ways. We wish to thank the various councils of the Knights of Co lumbus throughout the state for their generous donations to our "Comfort Fund," by which we were enabled to have many entertainments and pleas ant evenings, and also give to each departing regiment, a "royal send-off." Praying God to bless all our friends and benefactors, I am, Reverend Father, At J. GALARNEAULT. President THOMAS McDERMOTT, Attorney Oonegre &• MeDermott J. NORMAN STORK, President Kuhlea & Stock Co. HON. WM. E. LEE. Cashier Bank of Lonff Prairie, Long Prairie, Minn. SEORGE i. A NIENHAUSER, Vice-President M. DEEK3. ,• Deeks, Deeks SAMUEL Q. Th & Smith, Railroad Contractors JVGRSON. Former State Auditor Faithfully yours, W. J. HARRINGTON. more recently Secretary of the Free man Shoe Company, is cashier. Mr. Roth having been born and raised in St. Paul, is better known among the younger element being a member of most of our prominent societies and clubs, his friends are legion. Mr. Roth is a member of the St. Paul Council, No. 397, Knights of Columbus, of which he served as Treasurer for several years. If the phoenix of common sense rises from the ashes of a fool's money the conflagration lias not been in vain. STATE OP MINNESOTA, COUNTY OF llamsey, ss. In Probate Court. In tho Matter nf Proving the Alleged Last Will and Testament of Peter Carroll, I iccedent. The State ot' Minnesota to All Whom It May Concern: Whereas. John Coates of the City of St. Paul and State of Minnesota has delivered to the Probate Court of the County of Ramsey, an instrument in writing purporting- to be a duly authen ticated copy of the Last Will and Tes tament of Peter Carroll, late of the City of St. Paul and State of Minne sota, deceased and of the Probate there of and tiled therewith his petition to said Probate Court, praying- that the said instrument may be proved and admitted to probate and that betters Testamentary be granted thereon to said .lohn Coates. It Is Ordered, That said petition be heard and that all -persons interested is said matter be oitec! and required t'» appear before this Court on Monday, the 2Hth day of February. 1017. at 10 oVIork A. M.. or as soon thereafter as said matter can be heard, at the. Pro bate Court Rooms in the Court House in the City of St. Paul in said County, and show cause if any they have, why said petition should not be granted and Kaid will admitted to probate and that this citation be served by the publica tion thereof in The Catholic Bulletin according to law. Witness the Judge of said Court this 23rd day of January. A. D. 1917. (Seal of. Probate Court.) E. Wr. RAZILLE, let Judge of Probate. t: I'. W. Gosevviseh, Clerk of Probate. T. J. Doyle, Atty. NATIONAL EXCHANGE BANK OF SAINT PAUL Capital $300,000.00 Surplus $75,000.00 ANNOUNCES THAT IT IS OPEN FOR BUSINESS in its banking quarters on the ground floor of the New York Life Building, and respectfully invites you to BE AN EARLY DEPOSITOR This Bank Offers E^ery Financial Service—Checking Account, Savings Account, Letters of Credit, etc., etc. THIS BANK COMBINES THOSE FEATURES WHICH APPEAL ALIKE TO ALL CENTRAL LOCATION: Easy of acccss from home and business. ADEQUATE QUARTERS: Eliminates unnecessary delay in transacting EFFICIENT STAFF: your affairs. ,,, •. MODERN EQUIPMENT: Assuring promptness and accuracy in handling accounts. J. 13. GALARNl8 fULT. President F. A. NIENHAUSER, Vice-President Prices from TO THE PEOPLE OF ST. PAUL AND NORTHWEST SPECIAL DEPARTMENT FOR LADIES O I E S A. L. ROTH, cashier C. G. LINNELL, Assistant I E O S FRANK YOERG, President Yoerg Brewing Co. A. L. ROTH. Cashier M. U FINKELSTEIN, Capitalist D. E. BLAKE. Vice-President Citizens' Bank of Lisbcm, Lisbon. N. D. C. G. L1NNELL. Assistant Cashier JOHN A. HARTIGAN. Superintendent of Agents, Equitable Life Insurance Co. ...... ... .» BENJAMIN T. GOLDMAN, Capitalist? rr Help lis Get Ready for Baptism, i Who wants to become Godfather or Godmother to a little negro boy or girl in Africa? You can send the baptismal offering, $5.00, to the Sodality of St. Peter Claver fop the African Missions, Fullerton Building, St. Louis, Mo. This small sum pays for the support of the child at the Mission School while it is being prepared for baptism. The Godparent chooses the name the child is to bear. Will you refuse to be instrumental in bringing the great gift of Faith to one of these poor African children? SHUBERT ADAPTED FROM THF GERMAN SHUBERT STOCK COMPANY IN LEW FIELD'S COMEDY SUCCESS THE HIGH COST OF LOVING Introducing N©w Xwo-tomi© For Sports and Tailleur Wear New Spring Fashions call for softer, more graceful lines in petticoats and what could answer the purpose more at tractively than silk Jersey? Fanciful color effects are produced in the flounces which as a rule are knife plaited. The new soft taffeta petticoats may also be had in the bright, light colorings so typical of PETTICOAT SHOP- THIRD FLOOR WANTED: Girl to help with housework on farm, beginning March 1 woman with one child will be con sidered. Address Mrs. James Lunney, Larimore, N. D., Box 113. CARNIVAL mm MATINEE DAILY Matinee Spring— HAIRDRESSER Elizabeth Clark, Hairdresser, will make you a three stem switch for $2.00. Mail your combings to 730 EAST 25TH ST., MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA. mPm TIT itHT II U .: „.. iaU .ilten- tion you will find a noticeable factor here. OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS: "Business executives" who will assist you in every way consistent with sound banking principles. Cashier J. B. FOREST, Capitalist HON. 8. B. NELSON. Nelson Bros., Merchants, Luverne, A. C. JEFFERSON. Jefferson Lumber I. ill I Minn. Co. C. I. JOHNSON. President C. Johnson Mfg. Foley, Minn. Co. LUDGER E. FOCQUETTE, Vice-President State Bank of Foley, E. VILLAUME, Treasurer VHlaume & Lum*bfer Co.