Sermons on Catholic Worship.
Third sermon of Series on Cath
olic Worship by the Priests cf the
Diocese of Helena. This sermon was
prepared by Rev. M. McConnaak, St.
Joseph's Church, Butte.
cial function of the offering of the
Oar word "Altar" means "a high
place," and is rather descriptive of
the surroundings in which sacrifice is
offered. The word used in ancient
languages, notably the Hebrew and
the Greek, means "sacrifice or im
molation," and thereby signifies the
purpose for which the altar is erected.
So we may define an altar as an
elevated structure upon which
sacrifice is offered to God.
Origin of Altar.
As tho offering of sacrifice is coeval
with man, and an altar is necessary
for the place of offering, so the altar
dates its origin from the cradle of the
human race. The altars used bv Cain
and Abel were probably mounds of
earth or stone such as would be suit
able for the fires for the victims of
sacrifice. The first altar construc
tion spoken of in Holy Writ is that
which was used by Noah, when he of
fered the sacrifice of thanksgiving
after going forth from the ark "And
Noah built an altar unto the Lord and
offered holocausts upon the altar."
(Gen. 8, 20). Throughout the career
of Abraham from the date of the ap
pearance of the Lord to him in the
land of Canaan to the time when he
prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac,
we read several times how "he built
an altar to the Lord." (CC. 12, 22.)
During the ages of the patriarchs, the
altars were erected in the open air
and the canopy of heaven replaced
the enclosing temple.
Altar Erected by Moses.
The first divine ordinance fof the
building of an altar was given to
Moses, and the narrative of this fact
is found in the twentieth chapter of
the book of Exodus: "The Lord said
to Moses you shall make an
altar of earth to Me, and you shall
offer upon it your holocausts and
peace offerings, your sheep and oxen
tn every place where the memory of their minds that the priest of
my name shall be. And if thou
make an altar of- stone onto Me, thou
shalt not build it of hewn stones: for
ff thou lift up a tool upon it, it shall
be defiled." (Ex. 20, 24-25.) Further
OB in the same book (chapter 27), the
minutest details are given for the con
struction of an altar. These prescrip
tions served for the guidance of the
Israelites in their worship during
their long sojourn in the desert.
,When they had completed their jour
ney to the Land of Promise anJ per
manently pitched their tents, they
were most sedulous in erecting and
beautifying the altars of holocausts
and incense. In the temple built by
Solomon all the riches and the skill
at his disposal were expended in the
erection of a similar though much
larger and more magnificent altar.
This altar was preserved through the
checkered career of the Jewish race,
and remained in the temple of
Jerusalem until the year seventy of
the Christian era, when it was
destroyed with the doomed city by
the forces of Titus.
The first Christian altar was the
wooden table upon which our Lord
offered Mass at the last supper the
night before He died. This most
venerable table is still preserved in
the basilica of St. John Lateran, in
Rome. In imitation of the Savior St
Peter, when housed with Senator
Pudens in Rome, offered the Sacrifice
of the Body and Blood of Christ on a
wooden altar. This altar is to be
seen to the present day, also in St
John Lateran. It is now incased in
marble and is reserved for the Pope
exclusively to offer the Holy Sacrifice
thereon. Conformably to these
models many altars in early Chris
tian times were made of wood, and
had likewise the form of a table.
The Christian Altar.
Bat circumstances soon changed
the form and material of the Chris
tain altar. When the ten bloody
Roman persecutions raged the priest
said Mass in the underground Roman
cares known as the Catacombs, as a
rule, on a martyr's grave covered
with a stone slab. This practice led
to. the custom of offering Mass on a
stone which contains the relics of
martym A beautiful custom that
Unks the Church ceremonial of today
with that of the early ages. It is most
appropriate that the relics of martyrs
should be entombed in the altar, for
as the martyrs had a fellowship of suf
fering with Christ, 'heir bodies fitting
ly repose where t! assion and death
of our Lord are daily renewed. It
was from that altar, too, that they
received the strength and courage
that made their heroism possible.
Moreover, by the burial of the
martyrs' relics in the altfer is fulfilled
the vision of St. John in the Apoca
"And when he had open
ed the fifth seal I saw under the altar
the souls of them who were slain for
the Word of God, and for the testi
mony which they held." Thus, too,
the efficacy of the intercession of the
saints before the throne of God,
through the merits of the Savior, is
vividly brought to our minds as we
kneel before the altar. The saying of
Mass on a stone slab covering the
grave of a martyr also brought about
making the altar of
stone, and In the shape of an ancient
In accordance with the present
discipline of the Church the altar
should be of natural stone. This
law was enacted not merely for
utilitarian reasons, because stone lb
more dignified and durable, but also
THI PLACE OF SACRIFICE—THE
When one enters Catholic Church,
the object that immediately arrests ^ec^u®eiV° *he jnystical ^meaning ^at
one's attention is the Altar. The
Altar occupies this place of promin
ence because it is the reason for the
existence of the church building. and
because it is essential to
tached thereto, because thus the altar
becomes va figure of Christ of V/hom
St. Paul says, "And the rock was
Christ." (Cor. X. 4.) Christ also ap
plied this comparison to Himself:
"Have you never read in the Scrip
tures: The stone which the builders
rejected, the same has become the
Head of the corner." (Matt. XXI. 42.)
Into the altar stone are cut five
crosses, one in each of the four
corners, and one in the center. This
is done to remind us of tho five
wounds of Christ whence flowed the
blood by which we are redeemed, and
to show the continuance of that same
perennial spring of grace in the Sacri
fice offered on the altar.
According to the manner in which
they are constructed, altars are mov
able or immovable. An altar is called
immovable when the table of the altar
is a solid stone slab cemented to a
stone foundation. A movable or port
able altar is a small stone slab set in
the wooden table, large enough to
allow the Host and the Chalice to rest
upon it The missionary priest car
ries such an altar stone with him
when Mass is to be offered in a place
where no altar has been erected.
The Altar Stone.
The Church prescribes that the
altar be solemnly consecrated by the
bishop. It is not the ordinary stone,
but the sanctified altar stone which
constitutes the appropriate place for
sacrifice. This consecration of the
altar/ as of any other inanimate
object, is performed, not that these
objects are capable of receiving any
supernatural prerogative, but to
render the object so consecrated more
worthy of its high purpose, and to
teach the faithful to prepare them
selves for reverent participation in
this sublime mystery.
The altar occupies an elevated
place in the church to enable the
faithful to witness the ceremonies,
and thus to assist at the sacred func
tion with greater devotion also to
remind them of Calvary on which
the sacrifice of the New Law, renewed
in the Mass, was offered up in a
bloody manner again, to bring to
fering up the
place of Christ
tween God and
sacrifice in the
is the mediator
and earth, be
man: finally to
teach the faithful to lift up their
desires and aspirations heavenward.
Position of Altar.
Wherever possible the altar should
be turned toward the east, because rt
was in the east that Christ the Sun
of Justice, the Light of the World,
first appeared to dispell the darkness
of ignorance and malice, to diffuse
the light of faith and the fire of
charity, to proclaim the dawn of a
brighter and better day.
Let us have the highest veneration
for the altar: for the Christian altar
is the place where the Sacrifice of the
New Law is offered it is the banquet
table which supplies food for our
souls in Holy Communion, the dis
tributing center of "the Living Bread
that came down from heaven it is
the throne of grace where the God
Man, present under the appearances
of bread, is ever ready to receive our
adorations and thanksgivings, ever
willing to hear our petitions and
grant our requests.
THE VALUE OF MORTIFICATION.
Mortification wages relentless war
against the loathsome spiritual lep
rosy of sin. It drives the soul to
true sorrow for sin, it hardens the
soul to resist temptation to sin. It
teaches men to deny themselves of
things lawful, that they may thus
be trained to deny themselves of
things unlawful. The boxer needs
a hard course of physical training,
with much self-denial, to prepare
for the fight. Self-denial is equally
essential to keep the soul in train
ing for its constant fight against
its ever-present enemy, the flesh.
SIGN OF THE CR083.
Whenever across this sinful flesh of
I see the Holy Sign,
All good thoughts stir within me and
Their slumbering strength divine
Till there springs up a courage High
To suffer and to do.
And who shall say, but hateful spirits
For their brief hour abound,
Shudder to see, and wail their over
While on far heathen ground *y
Some lonely Saint hails the tratih
Its source he cannot know.
John ffenrp Newman.
SOCIAL AILMENTS OF THE DAY.
The nature of the disease wh'th af
flicts the heart of the world at pres
ent, opens out a wide field of specu
lation. In this country, the serious
thinker of to-day gazes with alarm
upon the everlasting multitude of
people who swarm aboard the vessel
of pleasure, sailing gaily and thought
lessly down stream towards the rap
ids that spell disaster. As on Mount
Sinai of old, God thundered forth His
warning to a careless world in the war
of wars that has hardly ceased and
behold men, unheeding the warning,
have made themselves a golden calf
of pleasure, before which they wor
ship. Protestantism is crumbling to
ruins it has outlived its day. The
Reformation principle of private judg
ment has reduced the faith of the
multitude to dust, even as the frost
of winter splits up the hard rock into
God and Morality Banished.
Rationalistic literature, a prepon
derance of undue influence in high
places, a servile Press, that is guided
and does not guide, a ceaseless
stream of books that banish Goa and
morality from their pages—these
various causes have done their dire
work, and brought this country to the
verge of ruin. The majority of our
countrymen are pagans, with a thin
veneer of Christianity. The rare
thought of death does but bid them
feverishly crowd the remaining hours
of life with every form of pleasure the
debased heart of man can crave for:
"Eat, drink, and make merry, for to
morrow we die." Men say they can
do without God. They cheat, degrade,
blindfold, and trample on their souls.
In a way they are happy, in part
and for a time. But the soul wakes
up at last, and then the whol3 man
wakes with a terrible awakening.
That awakening, if too long deferred
may be the judgment, when the poor
wretch sees God for a brief spell, only
to be torn from His face forever.
The Spirit of the Times.
This cold, rationalistic, materialis
tic spirit of the times is infectious:
Catholics may catch the germs of
the same disease. We need inocu
lating. Now Is the time, mortifi
cation the remedy which must be
injected into our system. Back to
Catholic ideals! Press forward to
thoughts beyond the grave! St.
Paul utters a warning cry: "If you
live after the flesh, you shall die."
Gratify all the base cravings of
your lower nature, and eternal loss
awaits you. "But if through the
spirit you mortify the deeds of the
flesh, you shall live." Self-denial
will chain up the wild dogs of the
passions which obstruct the road to
life eternal. Mortification doen not
destroy, it elevates human nature.
In the process of breaking in a
horse, the animal must feel the
whip and the curb, must be master
ed, before it is of use to man. To
deaden a disease of the body is to
save the body to deaden (mortify)
a disease of the soul is to save the
IN MY GARDEN
When I am in my garden
I am a monk of old,
With green and blue and gold.
In cunning burnished letters
He wrote the Name of God:
In daffodils and tulips
I print it on the sod.
When I am in my garden
I am of Aaron's race.
A Levite, a precentor,
Who in a holy place
For God's sake and for Music's
At Matins, Nones and Prime,
Sets every psalm and anthem
The fitting tune and time.
When I am In my garden
I am the Bridegroom's friend,
With charge of all the jewels
That He delights to send:
The turquoise myosotics,
Imperial crowns of amber
I bear them to the bride.
When I am in my garden
My heart's a truant lark
My humbler limbs bend earthward,
I sing and serve till dark.
And when God takes the candle
I rise from off my knee
And hear the odors breathing
The Name I cannot see.
PRIVILEGE OF PRAYER.
Prayer should be the Christian's
most cherished privilege. The word
Mortification is a cure for bad habits,' of God and the experience of God
the planter of good habits. people assure us that God Himself
It as distasteful, yet useful, as cer- hears and answers prayer. It is not
tain medicine. Throughout life lour place to criticise His answers
there is a fight for mastery betwixt i it is only our part to ask God's will
soul and body. Where all is well, He gives or withholds as seem best
the soul rides the body like an ex- to Him. If he were otherwise we
pert horseman, who holds the horse would scarcely dare to pray at all
well in, and forces the animal to
obey. No mortification, no restraint,
and the body, goaded on by the pas
sions, dashes along like a mad horse,
flinging itself and driver over the
If answer to our prayers were al
ways exactly in the form that we
desired, we would soon learn that
our human limitations make it im
possible for us to know what is best
for us to have under all circumstan
ces. But God in His infinite wisdom
knows best. He answers according
to His wisdom rather than acearding
to our desires.
THE FOUNDATION OF HOLINESS.
The salt of mortification, though it
may smart, preserves the soul, from
corruption. Like a surgical operation
it is repugnant, but necessary. You
will search the Lives of the Saints in
vain to find one who did not deny
himself. This is the bedrock principle
of all holiness the essential char
acteristic of the disciples of the Cru
cified One. The whole of a Christian's
life should be a ceaseless penance,
says the Council of Trent. Lent is
the grand season of self-denial. We
are ever ready to danoe wjben the
THE CATHOLIC BULLETIN, JUNE 25, 192t
J. C. POOLE, President
JAS. A. ROBB, Vice-President
J. C. McGILVERY, Vice-President
C. B. HOEL, Cashier
F. S. MALLEY, Assistant Cashier
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Church pipes, but are we as ready to
mourn when she laments? She points
out the Way of the Cross, and in
sists that true peace and lasting vic
tory is alone to be found in the Cross.
We are forever indulging in day
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do if we could. Let us awake to the
reality, doing the good we could do if
RULING A WIFE.
As a lover Henry Lane was the
kindest, most devoted, self-sacr_ficing
person imaginable. He appeared
really to have no will of his own, so
entire was his deference to his beau
tiful Amanda yet, for all this, he
had no very high opinion of her as
an intelligent being. She was lovely,
she was gentle, she was good, and
these qualities, combined with
personal grace and beauty, drew him
in admiration to her side, and filled
him with the desire to possess her
as his own.
As* a husband Henry Lane was a
difficult being. His relation had
changed, and his exterior changed
correspondingly. Amanda was his
wife, and as such she must be, in a
certain sense, under him. It was
his judgment that must govern in
all matters, for her judgment in the
affairs of life was held in light
Moreover as a man, it was his prov
ince to control and direct and her
duty to look to him for guidance.
Yet for all this, if the truth must
be told, the conclusions of Amanda's
mind were, in ordinary affairs, even
more correct than her husband's iudg
ment, for he was governed a great
deal by impulses and first impressions
instead of by the reason of which he
was so proud, while she came natu
rally into the woman's quick percep
tions of right and propriety. This be
ing the case, it may readily be seen
that there was a broad ground-work
for unhappiness in the married state.
Amanda could not sink into a mere
cipher she could not give up her will
entirely to the guidance of another
and cease to act from her own voli
It took only a few months to make
the young wife feel that her position
was to be one of great trial. She was
of a cold and gentle character more
inclined to suffer than resist, but her
judgment was clear, and she saw
the right or wrong of any act almost
instinctively. Love did not make her
blind to everything in her husband.
Passiveness under such a relation
does not always permanently remain,
it was accompanied from the first by
a sense of oppression and injustice,
though love kept the feeling sub
dued. The desire tor ruling in any
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position gains strength by activity.
The more the young wife yielded,
the more did the husband assume,
until at length Amanda felt that she
had no will of her own, to speak of.
The conviction of this, when it form
ed itself in her mind, had involun
tarily brought with it an instinctive
feeling of resistance. Here was the
forming point of antagonism—the
beginning of the state of unhappi
ness foreshadowed from the first.
Had Amanda asserted her right
to think and act for herself in the
early days of her married life the jar
of discord would have been light. It
now promised to be most afflicting
in its character.
The first activity of Amanda's new
ly forming state showed itself in the
doing of certain things to which she
was inclined, notwithstanding the ex
pression of her husband's disapproval.
Accustomed to the most perfect com
pliance, Mr. Lane was disturbed by
"Oh, dear! what a horrid locking
thing!" said he one day as he dis
covered a new dress pattern which his
wife had just purchased lying on a
chair. "Where in the world did that
"I bought It this morning," replied
"Take it back or throw it into the
fire," was the husband's rude re
"I think ft neat," said Ama&da,
"Neat? It's awful! But you've no
taste. I wish you'd let me buy your
The wife made no answer to this.
Lane said a good deal more about it,
to all of which Amanda opposed but
little. However, her mind was made
up to one thing, and that was to take
It to the dressmaker's. The next
Lane saw of the dress was on his
"Oh, mercy!" he exclaimed, hold
ing up his hand, "I thought you had
burnt it. Why did you have it made
"I like it," quietly answered Mrs.
"You like anything*
"I haven't much taste I know,*
said Amanda, "but such as it is, it is
pleasant to gratify it sometimes."
Something in the way this remark
was made disturbed the self-satisfac
tion which was a leading feature in
Mr. Lane's state of mind he, hovever,
answered: "I wish you would be gov
erned by me in matters of this kind
you know my taste is superior to
yours. Do take off that dress and
throw it into the fire."
Amanda did not reply to this, for
St excited feelings and produced
thoughts that she had no wish to man
ifest. But she did not comply with
her husband's wishes. She liked the
ess and meant to wear it, and she
wear It, notwithstanding he? h«s-
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band's repeated condemnation of her
At this time they had one child—a
baby less than a year old. From the
first Lane had encroached upon the
mother's province. This had been
felt more sensibly than anything else
by his wife, for it disturbed the har
monious activity of the natura. law
which gives to a mother the perception
of what is best for her infant. Still
she had been so in the habit of
yielding to the force of his wili that
she gave way to his interference
here in numberless instances,
though she as often felt that he was
wrong as right. Conceit of bis own
intelligence blinded him to the in
telligence of others. Of this Amanda
became more and more atisfied each
day. At first she had passively ad
mitted that he knew best, bet her
own common sense and clear per
ceptions soon repudiated this plea.
While his love of predominance affect
ed only herself, she could bear it with
great patience, but when it was ex
ercised day after day and week after
week in matters pertaining to her
babe, she grew restless under the op
After the decided position taken in
regard to her dress, Amanda's mind
acquired strength in a new direction.
A single gratification of her own will,
attained in opposition to the will of
her husband, stirred a latent desire
for repeated gratifications, and it was
not long before Lane discovered this
fact and wondered at the change
which had taken place in his wife's
temper. She no longer acquiesced in
every suggestion, nor yielded when he
opposed argument to an assumed posi
tion. The pleasure of thinking and
acting for herself had been restored,
and the delight appertaining to its
indulgence was no more to be sup
pressed. Her husband's reaction on
this state put her in greater freedom,
for it made more distinctly manifest
the quality of his ruling affection and
awoke in her mind a more determined
spirit of resistance.
The causes leading to the result we
are to describe have been fully enough
set forth they steadily progressed
until the husband and wife were in
positions of direct antagonism. Of
course they wei s often made un
happy, yet enough forbearance ex
isted on both sides to prevent an
open rupture—at least, for a time.
That, however, came at last, and was
the more violent from the long ac
cumulation of reactive forces. The
particulars of this rupture we need
not give it arose in a dispute about
the child when she was two years
old. As usual, Lane had attempted
to set aside the judgment of his
wife in something pertaining to the
child, as inferior to his own, and she
had not submitted. Warm words
ensued, la which be Said good
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deal about a wife's knowing bar
place and keeping it.
"I an^not your slave!" said Aman
da, indignantly, the cutting words of
her husband throwing her off her
"You are my wife," he calmly and
half contemptuously replied, "and, as
such are bound to submit yourself to
"To my husband's intelligence. Mt
to his mere will/' answered Amanda,
less warmly, but more resolutely tfean
"Yes, to his will!" said Lane grow
ing blind from anger.
"That I have done long ettovgfc,"
returned the wife. "But the time: is
past now. By your intelligence, when
I see in it superior light to what ex
ists in my own, I will be guided fevt,
by your will—never!"
Some years hare passed. No one
who meets Mr. and Mrs. Lane at
home or abroad would dream that at
one time they were almost driven
asunder by a strong repulsion.
are more deeply attached or happier
in their domestic relations, but neither
trespasses on the other's rights nor
interferes with the others preroga
tive. Mutual deference, confidence,
respect and love unite them w!tb a
bond that cannot be broken.
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7.75(??8.00 lipht hogs, [email protected]
ers, [email protected] cuil pigs, [email protected]
stock pigs, [email protected] boars, Heavy, t.50
@4.00 boars, light, [email protected]
GRAIN FUTURES, MINNEAPOUtt.
July, high, 1.S1K low, !.*»%.
July, high, 33% low, 33%.
September, high, 34% low, IPS.
high, 1.10 lo#, 1.03.
56% lew. It
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