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awn*! O^fT/ RInAL POPULAR APOLOGETICS. Adapted from the German of Peter Niikes, S. J., by Rev. James Walcher. Rev. LXXXI1I. Criminal Statistics. Objection: Criminal statistics prove that year in year out the same number bf crimes is committed, the same number of matrimonies contracted knd dissolved anil the number of illvorced women isi Biore constant than that of the widows who have lost their, husbands by death. Suicides increase from winter to summer and decrease from summer to winter. Such and similar regularities prove that human actions rest not on free will but on natural law, on necessity. To have proved this is the great merit of the Italian crimonologist Lombroso (t 1909) and the Belgian liolitiial economist Laveleye (t 1S92), and others. Answer: First of all this regularity of crimes is not by any means as r.reat as here claimed. There are variations from 10 to 50 per cent. This being so, how can there be talk of law and regularity? Of course, there are causes for such variations, but these causes are not so much of a physical as of a moral nature. They work therefore riot mechanically, not with a certain result, on man, but through the mediation of free will. For example, suicides, other things being equal, are by far more frequent among Protestants than Catholics, whereas the physical conditions of both denominations are hardly differ ent, hence there must be a moral or tree reason. We gladly concede that man, though free, does not always use his liberty, but is carried away by the stream of habit, the power of public opinion, i he inclination of humor, mood and passion. For a more exhaustive treatise of this side of the question we must refer the reader to the instructive book of Rev. Dr. August Iluber, Die llemmnisse der Willensfreiheit—The Hindrances to the Freedom of the Will—where the individual, social, and pathological hindrances are dis cussed, and where moral statistics ihe problem of crime, force, the so called moral insanity, hysterics, mono mania, melancholy, etc., are treated as affecting the freedom of the will. From all this the fact of this agree ment of action is sufficiently clear especially if the irregularities, arising lrom individual, free decision, are equalized by their great number. It is moreover a big logical blunder tr» invert the correct sentence: "What happens necessarily, happens regu larly" into: "What happens regular ly, happens necessarily." Some monastic people, lor example, rise regularly at four in the morning. Are ihev, therefore, not free in this .usage? It is correct to say: "A normal man has eyes," but it is not correct to say: "Whatever has eyes is a normal man." Cf. Hammerstein, Gottesbeweise— 33roofs for the Existence of God—p. L'10 ff.). Father Cathrein, S. J., in his monu mental work, Moralphilosophie—Moral Philosophy—II. G43, writes: "The Hcliool of Lombroso has today lost its credit, because its assertions (criminal type, criminal nature) are contrary to facts. Already at the Criminal Anthropological Congress at Paris ,* 1889) and at Brussels (1892) tlul view of Lombroso was almost universally rejected as untenable. Also Dr. Ru dolph Virchow (t 1902), one of the greatest authorities on this and simi lar questions at the Medical Congress in Rome (1894) condemned it, also Baer in the February Session (1S94) of the Berlin Anthropological So ciety." HER BETTER NATURE. (Written for The Catholic Bulletin by John F. O'Leary.) Tap, tap, tap, came the old familiar knock on Father Tom's study door, just as he had finished matins and lauds for the day, and, without any further hesitancy,—not even awaiting .(lie accustomed "Come in," in swept Mary, the housekeeper, quite uncere moniously she seemed so unusually jubilant this morning that the good Itriest surmised something quite be yond the ordinary to have happened, for never in all his years as pastor of St. Columbkille's, had he beheld so triumphant a smile spread over the usually stern features of his punc tilious and austere domestic. It was the dictum of the whole dio .cese that this particular Mary held a very conspicuous place among the in dependent ones of her kind, and, not •infrequently had she received the appellation of "old vixen." This espe cially was the case among the younger generation of Father Tom's parish, .who made many and varied comments on Mary's pugnacity but, whatever the truth of these accusations may be, suffice it to say that she was a fear Jess character and not in the le&st susceptible to intimidation it Was fven said of her that, if the occasion required, she could strike fear into old "Nick" himself. Few escaped lier poignant tirades, and the more so, if they had been lax or careless in their religious duties. During his seminarian days Father Tom had devoted himself most studiously to his books he had at tended annual retreats and had lis tened to eloquent missionaries in their terrible descriptions of hell he had read the Lives of the Saints and many other holy works, but never, as -he liimself frankly admitted, did he realise what a dreadful place hell ac tually is, until one day vl*© was passing ff lit •l^p* LITURGICAL A the parlor door, he overheard Mary, in her own voluble and forcible way, discoursing on the "Four Last Things" to a wayward one of the parish, who had come to the rectory to take the pledge. Father Tom arrived on the scene just as Mary was delivering the preroration of her sermon, and he caught-these warning words:. "I'll let ye see Father Toon this time, but mark me words, if ever agin ye take a drop, may the divil himself conduct ye tQ ,Uje liuraing ab^ss." ji U Well, to revert to' the sccne in Fa ther Tom's study. It did not surprise him in the least to find himself so in formally disturbed by his intrepid housekeepr, for it was one of Mary's most saliant characteristics to be in formal, especially if one of his parish ioners was ill, and had sent for his reverence on such occasions nothing stayed her, not even if Father Tom were ill himself she would help him into his long frock coat, and, handing him his old blackthorn stick, tell him to hasten as quickly as possible lest the sick person should die without the consolations of religion, for after all, Mary was as solicitous about the sal vation of others as she was prone to lecture. When Father Tom looked up from his breviary which still lay opened on his writing table, he took occasion of the apparent titillation of Mary's face to be somewhat jovial, so he greeted her with a pleasant good morning. "Good morning, yer reverence, and sure ye read yer breviary already?" inquired Mary. "Yes, I've just finished," answered Father Tom, as a -broad smile stealthily crept over his big, rotound features. "Thin may the good Lord he praised agin," said Mary, "for I've got good news to tell yer reverence. Do ye remimber old Misther Dugan, the old sinner who never went to church, not even to his dhuty at Asther time, he who do be always tilling me that there is no God?'' "Yes, I remember Mr. Dugan, in fact it was just a few days ago I saw him hobbling down the street. "What's happened to him, Mary?" asked her good pastor. "Well, yer reverence, 'tis a most miraculous thing indeed," replied .Marv, "to think that that old atheist has held out all these years aginst the* good God and now (but 'tis like the rest of his kind) he wants to ses yer reverence and that immadeatly, too, so be quick now and see that the old fellow makes his Asther dhuty." It seems that one fine spring morn ing as Mary was passing the old dilapidated home that had sheltered Dugatn for many a" year, she "irfet the! old man as he was coming out of the front gate, and the following brief controversy took place. "Good morning, Misther Dugan," began Mary, and before he had time to respond, she questioned him as to how he was feeling and whether he was still of the opinion that there is no God. To this last question Dugan gave answer. "Yes, and I'll be of that some opinion till the day of me death." "So ye will, ye old sinner, but mark me words, on that day ye'll change yer opinion," came the prophetic an swer, as they both went their respec tive ways. It had finally eventuated thus, wheri Mary presented herself in Father Tom's study, a year or so later. She knew the old man had run his course, that shortly he would be summoned before the terrible judgment seat of God, there to behold in all the splendor of His Majesty Him Whom he had so carelessly neglected here below she also ]|new that her prophecy had been fulfilled—that the old man had changed his opinion, as her last in terview with him had assured her. This was the reason of her jubilation —the cause of her triumphant smile, for by her own simple admonitions and persevering prayers she had won back to God the soul of the wanderer. She had, unnoticed by others, visited the old man several times during his illness, and each visit was like that of a good angel. She- not only told him about the Good Shepherd, and "how Jesus had pardoned the good thief, but like the guarding angel she was, she never Qeased to beg of the Sacred Heart and His Sorrowful Mother to take pity upon this unfor tunate man. When Father Tom entered the room where lay the dying penitent, his eyes first met those of old Dugan, then, turning toward a small table in the corner of the room, he noticed that it contained several old, dust covered volumes. Upon examining these he was not surprised to find that they were philosophies denying the existence of God. These had'been the religion of this poor soul since his younger days—a religion which could not afford hixri a single consolation in his dying hour. It was a pitiable sight that presented itself to the gaze of the good ptiest there befQre him lay a decrepit old man, upon whose brow Time had set his seal his silvery locks and corrugated countenance bespoke a story all their own and, as the shadows of eternity fell slowly over the pale, emaciated features of the now repentant prodigal, Father Tom prepared his soul to meet its God, by administ(ying to him the last rites of our holy Faith. It was an easier task than the good priest had expected—for Mary had already pre pared the way. She may haye been cold, cross, at times harsh and eccentric, but she Jiad a better nature with .which you and I cannot credit ourselves, unless we are interested, in the. salvation of others —admonishing those over whom i wf have any influence, and praying that they m^y not deter their Bastewivity till it is too late, or put off their con version, till they fall into the hands of the living God. THE PASSION IN "Then came Jesus with them to a country place which is called Gethse mani, and He said to His disciples: Sit you here, till I go yonder and pray. And taking with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, He be gan to grow sorrowful and to be sad. Then He said to them: My soul is sorrowful even unto death stay you here, and watch with me. And going a little further He fell upon His face praying, and saying: 'O my Father! if it is possible, let this chalice pass from me. Nevertheless, not $$ will, but as Thou wilt.'" These words of Holy Writ are a motif frequently treated in art. St.: Mark's Church in Venice possesses among its artistic treasures a mag nificent composite mosaic dividing the subject into four distinct scenes. Ac cording to a well authenticated tradi tion the church was begun in the year S30, in the Roman basilica style, to harbor the relics of St. Mark brought over from Alexandria by the Vene tians. Rebuilt in 976 after a disastrous fire, it was gradually transformed into a Byzantine edifice, with all the wealth and elaborate ornamentation of the style. The fifteenth century witnessed the addition of Gothic ele ments, so that the magnificent struc ture actually represents the historic evolution of many centuries of Chris tian architecture. The mosaics repre senting scenes from the Passion, in particular Christ in the garden of olives, are in the southern and east ern parts they date back to the twelfth century. Still older are the mosaics of St. Apollinare, in Ravenna, dating back to the sixth century. The art exhibited in them is more primi tive on the other hand, they do not possess the original freshness of the Venetian mosaics, because of the alto gether loo evident efforts of the re storer. Christ is seen praying on a rock, surrounded by eleven apostles. Rocky cliffs to the right and left are meant to indicate Mount Olivet. One of the sacred spots of Chris tian art is the famous convent of St. Mark in the city of Florence. A hum ble Dominican monk it was, Fra An gelico da Fiesole, who created this sanctuary of art. The fresco repre senting Christ in the garden of olives (fifteenth century), is a composite scene: on the upper right Christ in prayer in the center Peter, James and John sleeping in the left corner Mary and Martha in contemplation The deeply religious mysticism of the scene is one of the most exquisite flowers of medieval art. A distinctive feature of the great scene is the addition of the instru ments of the Passion since the end of the fifteenth century. A German woodcut of the period shows them distributed around the rocks. A- Tin toretto, a Corregio and a Guido Reni, all of 1 he sixteenth century, wrestle with the great technical problem of the distribution of darkness and light, another distinctive departure from the customary treatment of the subject. In German art Albrecht Duerer (sixteenth century) displays the great est versatility in the treatment of the theme. In his so-called "Small Pas sion" the emphasis is laid on the scriptural: Nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt. The "Great Pas sion," on the other hand, emphasizes the prayer: If it is possible, let this chalice pass from me. Possibly the most striking is the scene from the so-called copper-etching Passion, an unsurpassed and thoroughly original motif. Christ is seen stretching out his arms in prayer, writhing in agony at the sight of the cross an angel is holding up before him. A wealth of detail is crammed into the relatively small frame of the engraving. Mount Olivet with its scraggly vegetation, the apostles sleeping in the fore ground in postures of absolute aban don, the dark background broken by the luminous apparition of the angel carrying the cross, the river Cedron winding around, the base of the moun tain, and in the distance the gates and towers of Jerusalem. The casual be holder is slow to realize the consum mate mastery and intense concentra tion of the composition, used as he is to the familiar scene. Passing over into Spain we encoun ter Murillo's masterpiece, a symphony in light against the glorious back' ground of his native country. The technical problem is solved in a mas terly manner, though perhaps at the expense of the religious import of the subject. Best known of Murillo's work is the "Immaculate Conception." The greatest of Spanish religious painters, and one of the greatest Madonna painters of all times. Murillo died in 1082. A monumental sculptured group by the Spaniard Zarcillp (1707-1781) emphasizes the sorrpw of Christ, and the consolation of the divine Victim by an angel. How do modern masters depict the gripping theme? The German Ed ward von Gebhardt follows the an cient models, but not all the way. Christ has arisen from prayer, and is seen working his way through the un derbrush to the pl^ce where the apos tles are sleeping. The beholder is struck by the absence of genuine re ligious feeling. The work might be termed an almost photographic repro' duction, astonishing the spectator by its life-likeness and its fidelity to an actual scene. True r&ligious art is the Russian Bruni's Christ in Prayer. The Saviour is seen kneeling with His hands resting.on a rock the chalice of sorrow appears above Him unsup ported in a mellow blaze of light, a well known ang justly popular work. —Reo. E. Frederl k THE SPLENDID GODMOTHER. In an apologue by Jean Reboul, "the baker-poet of Nimes," two poor peas ants are represented as in great dis tress they cannot find a godmother for their infant the priest is waiting, but no one will accept so humble a re sponsibility. Suddenly appears a latly THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, MAY 19. 1917 clad in black and deeply veiled, who offers her services to the poor couple. Thus she addresses them: I will hold him at the font Care he shall not know nor want, Pain, nor grinding poverty. Palaces shail be his dwelling Hails of light and jeweled splgpdor3 Sun and moon and stars excelling! Yet his heart shall still be tender For the lowly mother, father, For the dear ones that ahide Till the sundering veil divide, Till his earnest prayer shall gather The beloved to his side. The parents hear and believe they entrust their infant to the stranger's arms the baptism is accomplisfeecl, but straighway after •. To the sun he scarce had known Gently closed the little eyes Softly ceased the little breath. Godmother has brought her own To a home beyond the skies For the Godmother was—Death. VALUE OF GOOD READING. Good reading supplies the mind with its proper food it increases our knowledge. Good reading inspires the heart and stimulates our will to action. Good reading satifies our longing for the great and beaut^ul. Cultured men of all times have un derstood and appreciated the value of books and reading. Aristotle, the great Grecian philosopher, paid 72, 000 sestercia lor a few books of Speu sippus. He read with avidity the books which his royal friend, Alexan der the Great, sent him. Alexander himself kept a copy of Homer under his pillow so as to have it at hand every morning. St. Jerome carried all his books with him into the desert and guarded them as his greatest treasures. The great Bossuet daily read the books of the old Fathers of the Church and found in them his highest inspiration. Abraham Lin coln had no chance to go to school, but books were his dearest friends and the founders of his future great ness. The author of the "Imitation of Christ," Thomas aKempis, said that he had nowhere found greater pleasures than in "hoekens and "boekens," which means in the woods and in books. Thus we see that the intellectual giants of all times have loved books. Good reading supplements and of ten replaces the school. The school cannot do more than teach how to study, lay the foundation, give hints and impart the rudiments of science Books read outside the school must enlarge and deepen the knowledge acquired. Many men who in their! youth did not have a chance to go to school, or at least not to college, have by diligent and persevering reading, reached astonishing .high positions in the world of letters. A good ex ample of this kind is Louis Veuillot, the famous French Catholic writer and defender of the faith, who could only attend the primary school of a suburb of Paris, and that only until he was thirteen years old. At that early age he (entered the office of a lawyer as a clerk. His fellow clerks were very active young men, who in their leisure hours studied the great masters," wrote and per formed dramatic pieces and sought in every way to enlarge their knowl edge. Louis read all the books his friends procured for him carefully and with pen in hand and grammar at his side. He was hardly seventeen when he began,.his journalistic ca reer. When twenty-five years old he made a journey to Rome, was con verted to Catholicity, and from that hour his genius, his pen and his heart were dedicated to the cause of God and His Church. He soon became editor of the "Univers," and remain ed the great Cathoiic leader until his death in .1883. And what besides his natural talent had given him his jS^'E A SAINT FOR THE WEEK. ST. THEODOTUS, MARTYR, Theodotus was an innkeeper at Ancyra, in Asia Minor. He was a married man, but given to prayer and mortification, and on fire with zeal for souls. He led many sinners to penance, many Jews and heathen to the knowledge of Christ and God set His seal upon his sanctity by mira cles, for his prayers healed the sick. In the persecution of Diocletian he confirmed the faith of the confessors by prayer and good advice. He made even his occupation an outlet for his zeal. His inn was a place of shelter for the Christians and he furnished the bread and wine for the Holy Sacrifice, at a time when by a special edict of the Emperor all that was sold in the market Was contaminated by heathen rites It was liis zeai for souls which' won him the crown of martyrdom. Seven Christian virgins had been apprehend ed, ~"d Theodotus remained praying for the m, till he got the news of their victory. Next night one of these virgin martyrs appeared to him, told him how to recover her own body and those of her companions, and assured him that his own end was near. He did indeed recover the sacred relics but in doing so he was betrayed by an apostate Christian. He died in the year 303, after awful torments, strengthened and confirmed by Jesus Christ, Himself the zealous Lover of souls. God rewards our prayers for our brethren by inspiring them to pray for us in the hour of our need. Be fore Theodotus went to his trial God permitted him to spend a long time with his brethren who prayed that, he might' finish his course with joy, and then parted from him with many tears. Their prayers strengthened him for the combat, and enabled him to labor even in the midst of his sufferings for the souls of others. He was torn with hooks and burnt with torches vinegar was poured into his wounds. "See," he said, "how Christ can make a man of low condition vic torious over princes." And pointing to his Wounds, he told the people "to look at the sacrifice we must offer for Christ, Who first suffered for us." position? Chiefly his indefatigable and methodical reading, by which he gradually mastered literature, theology, philosophy, Latin and the natural sciences. —Christian Famllp. THE SYMBOLISM OF FLOWERS. What are flowers good for? For re ligious symbolism. The Bible ife an arboretum, a divine conservatory. To illustrate the brevity of the brightest human life you will quote from Job, "A man cometh forth as a flower and is cut down." Flowers have no grander use than when on Easter morning we celebrate the reclamation of Christ from the catacombs. And so I twist all the festal flowers of all the churches of America with all the festal flowers of chapels and cathe drals of all Christendom into one great chain, and with that chain bind the Easter mornings of our lives with the closing Easter of ttoe ^world's history of the resurrection! ~*Rev. De Witt Talmadge. We do not always realize when we are helping another. Perhaps just at the time when we feel sorry and dis couraged, because we can do so little, our influence is making some one kinder or braver or more pure in heart. If* we are trying our best to do right ourselves, we are helping somebody somewhere,, even though we know nothing about it. 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