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CATHOLIC WAR WORK IS SUM Another important result of this committee's work was the securing of official recognition in welfare work for the Catholic women of the country, •with the right to erect visitors' houses in the camps and undertake welfare •work overseas. The committee also secured Catholic representation on the general committees which discussed and moulded national welfare and re construction policies. Rev. John C. Burke. C. S. P., was chairman of the committee. CATHOLIC PROMISE FULFILLED MARIZED IN RECENT REPORT- NEARLY 15,000 CATHOLIC SOCI ETIES CO-OPERATED IN TRI UMPH. A splendid record of patriotic Cath olic achievement is presented in a re port issued by the National Catholic "Welfare Council's Committee on Spe cial War Activities under the title "The Promise Fulfilled." It is a rec ord of gigantic war and reconstruc tion tasks accomplished by American Catholic men, women, and children, acting under the direction and advice of the administrative bishops of the council. No one would have thought it possi ble within a period of eighteen months to list, co-ordinate, and bring into ac tion the membership of 14,673 Catholic societies. This task, however, was ac complished by the Committee on Spe cial War Activities when it affiliated the work of 9.714 Catholic men's or ganizations and 4,958 women's organi zations with the X. C. \Y. C. These 14,673 societies, acting through the council, now have a common voice, and their forces may be mobilized for action in any crisis or emergency. HOW IRISH BECAME DEMOCRATS WHY IRISH AMERICAN CATHO LICS LINF.D UP WIT'-* DEMO CRATIC PARTY ANTI-CATHO LIC SENTMENT GAVE RISE TO KNOW NOTHING MOVEMENT WHICH FOR THREE YEARS PAN DERED TO BIGOTRY AND UN AMERICANISM CHERISHING MEMORY OF THOMAS JEFFER SON AND UPHOLDING HIS STATE-RIGHTS DOCTRINES. Henry W. C. Block, writing the Press Bulletin Service of the Central Bureau of the Central Verein, de scribes the real progress and collapse of the Know-Nothing movement which drove many Irish-American into the Democratic party. Catholics How It Started. It may be of interest briefly re view the causes leading to the birth and growth of Irish Catholic affilia tion with the democratic parlv in this country. They are connected with events in a remote period of England's history. The anti-Catholic sentiment, which sprang up in the days of Henry VIII, the colonists carried with them from their English homes. Warfare with the French Catholics on the North and West, and with the Spanish (a: holies in Florida strengthened this sentiment. The assistance of Catho lic France to the colonies during the Revolution practically quieted it from 1780 to 1830. There was little ground for alarm on the part of the Xativists in the number ol' our immigrants up to the latter year. As a matter of fact, dislike of European immigrants on account of their birth or religion, was always more or less sporadic. In all nativistic contentions fair-minded ness and common sense, which saw in the Irish and German immigrants ma terial for national enrichment, tri umphed over the forces of intolerance and prejudice. From 1831 to 1840 the immigrants increased to a total of nearly 600,000. From 1840 to 1850 1,700,000 immi grants arrived, nearly one-lialf of whom were Irish probably three fifths of them were Catholics. That which gave nativism its main strength was anti-Catholicism and this rooted, as already stated, in colonial days. The first outbreak of nativism oc curred in 1834, the burning of the Ur suline Convent at Charleston, near Boston. It continued to manifest it self in different parts of the country, and the foreigners, of course, did not brook unjust attacks in silence. How could they in an American atmos phere? The Know-Nothing Movement. The American or Know-Nothing Order came into existence about 1853. It was the outgrowth of a number of Nutivist societies, which were formed from 184.") to 1849: The Star-Spangled Banner Order, the United Americans, the American Protestant Association, the Sons of America and others. The English historian Bryce says in his publication, tlip American Common wealth: "The Native American or so-called Know-Nothing party, had, in two years from its foundation, become a tremen Clubs for Washington. The committee established and maintained 22 service clubs for sol diers, sailors and marines and through these provided comforts for 1,200,000 service men furnished 383,506 meals and 274,099 nights' lodgings. Through this committee 357 already operating Catholic clubs threw open their ac commodations to the service men. The committee opened and is now conducting fifteen "Everyman's Clubs" for workingmen. To date 6."9,946 men have enjoyed the recreational, educa tional, and service facilities of these clubs. With the special written ap proval of the Holy Father, the com mittee has assisted in the organiza tion of 719 Catholic Boy Scout troops, with 428 troops now in process of for mation. Record of Catholic Women. The right to conduct visitors' houses in the camps, and to engage in welfare work both at home and abroad under governmental supervision was ob tained for the Catholic women of America after months of persistent endeavor. The committee built and operated twelve visitors' houses, where 1.400,000 friends of the soldiers were entertained and in which 572,000 meals were furnished to the service men. The committee also started and is now operating 2S community houses, some for girls and women, others for neighborhood and community better ment. One hundred and twelve women workers were sent overseas, where they have been conducting under the Overseas Commissioner twenty-one welfare houses and two playgrounds in France, Belgium. Italy and other countries. A helping hand was ex tended the chaplains—1,800 chaplains' kits were provided, and for the men in the service 6,068,000 religious arti cles and books were supplied. dous force rising, and seeming like ly f.r a 4'me to carry its own presi dential candidate. In three years more it was dead and without a hope of re vival." Owing to the fact that the real name and purpose of the party were only disclosed to those of its members who had taken the higher degrees, the members ordinarily, when questioned about the order, replied: "I don't know." For this reason they were called "Know-Nothings." "While in the North the crusade (against foreigners) was carried on mainly against the Irish," says Von Hoist (VI-18S), "the South was chiefly concerned in assuring the harmless ness of the wicked Germans." The movement attracted the rowdy ele ments of t.he population. In June and July, 1854, several Catholic churches were burned. This was followed by serious disturbances in Manchester, N. II. Providence, R. I. Baltimore. I.»ou isville, Washington, New York, Brook lyn and other cities. On August 7 and 8, St. Louis was the scene of riots, precipitated by the Know-Nothings, re sulting in destruction of life and prop erty. Two hundred houses, including many belonging to Catholics, were more or less damaged. A crowd, which had assembled in front of St. Louis University, a Catholic college, and a mob, attempting to storm the office of the Anzeiger des Westerns, a German newspaper, were dispersed by local militia. Wise's Fight on Know-Nothingism. In 1854 and 1855 candidates for im portant offices, supported by this par ty, were elected in Delaware, Massa chusetts, Pennsylvania, New Hamp shire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, California and Maryland. In a number of Southern states the major ities for the democratic candidates were greatly reduced. Henry A. Wise, the democratic candidate for gover nor of Virginia, made a terrific and successful fight against Know-Nothing ism. In discussing the anti-Catholic attitude of the Know-Nothings, in one of his campaign speeches, he said: "You tell the people that Catholics never gave aid to civil liberty that they never yet struck a blow for the freedom of mankind. Who gave you alliance against the King of England? Who but that Catholic King, Louis XVI? The German, De Kalb, fell at the field of Camden, on Southern soil, with fourteen bayonets transfix ing his body. ... In that intense mo ment when the Declaration of Inde pendence was brought into Carpen ter's Hall and laid upon the table when, one by one, men arose from their seats and went to the table to pledge lives and fortunes and sacred honor—at length one spare, pale-faced man arose signed: Charles Car roll ... of Carroll ton (pledging a princely fortune). He was a Catholic representative from a Catholic colony. And, sir, six hundred and forty years ago, on the 16th of June, 1214, there was another scene enacted on the face of the globe when Stephen Langton swore the barons that they would have a Magna Charta or die for it. He was a Catholic Arch bishop of Canterbury. I come here not tp praise the Catholics, but I come here to acknowledge historical truth, tCoutlnued oo uuge 8) FIGURES FROM OFFICIAL CATHO LIC DIRECTORY SHOW NEARLY ONE-HALF MILLION CATHOLICS IN THIS STATE—MORE THAN 53,000 IN EDUCATIONAL INSTI TUTIONS. Statistics taken from the recent is sue of the Catholic Directory show the following facts with regard to the Church in this arqlidiocese and in the state of Minnesota. For the Archdiocese of St. Paul the figures are as follows: The Archdiocese. Archbishop, 1 diocesan priests, 293 priests of religious orders, 56 total number of priests, 349. Sisters, 1,152. Novices and postulants, 90. Churches and missions, 273 semi nary, 1, with 212 students. Colleges, 2 high schools and academies, 14 students in high schools, academies and colleges, 3,546. Grade schools, 101, with 25,413 pupils: three orphan asylums, with 399 orphans one In fant Home with 166 inmates three hospitals three homes for the aged, with 389 inmates one House of the Good Shepherd, with 200 inmates. The Catholic population for the arch diocese is given at 265,000. The State. There are five dioceses comprised within the borders of this state. They are: St. Paul, Crookston, Duluth, St. Cloud and Winona. The Catholic strength in the state is shown as fol lows Archbishop, 1 bishops, 5 (Bishop Trobec is retired). Diocesan priests, 593 religious priests, 147 total priests, 740. Churches and missions, 705 stations. 49 university, 1 sem inaries, 2, with 272 students colleges for boys, 3 for girls, 3 high schools and academies, 47 pupils in colleges, high schools and academies, 7,895. Grade schools, 196, with 45,030 pupils. Industrial schools, 2, with 266 pupils. Orphan asylums, 6, with 719 orphans. Infant homes, 2, with 181 inmates. Hospitals, 14 homes for the aged, 4. Hoase oi. the Good Shepherd, 1, with 200 inmates. The Catholic population of the state is 488,001. ARCHBISHOP PITAVAL Most Reverend Archbishop Pitaval, retired Archbishop of Santa Fe, New Mexico, has gone to Denver, Colo. On May 1 he will take up work as chap lain of St. Anthony's hospital in that city. He resigned from the Santa Fe diocese about two years ago. AUXILIARY OF HARTFORD TO BE CONSECRATED ON APRIL 28. April 28 is the date set by Most Rev John Bonzano, D. D., Apostolic Dele gate, for the consecration of Chan cellor John Gregory Murray as Auxil iary Bishop of the Hartford, Conn., Diocese. The Holy See has decided to bestow upon Father Murray the title of Bishop of Flavias. Bishop-elect. Murray was born in Waterbury, Conn., February 26,1877 made his classical and philosophical studies at Holy Cross College, Wor cester was sent to the American Col lege at Lou vain by Bishop Tierney, and was ordained priest April 14, 1900, by Auxiliary-Bishop Van der Staffen, of Mechlin. After returning home, he served for three years as professor of Latin, Greek and German at St. Thom as Preparatory Seminary in Hartford. On October 5, 1903, he was named chancellor of the diocese. At Holy Cross College, Father Mur ray's record for scholarship is counted one of the assets of the institution while at the American College, where he is called "The Pearl of Louvain, it is said that no one before his time ever made such a brilliant course and no one has equalled it since his departure. ROGER SULLIVAN DEAD DEMOCRATIC LEADER WAS Cathotic^&SuIlcfm. DE VOTED CATHOLIC. Roger Sullivan, national Democratic leader, succumbed to pneumonia in Chicago on April 14 at the age of 59 years. He is said to have been great lv responsible for making Mr. Wood row Wilson president of the United States. He was born on an Illinois farm and went to work in Chicago at 19 years. He left a fortune of several million dollars. Political leaders from all over the country, regardless of party affiliation attended the funeral. President Wil son telegraphed his condolences and Secretary Tumulty attended the fu neral. The obsequies were held in Holy Name Cathedral last Saturday morn ing, Archbishop Mundeletn officiating. Bishop Muldoon spoke over the re mains. ST. PAUL, MINN., APRIL 24,1920 BISHOPS JIT CAPITAL BISHOPS' COMMITTEE MEETS I WASHINGTON TO DISCUSS WELFARE WORK. Members of the Administrative Committee of the National Catholic Welfare Council met at the Catholic Tniversity on April 14 and 15 to re iew the work already accomplished and to formulate plans for the future. Archbishop Edward Hanna of San Francisco presided. In addition to Archbishop Hanna, members of the committee at the meetings were: Archbishop Austin Dowling of St. Paul, Bishop William T. Russell of Charles ton, S. C.. Bishop Joseph Schrembs of Toledo, Ohio, and Bishop Peter J. Mul doon of Peoria, 111. It was announced that a full report of the Council's work and an outline of further activities will be prepared in time for submission to the annual meeting of the Archbishops and Bish ops of the United States in Washing ton next September. Members of the committee ex pressed satisfaction with the progress the Council has thus far made in real izing the program adopted several months ago. This program contem plated constant, constructive efforts to organize and direct the Catholic laity along social, educational and civic lines. POP! t!DS UKRAINE In accordance with instructions of Pope Benedict, a large quantity of medical supplies has been sent to the Tkraine, where there is a great short age of these things. A representa tive of the Red Cross described the situation to the Holy Father as heart rending. LAYHSJGM1II CALL ISSUED FOR REPRESENTA TIVES OF MEN'S ORGANI ZATIONS. A call for a conference of represen tatives of all Catholic national men's organizations, to be held in Chicago on Wednesday, May 5, has been sent out by the Right Rev. Joseph Schrembs, Bishop of Toledo, O., chair man of the Department of Lay Organi zations of the National Catholic Wel fare Council. The conference, the first of its kind ever held in America, will be for the purpose of mapping out ways and means whereby Catholic organizations may be enabled to act in concert in matters in which they have a common interest, and to reach definite conclu sions on relations with Catholic or ganizations abroad, especially the pow erful bodies in Europe and South America. Invitations have been issued to more than twenty-five societies of na tional standing for the conference, which will be held in La Salle Hotel, and which will probably last, two days. A LARGE BEQUEST The will of the late Miss Alice Broder, of Beloit, Wis., bequeaths prop erty valued at approximately $125, 000, a large part of which will go to Beloit and South Beloit churches and Marquette University. The Bishop of Rockford Diocese is the beneficiary of a piece of property, with the power to sell the same and use the proceeds for the founding of a church in South Beloit to be known as SS. Peter and James Church. VATICAN MS APPEAL LEGACY CASE IS SENT BACK FOR RETRIAL. Recently a test action, brought by an Italian noble, Giacomo C. Degliat ti, against the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda, to recover a legacy left to Propaganda in 1680 by an ancestor of his, and with it accumulated inter test during the 240 years that have since elapsed, was decided in favor of the plaintiff by the Court of Ap peal of Aquila, which accepted the allegation of bad faith against the Propaganda. Such a verdict being ruinous for all legatees, especially re ligious legatees, the Propaganda ap pealed to the Court of Cassation of Rome. This court has anulled the ver diet, censured the Tribunal of Aquila for accusing the Propaganda of bad faith, and has referred the case back for retrial to the Tribunal of Bologna PDPE SELECTS I His Holiness the Pope la# mouth went down into the vaults of St. Pe ter's, at Rome, to choose a position where he shall be buried when he dies. He selected a simple tomh on the lines of that of Pope Pius X. Fine C0SMIE DUD FORMER PASTOR OF ST, VIN CENT'S CHURCH, THIS CITY, WAS IN IRELAND IN QUEST OF HEALTH. His Grace the Most. Reverend Arch bishop, has received a cablegram that Father Cosgrove, pastor at Darwin, Minn., died at his home in Ireland on Sunday, April 18. The message gave no details. Rev. Lawrence Cosgrove was born in Clonelly, County Longford, Ireland, about 1859. He made his classical studies at St. Mel's College, County Longford, and completed his course in philosophy and theology at All Hal lows. He was ordained at All Hal lows, June 19, 1887, by Right Rever end Bishop Donnelly. He was a class mate of Rev. Patrick O'Neill, pastor of St. Michael's Church, St. Paul. Father Cosgrove came to the St. Paul Diocese in September, 1887, and was assistant pastor at the Immacu late Conception Church in Minneapo lis, for one year, spending the follow ing year as assistant at the Cathedral in St. Paul. In 1889 he was given charge of St. Vincent's parish in St. Paul, where he remained in active service until July, 1910. On his ar rival in St. Vincent's parish Father Cosgrove found a small frame church which was attended from old St. Jo seph's. He became the first pastor at St. Vincent's. Due to his energy and activity the present church, school and rectory were built to care for the growing congregation. He also de voted much time and zeal to winning converts to the Church, and among the large number of his converts are num bered some Chinese of the Twin Cities. In 1906, he organized St. Andrew's parish, which had been attended up to that time directly from St. Vincent's Church. Father Cosgrove was transferred to the parish of St. Joseph, Rosemount, Minn., in 1910. In 1916 he was given charge of the parish of St. John, Dar win, Minn., where he had remained up to the present. Several months ago Father Cosgrove made a trip to Ireland for his health. K. C. The Green Bay Council of the Cath olic Knights of Wisconsin will cele brate its 35th anniversary on May 9 by initiating a class of 225 new mem bers. QUEST! ON UII1LS URIST DECIDES ON POINT OF IN SANITY. An insane person is not only dis qualified from making a will, but, if a will has been made by such person during a period of sanity, the testa tor after becoming insane, can not evoke it. This was in substance the opinion of Judge William H. Lueders, who decided that a copy of the genu ine will of Miss Josephine Hoelcher, Cincinnati, who died last spring, could be probated. After Miss Hoelcher had left Betts Street Hospital in 1917 she tore up her will. Her condition from that time un til she died grew steadily worse. The will was destroyed in August, 1917, when it is alleged she was insane. The probated copy of the will leaves almost all of a $4,100 estate to char ity, the Commissariat of the Holy Land at Washington and the monas tery at Mt. Adams, Cincinnati, being the principal legatees. SPANISH CARDINAL FORMALLY APPOINTED PREPARATIONS FOR COMING CANONIZATIONS. According to the official announce ment in the Osservatore Romano, a papal consistory was held ^st Thurs day. This consistory was a part of the ceremonial prescribed for the coming canonization of several sons and daughters of the Church. At the public consistory, held in the Sala Regia of the Vatican, the consis torial advocates formally pleaded the causes of Blessed Gabriel dell 'Addo larata, Blessed Margaret Mary Ala coque and Joan of Arc and the Pope imposed the red hat on Cardinal Sol devila v Romero, Archbishop of Sar gossa, Spain, who was created and pro claimed cardinal at the consistory last December, and who subsequently re ceived the biretta from the King of Spain. According to custom, following the ceremonies, the Pope, at a public coh sistory, announced names of bishops recently apopinted but there were no new cardinals created. By the reading of the decree "De Tuto" in the presence of the Pope Sunday, April 18, for the beatification of the Uganda Martyrs, the processes in all eight of these causes have been completed. Preparations are going forward rapidly at St. Peter's for the ceremonies. Tribunes have been erected and next week they will begin erecting the throne canopy for the Pope's celebration of Masses and tho canonizations of May 13 and 1$. Limpias (Santander), Spain, March 4,1920. Mr. Dan J. McNamara, Miraculous Crucifix in Spain TEN THOUSAND SEE CRUCIFIX COME TO LIFE—AND A THOU SAND HAVE MADE AFFIDAVITS ATTESTING MIRACULOUS MAN I TESTATION AT LIMPIAS, SPAIN. The famous crucifix that comes to life regularly at Limpias (Santander), Spain, has been observed in its mar velous phenomena by 10,000 persons, 1,000 of whom have given affidavits of the manifestations, according to a let ter received by Dan J. McXamara, an employe of the Colorado Milling and Elevator company, Denver, who wrote to the rector at Limpias after reading of the occurrences in The Denver Catholic Register. The rector, not be ing able to write in English, had G. Fernandez Somellera, president of the Catholic party of Mexico, a visitor at the shrine, write to Mr. McNamara as follows: Denver, Colorado. Dear Sir: The rector of this par ish, Father Edwardo Migueli, received your esteemed of the 18th January last, and begs me to answer as he does not understand English. I help him, as a good friend, in his foreign correspondence, and take pleasure in so doing at this time, to make known the marvels that the Blessed Image of our Lord on the Cross works here al most daily. It takes a good sized book now to speak of these wonderful events, and as you are interested in knowing, and I suppose also you will make known the details to your Catholic papers, I am sending you a book on the subject, written in Span ish, w"hich it will be easy for you to translate. It really merits the thor ough reading of it. Meanwhile I will answer your several questions giving you an idea of what is passing here. The first observations were made by about thirty people on March 30 of last year, after the general Commun ion given by the Franciscan Friars of Montehano. Nothing was observed the following days, until the 11th of April, when three persons, two of whom cried against the truth of the miracle, were surprised by seeing the movement of the eyes of the Sculp ture of the Crucified. Again for a few days the phenomena ceased, and were observed once more the 20th of April in the afternoon. Since that day till now, it can be said that very few days have passed without observing the wonderful apparitions. Since the said 30th of March to this date, about one hundred and thirty thousand or more UNITED STATES TEACHER SHORTAGE CAUSED CLOSING OF 18,000 PUBLIC SCHOOLS- CATHOLIC SCHOOLS UNAFFECT ED. Shortage of teachers and the sub sequent closing of 18,000 public schools in the country at large serves once more to emphasize the great, value of the 5,852 Catholic parochial schools which are providing educa tional facilities for more than 1,700,000 children without expense to the states. Not only are thousands of public schools without teachers and the chil dren dependent upon them without in struction, but of those which are in operation between 40,000 and 50,000, according to officials of the United States Bureau of Education, are being taught by persons lacking adequate training for their work. Need of Competent Teachers The Bureau of Education declares that this large number of teachers could not under normal conditions meet the minimum requirements of their respective states if they sought certificates, but are employed only be cause more competent instructors cannot be obtained. At least 300,000 teachers in the public schools of the United States, an important official of the Bureau said, fall short of what should be a minimum standard—that is, a full high-school course and two years of college or normal training. States in which the largest short ages of teachers are reported and the number in each case needed to bring the total to normal are: Kentucky, 2,250 Texas, 2,055 Virginia, 2,000 Georgia, 1,500 North Carolina, 700, and Iowa, 600. Texas, Virginia, Ala bama, Georgia, Tennessee, Minnesota, Illinois, Kentucky, New York and South Carolina are among those which report the employment of "substand ard" teachers. Texas leads this list with 4,00Q of these "substandard" teachers in its public schools. South Carolina has 1,000. At the very moment when the shortage of teachers is more acute the Bureau of Education finds that fewer men and women are preparing for the teaching profession. Informa tion from 190 state, county, city and private normal schools is that there were 11,503 fewer students in such institutions on November 1, last, than any, Number 17 pilgrims have passed by this church, and a conservative average would give more than ten thousand persons of all classes of society that have seen the miraculous phenomena. There are about one thousand Sworn affidavits, and a good many miraculous cures, though only a few of these are duly attested and sworn. Among the per sons who have seen the movement of eyes and mouth of the crucifix, tho dripping of blood, the opening of the chest, wound, (the sculpture hasn't as it is a Christ of the Agony, and therefore has not the wound of the lance), the heaving of the chest— and a good many have contemplated the complete agony of the cross, some times as much time as one hour and a half—among the viewers, as I said, there are lawyers, doctors, engineers, military men, naval officers, professors of science, women, children, etc. When the apparitions take place at different hours of the day and even at night time about eight to fifteen per cent of the persons present see the phenomena. The majority see nothing, except the great impressions made upon the observers. Some of them are so shaken that they are tak en ill on the moment, and this is more frequent amongst the unbelievers. These cases, though they are a good number (some sixty or seventy), are few compared with the great number of persons who have the happiness to look on such inexplicable wonders. The book I am sending you will give you a very good history of the events. I enclose also a photo of the miracu lous Christ, that has been touched to the blessed Image. As to the truth of the events, al most all the Catholic press of Spain has spoken again and again about them, and many bishops have come to the shrine. The bishop of Pinar del Rio (Cuba) has personally seen the apparitions, (they ought to be called better manifestations) and has written a few months ago a pastoral letter on the subject. Perhaps it wyi strengthen my ac count of the facts, the knowledge that I have been a witness of all the events since they began, and also my stand ing as president of the Catholic party of Mexico. It is due to this fact I have come here, to the place of my forefathers, and have a sincere friend ship for the actual rector of this par ish. Hoping that I have answered your questions to your wishes, I remain, Yours truly, (Signed) Parochial Schools Save Millions EDUCATING 1,700,000 CHILDREN IN G. FERNANDEZ SOMELLERA. in the autumn of 1916. The schools reporting represent 60 per cent of the normal schools in the country. On this basis it is calculated that there will be 7,000 fewer graduates from normal schools in 1920 than in 1916. The explanation given hy the Bu reau of Education to account for this shortage of teachers is that higher salaries in business and even in the mechanical trades have attracted men and women away from the teaching profession. The average salary paid to teachers in the public elementary schools was $606 a year in 1917-18. The average salary for teachers in elementary and high schools com bined was $635. Catholic Teachers Steadfast. Catholic parochial schools are not suffering from want of teachers, and there is no necessity for the employ ment of "substandard" instructors in these institutions. The greater re muneration offered by mercantile and industrial concerns has not lured teachers from the parochial schools. For the most part the Catholic paro chial schools are taught by priests, Brothers and Sisters who have pre pared themselves for their calling and continue in it not in the hope of mate rial reward but as part of their relig ious duties. They receive their train ing and perform their work as teach ers in this spirit, and as a result are not affected by the conditions which are held responsible for the decrease in the number of public school teach ers. According to the U. S. Bureau of Education the per capita cost per pupil enrolled in the public high schools and grade schools of the country at large is $36.62. This includes $5.71 per capi ta as a charge on the investment in buildings and grounds. The Bureau's statistics show that of this cost per capita, $20.21 is for salaries alone. The average daily cost per pupil in the public schools of the United States is 26 cents, or 31 cents if the charge for investment la buildings and grounds is included. If the 1,701,213 children who attend Catholic parochial schools had to be accommodated by the state at the same cost per capita as those enrolled in public schools, the additional ex pense to the states would be $62,298, 420. On the basis of the average daily cost per pupil the Catholic parochial schools save the states an aggregate of $527,000 a day.