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The Montgomery tribune. (Montgomery City, Mo.) 1892-1910, December 06, 1901, Image 2

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90061056/1901-12-06/ed-1/seq-2/

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Sends His First Annual Message to the Senate
and House of Representatives,
Eulogizes the Late President McKinley xnd Advocates Stern Measure
for Anarchists-Proposes Trust Legislation Along the Lines of Pub
lic.. yFa.vors Government Construction of Irrigation Works
Urges Construction of Isthmian Canal and Laying of Pa
cific Cable - Asks Legislation for the Colonics and
Reciprocity for Cuba - Would Exclude Chinese.
Tho following It comprehensive urn
mar y or President Jtoosevell'a mettag to
Tim prraldent begin hi- first annual
cbinmuulcatOn with an nfflclal announce
tntnt of Iht death o( Ih lata FrIdent
McKinley, uml a eulogy o( hla former
chief in which he aayai
"It la not too much In aay that at Iht
tlma of Frealdent MoKlnley'a death ht
lha moat wldly-lovd tnau In all Ua
United Htatea, while wo have never had
an public man of hla poult Ion who haa
been ao wholly free from the tiller anl
mosltle incident to public life. Ilia po
luteal otipononta were the flrat to bear
tha heartiest and moat genernu tribute
to the broad kindliness ut nature, the
weetnes and genllcne o( character
which ao endeared him to hla cloaa asso
ciate. To etundard of lofty Integrity
In public life he united the tender afTee.
llona and homo virtue which are all
Important In th makeup of national
character, A gallant aotdier In the great
wnr for the union, ha alau shoti aa an
exempt to all our people because of hla
conduct In the moat eucred and Intimate
of homo relatione. There rould be no
personal haired of him, fnr he never act
ed with aught hut ronalderntlon for the
welfare or other. No one rould fall to
respect him who knew him In public or
prltate life. The defender of those mur
cttrou criminal who aeek to excuse their
rrlmlnnllly by aaavrllng that It la excr
clued for political end Inveigh agalnat
wmllh and Irresponsible power. Hut for
thla aasaaalnatlon even thla hue apology
cannot be urged,'
The alioc k, the grltf of the country, are
Mller In the mind of all who saw the
dark it ay a while the prraldent yet hovered
tetweeri life and death. At lat the light
wna a tilled In Ihe kindly eye, end the
brralli went from the lipa that even In
mortal agony uttered no word aav of
forgiven to hla murderer, of loe for
hie frlrnda and or iinraltvrlng trust In the
will or the Moat High. Huch a death
crowning the glory of aurh a life leave
ua with Infinite aorrow, but with audi
Rrlde In what ho had accomplished and in
la own personal character that we feet
the blow not aa atruck at him, but as
atrurk at the nation. We mourn a good
and great prraldent whn la dead, but
while wn mount we are lifted up by the
eideiidld achievement of his life and the
grand heroism with which he mat hla
In Ihe aame connection he make
atrong recommendation aa to how th
nation ahould deal wllh anarchy,
urge that th preaching or teaching of
nnrrhy te not permit!-), and request
(ongrea to enact legislation that will
rrttent anarchlsta from foreign countrlea
tiding upon our ahorra. He would also
have the federal court given Jurisdiction
over any man who kllla, or attempts to
hill, the president nt the country, or any
Jierenn who la In line for aurceaslnn lo
he presidency. He has no fear, howsver,
that the country will ever fait Into an
"The federal rourta ahoutd he given Jur
isdiction otcr any man who kill or at
tempt to kill the president or any man
who by the constitution or by law Is in
line of aurceealon for the presidency,
while the punUhment for an unsuccessful
attempt should be proportioned to th
enormity of tha offense agalnat our In
Anarchy la a erlme against th whole
human race, and all mankind ahould band
against the anarchist. Hla crime ahould
be made an offense against the law of
nation. Ilka piracy and that form of man
stealing known aa the alave trade, for It
I or far blacker Infamy than either. It
ahould be ao dacUrel by treat! among
all civilised nowera. Hurh4reatlea would
give in the federal government the powsr
ui ueaung wun me crime."
Ihe Trsiala, 1
The president area cause for congratu
la lion tor the nation In the buMnrsa condi
tion of the present, but sera In the "tre
mendous and hlghf) complex Industrial
Development whkh went tm with aver ac
celerated rapidity during the Utter half
of the iilhfteentlt century" a serious sorl.il
Srcblim for tha pre si nt and future, Jle
oe nut believe that the old Javtaanduld
custom are aunirlcitt to reguUle the ac
cumulation and distribution of wealth ot
in present nine- lis uue nut annum
the creation of great corporate Inrtune
to thn eilitenre uf a liroli-cllve tariff, "nor
to any other governmental ucllon. but to.
etating In other cnunlrle as thr opt'rafe
in wnr bwii. in i in connection nss
"The process has aroused much ntun
VtUni, a great part of vihlch Is wholly
without warrant. It Is not true that a
Ihe ilch have grown richer the pour have
f v ii I'vi'i' wii cunirr ikcver ue
lire nas me average man. thn wage
worker, the farmer, the small trader,
been ao well off a In ihl country and
at th nreamt time. Thr tut-
abuse ronnikletf with the accumulation
v, nrmiii, jn 11 irnia ni irue III I a for
tune accuinuuilrd In legitimate busings
ran lie urciiniiilalail In- il .....
cUlly binef.led only on. condition of con
ferring Immense Incidental bene lit upon
ctl,r.'. Hu?r.Mf.u! nteriirlfg of ihetpe
M1'?." .l!tnmin.u rnankfnd can only ex
1st ir the conditions are such as to ofTer
".. V "warns or success "
ft lit wh e ha rent ikrih --...1
tlon. he emphailie the fact that congrern,
In providing remedlea murgct with can.
tlon. aa th men and corporations ".who
haye biillt up our commerce and driven our
. ..... 14. .v,aB i wniiDcni.Have uon
crtat aood to our itnu uAa .m,.,...
them the material AeveJupment of -which
we are ao Justly proud could never have
taken place. Moreover, w hnuld rrog
rtlse the immense Importance to this ma.
terlal development of leaving aa unham
pered a Is compatible with the publlo
good the strong and forceful men upon
whom the success of business operation
Inevitably rests. The alighteet aludy of
business condition will satisfy anyone
capable of forming a Judgment that the
personal equation la th most Important
factor In a hualnaaa nnraHnni . . t. .
butlnti ability of th man at the head of
it Z'" Minor nine, n usual
ly the factor which flies the gulf between
iiiniiiK utiBii biui nopvies laiiure."
Aruiiifr reaion lor caution in trust lecli.
latlon which he glvs "la to be found InMhe
International commercial eondhinn e n.
day. The earn business conditions which
have produced the great aggregations ot
tvii'uiio iiu muiviijuai weaun nave
uiauo 1 irm rj poivni incior in inter-
national commercial comoetltlon. itnmi.
neia concern which hae. the largest
means at their disposal and ar managed
fcv the ablest men ra nBliirallw
which taka th lead In tha strife for com
mercial supremacy among th nations' of
in worm. America na oniyjuai begun
to assume that commanding position In
th International business wqrjd which
we believe will more and more be her. , It
la of th utmost Importance that thla'po
altlan he not Icoitarded. einertallv t tim
when the overflowing abundance of our
own natural reaourcen a no jno skiii, oust'
nrsa energy and mechanical aptitude 01
our Dflonle make forelcn market! esen
tlal. under aueh conditions it would be
most unwise to cramp qr o feHer the
ycutnrui aircngin 01 our nauon.
'Moreover, It cannot toooflen-bo rotated
out that to strike wllh Ignorant violence
at th Interests of on act of men almost
Inevitably endaneera th Interest at all.
The fundamental rule In our national life.
ineruie wnirn unjeriieii an omers, la mat
en the whole and In the long run we ahall
go up or down together. There are excep
tions, and In times of prosperity some wilt
prosper far more and in time of adversl
ly some win aurrer far mora man others;
but, speaking generally, a porlod of good
time mean that all ahar more or le
In them, and In a period of hard lime all
feel th aires to a greater or less degree."
ne poinia 10 in laci tnai in ins paai
the Icnorant or reeklei eeltator haa
been tha really efferllva friend uf th
evil which he haa been nominally opDoa.
Ing In dealing with business Intctvste
for Ihe government In undertake by
crud and Ill-considered legislation to do
wnai may turn out 10 i tiau wouiu d
to incur tho risk or audi far-reaching na
flonal dlaaater that It would ba ureter.
able to undertake nothing at all. Th
men who demand the Irniwis. llle or th
undesirable serve aa the alllca of the
force with which they are nominally at
war. for they hamoer those who would
endeavor to find out In rational fashion
what Ihe wrong realty are and to what
e 1 ten 1 ana in what manner it is prac
ucauia 10 appiy rrmeuici.
Itemedlee for Hie Trust Hvll,
Hut while h say the abov li true, he
yei see many evil tor which mere snouio
im remea ea nroviueti. ui inese vi s in
chief 1 over caiiltalitailoi. "tiecauao o
ii" many imiriut cnnsiiuices. lie ayl
Th conviction of th American people
that the great corporations, known
trusts, ar in certain or their features and
tendenrle hurtful to th general welfare,
I based uimn sincere conviction thai com
bination and concentration should ho not
proniniiea, nui supervised ana witmn
reasonable limit a mnlralled. and In tnv
judgment this conviction 1 rleht "
x ivniv'17 iut iiiren Tiia na aayat
"Tha Drat a-ntlal In illnninlnv tinv
to deal with the areat Industrial com.
hlnatton I knowledge of th fact
nuuuciiy, in ine inieresi or ma public
the government ahould have the right to
Inspect and eiamtne the worklnga of
the great corporation engaged In Inter
atate business. I'ubllclty Is the only sure
remedy which wa can now Intokr. What
further remedlea ara 11 mini In iha wat
ot governmental mutation or tasatlon
ran only he determined after publicity
na neen oniaineii by prnce of law and
In the course of administration. Tha first
requisite I kmtwledra. full anil romnltln
knowledge which may be tnad publlo
to the world.
"Artificial boiltaa. atirh aa mrrwira Hna
and Joint atock or other associations de
pending upon any statutory law for their
"inrncf or privilege, snuuici re luoject
iu 1 luuir uiEiiiinaniBi lunpnn nn. ami
full and accurate Information aa to their
l-raiinna biidumi i" ma pUDIla TSCU
larly at reasonable Interval.'
. "ra coriHiratlun. commonly
called trust, though organised In on
i ate, aiway no uuamess in many atate.
often doing very little business n the
state where they are Incorporated. There
Is utter lack of uniformity In the state
lawa about them, and aa no atate haa
any exclusive Interest In or power over
muir ncia 11 naa in pracuc proves im
(osslble to gat adequate regulation
through atate action. Therefore In the
Interest of Ihe whole people the nation
uuiu, milium 1 inirrierinir wun in pow
er of the atatea tn tha matter Itself, also
assume power of supervision and rrgnla.
linn over all corporation doing an Inter
atat business, fill 1 especially true
where the corporation dertvea a portion
of Ha wealth from the exlstenre of aom
rnunnpoiiatir rimem nr tendency m Its
buslnes. There would be no hardship In
audi supervision, llanka are subject Mo
It, and In their case It Is now accepted
as a, simple mailer of course, ludrad It
la probable that iuprvlron of corpora-
.... M.nvitni mivrininrni neea
not greao far a I now the rnse with the
Bunervlatnn, etrrclii,! nvi ih,n. i.
rnnsenatlte amte n Massachusetta In
"M;r.r " i,',"'u'.",rriieiu irsuil,"
The president Wller Him t It will he
possible tn eeciirn the m-cded remed'es
for the trust evil tinder Hu coiMltutlin
a- U now e .tsts, but ir rnrgrrss think
otherwise he recommend I hat HMistltu
tlon4l atnm'dinent Im auhm tted tnat will
n fer the iMmt nrre-4ry
In i'onneetl-M with the 1111 (a hi ree
ommend lenlstation err atlr.g a rahlnet of.
flrer, to bo krown (. euetnry of m.
l1!'Af,,..h,t',3.,,,tf woull l It deal
Icttr and I In mcd-nnt rn.iiine,
- WoUld lUrltule the Chinese,
The jjimmcp i-'itiialn a strong reeiTi.
Picndatlon for lie rcrniiclment .it mie
of the preacnt Chlneae exclusion act, In
v. hi Hi connt'i-tloit he nyi
. "Wage jtrc higher to.,i(ty n the fnlted
State than eier beforo In our history
?n,l2r ,l,nr ,,,nn J" ny 'tnT conn,
try.' The aiundard of living Is Alio higher
than ever before. Ihrry cfrort of ."at,;
laror and hdmlnlslrator should he trt tn
eocnr the ermnnency of thb rdnllilin
of thing and It Improvement whcVevfr
powlble. Not only mint our labor he
protected by the tariff, buOlt should ntso
U proicuted Tar a It Is possible trnm
ho presence In thl country of ahy la.
borer brought Arr by contract nr of
thoa .who, cni!na free y; yet represent
astandard of living ao'VpresVed 1 that
.7" undersell our men In the Ubof
markef and drag them to a lower Ieel
'WH A- necessary, with thla enii
In ew, to reenact Immediately tho law
egeludlns J'hlneee laborers and to
atrengthen It wherever necessary In nr?
f"Ve,m" enforcement entirely rf.
He aioreeommend sue If legislation, br
an amendment to the Interstate commerce
lawga will protect the labor of om atate
fi'If.omPp."0"'wlth. he prlton labor if
another fate, and also that the govern,
puinticease bHng a pirty to thl rnmMii.
time need to have the htlotnc hand out
stretched to him. To be pvtninently ef
fective aid must aiway mx in rorm or
helping a man to help himself, and w
can all best help ourselves by Joining to
gether In the work that I Of common In
terest 10 an,"
The Immigration Law,
He nronounrea our nteaant Immigration
lawa unsatisfactory, In which connection
he says we ned every honest and ef
ficient lmm'grant fitted to beoma aa
Amr can c 1 sen. every immigrant wno
come here to stay. ho brings hir a
strong Irody, a good head and a resolute
purpose to 00 Ms tiutr well In every way
and to brlngupotschlldrenailaw-abldlng.
tlod-ftartng member of tho community.
nut ne aayai
"There ahould be a comnrehenslvo law
enacted with tho object of worktiu a
tnrrefci improvement over our prnicnt
aytlem iTIrat, we should aim to etcluJe
alsolutely not only all peraon who ar
known to bo letlever In anarchistic prln
clpte or member ot anarch'atU socle
ie, du( aiso an peraona wno are or at
low moral tendency or of unsavory repu
tation. Thl meana that wa should re.
fiiiire a more thorough system of Inspec
ts n aoroaa ana a more rigu system ui
exam.nttlon at our Immlirjtlon porta,
the former twlng especially iKceruury,
"The second object of a proper Immi
gration1 law ought to be to ves'ire by a
careful and not merely perfunctory edu
cation! test some Intelligent capacity to
appreciate American Institution and act
sanely aa American clllns. This would
not keep out all anarchists, for many of
them belong to, the Intelligent criminal
class, but It would do what Is alio In point
that Is, tend to decrease the sum of Ig
norance 10 potent In producing the envy,
surptelor, malignant passion and hatred
of order out of which anarchistic senti
ment inevitably sprlrgs. Finally alt per
sons should le excluoed who are below
a certalr standard of economic fitness to
enter our Industrie' field a competitor
nmniran i a nor, i ner snouia re
menticease bHng a pirty to thl compel .
U6n by not purchasing goods m.deefther
byjconvlct la hoc or that in hi
."Very great good has been and will h
accJmpirslred by associations or union
of wageworkera when managed with
forethought gnd when they combine n"
a stinc ,upon their own right with law
abldlnc respect for the rlshta of others:
The dliptay. of. these quatltlea In such
bodies 1 a duty to the nation no leis
lftin t0.klhi otUtlon themselve.
Finally there must jtlso In many cases hi
action by.th government In order to1
safeguard the right. and Interest of at!
Uhder mir -coniltlttiTlon there I much
more acopa for such action by the state
and th municipality than by the nation.
Hut on point ufh.a those touched on
above the national government can art
--'When all 1 said and don, the rule of
brotherhood remain a the IndlspensahU
treVenuls1te t6 success tn (lie kind of na
flonal llfp for whlrh w trtve. v.t.
man must work fof hlmsulf, and unles-i
propr proof of per so
n imtriran nvirg ana enough money to
rsonsl capacity to earn
waUa can.baicarrled with advantac
nimaeti or anyone rise, yst tnat each
times stumbles or- halts, that each
Insure a .pfvut atari umi,, A
jtlilons. This would step the inriui of cheap
labor and th ttiu'.itrc competition which
give rli lo so mi.eh of bltternese in
American tnIiit rial I'fe. and It would dry
uo the aprlrg of Ihe peotlentlal social
condition in our great cities whsra sn
archlstle rrBanlstrrn hav their great-
The Tariff,
The president doea not dtalre any rhang
tn the present tariff schedul except where
auch may bo made in reciprocity treaties,
and recommend th adoption of reciproc
ity treaties and thn renaral tutliov e
prorlty aa a mean ot opening the door of
i.iMiii in our commerce, in wnicn
connection he says:
"i:vry application of our tariff policy to
meet our shifting national need must be
conditioned upon Ihe cardinal fart that th
duties must never tie reduced below th
iolnt that will cover Ihe difference between
the labor Cost hern and ntirnad Tha wall
being of th wagtworker la a prim consld
ration of our entire policy ot economic
"'Hubiect to this proviso of the proper
protection necessary to our Industrial
wen u-iins i noma in principle or reci
procity must command our hearty sup
port . The phenomenal growth of our
export trad emphasise the urgency nf
th need for wider markat and for a lib
eral ponry in ueaung wun foreign na
tlona. Whatever I merely petty and vex
atlou In th way of trad restriction
snouu t avoided. Th customer to
whom we dltnose nf our aurnlua tiroduela
In th long run directly or Indirectly pur
chase those aurplu product by giving ua
ommninR in return, i nir aouity to pur
chase our nroduct should as far aa noa
si ble be secured by so arranging our tar
iff at to enable u to take from them
those product which wa ran use without
harm to our own Industries and labor or
th us of which wilt be of marked benefit
to u.
"Th natural line of development for a
Policy of rerlnrocltv wilt be in connection
with those of our productions which no
longer require an oi ine support onr
needed to establish them ujKtn a sound
haals. and with those others where either
ttecaus of natural or of economic caue
w ar twyond the reach or succesiiui
"I ask the attention of the senate to th
reciprocity treaties laid before It by my
Tha Merchant Marine,
Tha president pronounces our merchant
marine "discreditable to us as a nation and
Insignificant to that of othernatlona which
we overtoil In other forms of business."
and says we "should not longer eubmlt to
condition under which only a trifling por
tion or our great commerce is carried id
our own ship. Of this h says
"To remedy this atate of thlnas would not
merely serve to build up our shipping In
Uresis, but It would nlio result In benefit
to an wno ar irtenstea in ine perm
rent establishment cf n wider market for
American product ara ouia provide an
auslllsrv forr for Ihe raw. Hhlns work
for their own rcurlrles just aa railroads
work for. their terminal points. Khlrplng
tinea. If eitsbtlihel to th prlnclp.it coun
tries wllh which we have dealing, would
be of rnlltical a well at commercial ben
efit, From evirv starCpolnt It 1 unwise
for the t'nlled hint tn continue to rely
upon the ship of competing nations for the
distribution1 of on; tcods. It should be
mad advar.taiiefiu to carry American
good In American tullt ships.'
Ills rrrommem'ittlr r. on this a tin left n
only that "eur government should take
auru ction as win remedy these ineouail
tie, rh Amerlctm merchant marine
nomn u resiorea to ine ocean."
Under this t.r.tllnff the president recnm
mends turh Itrliliitu.n n will better safe
BiMrd hgalnit th Ut. ngtng: Influences of
uinmrrcifli cnn ui.u i.nerctai pa nits ana
such us will iiMke the currency of the
country nt'ini rev- 'HiMve to the demand
of dome til a trac' and rummerce.
lie fxtntx out the I ret that the receipts
iiumi ii i it ui, mii Hum rfi u irtifinai taxes
es.-eed the e-tm i i!-tun of the irnvern.
ment, but roiinul ars'r.it. redtictr.g the
imi?Ue,fli ilnt tl,r U t'lt(;HSl-
"lirri trier proMlnc rcslr.it any such
onlupr.c- .r.imiif aloutd hi .adopt id
whli'lt wil f.flrc thi- rexrr.ues more tMf
within 'theil m t nf our actual rrf
lie urgr I he"iiecessltyfiry.rrlet economy
tn.'jsn-r.d lurM. but that "our rutlnal
i""'i i" if ikkkb m i j i o tun mat-
" 'iuniin viiiaievir i aciuauy nee
eiiary. Jo our wetMielr.;."
lnlrrKtafp lNmnierre,
It noUlU to defect In tha lni-ati.
'commerce law, end recommends amend-
iiriiin mi i-urrrci tnvm, in wnirn connection
"l hoao who rompialnnr the management
of th railway oll-ito that established
rate ara nnt malnlaliit 'ii.at .
bates and similar devlcra ore habitually
Tesorted to. that these preferences are
usually In favor of the large shipper. Ihat
ltiet.Qrlv out ot business the smaller
fonilhitltor, that while many rate are too
law fnany other are exceashe a"nd that
grva preferences are made affecting both
locainiri arm commounie. upon in otn
er Ifand, the railway. afserL that the law
by It very terms tends to produce many
of these Illegal practice by depriving car
riers of that rlaht of concerted action
which (hey claim la necessary lo eatab-
lien inn maintain nonuiscriminating rates,
"The act should be amended. The rail.
way, Is svpubllc servant. Its rates ahould
be Just ,io and open to all ahtppej- alike.
The government should .see to It that
within Ha Jurisdiction thla Is ao and
ah no Id ntovlde a soeedv. Inexoenslva and
effective remedy to that end. At the same
time it .must not be forgotten that our
railways are ine arteries inrougn Which
tha commerelaK tlfe blood of this nation
flow. Nothing could be more foolish than
the enactment of legislation which would
unnecessarily Interfere with the develop
ment and operation of these commercial
Bjeociea, i
Agriculture! latereafa.
Th presldrnt'dtes th forest legislation
of th past and th great good -of forest
preserve" to it people, ami r-rysithey will
Inevitably bo' of still its Iter a.iu' Con
tinuing, ne sa)si
"At present the protection of the forest
reserve rri Ymn,tiic(rncrai leuu onice,
the mapping end description of their tlm-
h-r wttli th United Ktatea aeolnaleal mr.
vey and Ihe preparation of tdar.s for their
conservative us with the bureau ot for
estry, whlrh la also charted with the gen
eral auvancrrneni .ot practical joreitrx in
the United HiUe. Thre -iflmin func
tlons should be united tn the bureau of
forestry, , to, which they properly beiorg.
The present dlffusron ofreipontlhlllty Ts
bsd froql very itafidpnAnt, tlb prevents
that effHtlve cooneritloh between the,
government and the men who utilize th
resources. of the reserve, without ,whtch
the lute rest i of both must suffer.1 Tfc
acUntlflc bureau generally should be put
under th department of agriculture. The ;
president should hav by law the power
of transferrin landa for use as forest re- :
eervea to h department ot agriculture.
He already haa such'bower In the case of
ianas neeaen ny tn departments oi war
and th navy,"
Irrigation In connection with the wast
lands of tho west I a question to which
tn president glvea conquerable attention,
ar.d makes trong recomminoatlor. lor
government assistance lit racuimtng ibq
wast lands by assisting in ineir urlra-
tlon ar.d the control ot water rights wiier-
"r inai 1a poiaiuio, ana oi tnis ne eaysi
in to aria region ills water, not isna,
Which rneaaurea iirndupllon. Tha wvatern
hall ot the Lnlted Mtatea wouid sustain a
population areater than that of our whole
country lo-uay if th waters Ihat now run
i naaiv were Mvta ana usea tor irriga
tion. The lorest ar.d water problem ar
0rhbS th moil Vitjl Inlartidl uuaall&ca
of th United Htatea.
-in cases wnere natural co no it tons nav
been restored lor a lew years vegetation
haa again carpeted the ground, birda and
titer ara coming back, and hundreds of
prrauna, rspeciant irom ine immeaiaie
neighborhood, corne each summer to enjoy
the prlvllme of camping. Home at least
of tho forest reserves should afford per
petual protection to the natlv fauna and
Mora, aafe havens of refuge to our rapidly
diminishing wild animals ot the larger
kinds and ire camping grounds for th
rTi'iniiniin numuer ot men ana worn
en Who hava titnH In health
and recreation in th splendid forest and
iwKir-ciau miioowi ot our mountain.
Th forest reserve should b set apart
forvr for th us and benefit of our peo
ple a a whole and not sacrificed to the
shortsighted greed of a fw,"
"Th forest alon cannot, however, fully
regulate and conserve the water of th
arid region. Ureal storaee works are nee
easary to equalise the flow of atreama and
iv MTi me nowi waters, i neir construc
tion nas neen conclusively shown to be an
undertaking too vast for private effort.
Nor can It l.e beat aeenrnnllahad hv Ihm in.
dividual states acting alone. Far-reaching
Interstata problems ar Involved, and, tha
resource ot single state would often b
mautquate, it is property a national
function, at least In aom of It feature.
It la a rutht for th national aovernment
to rnak tha stresms and river ot the
arid region useful by engineering work
ror water storage aa to make useful tha
river and harhora of th humid region by
engineering works ot another kind. Tho
storing of the flood In reervolr at th
headwater ot our rivers la but an en
largement of our present policy of rlvr
control unaer wnicn levee ar duiii
the lower reach of the same atreama.
"Th aovernment ahould construct and
maintain the reservoir as lt doe other
publlo works. Where their purpose is to
regulate the flow ot streams the water
snouia n turneu rreeiy inio tne cnanneis
tn the dry season to lake the aam court
under the aam lawa aa the natural flow,
"The reclamation and settlement of th
arid lands will enrich every portion of
our country, Just a th settlement of th
Ohio and Mississippi vallea hrouiht pros
peril y to the Atlantic state. The In
creased demand for manufactured arti
cles will stimulate Industrial production,
whll wider home market and th trad
of Asia will consume the larger food tup
piles and effectually prevent western
competition with eastern agriculture. In
deed, Ihe products or Irrigation will be
consumed chiefly In upbuilding local cen
ter of mining and other Indumtrle which
would othrwls not come Into existence
at all. Our peopl a a whole will profit,
for successful homemaklng la but another
nam for tho upbuilding oi the nation."
H counsels against attempting too much
at the beginning, but advlsea ttatt we let
experience on a small plan teach the pos
sibilities of greater undertakings. He also
cits Ihe condition under which the set
tler of th west ar attempting to build
home on these arid Unds, and sayti
"Th security and value of th homea
created depend largely on the stability of
titles to water, but Ihe majority of thee
rest on th uncertain foundation of court
decision rendered In ordinary suite at
law. With a few creditable exceptions,
ihe arid states have failed to provide for
Ihe certain and Just division of streams In
timet ot scarcity. Mx and uncertain lawa
have made it possible to establish right
lo water In excess of actual uses or ne
cessities, and many streams hava already
passed Into private ownership or a control
equivalent to ownership.
"Whoever" control a stream practically
controls th land It renders productive, and
th doclrln of private ownership of water
apart from land cannot prevail without
causing enduring wrong. The recognition
ot such ownership, which haa been per
mitted to grow up In the arid regions,
should give way to a more enlightened and
larger recoxntllon ot the right of th pub
lic In th control and disposal of th pub
llo water supplies. Laws founded upon
condition obtaining In humid' rgtons,
where water Is too abundant to Justify
hoarding It, have no proper application In
a dry country.
"In the arid atatea the only r!ght.lo water
which should !e recognised Is that ot me.
In Irrigation this right should attach to
th land reclaimed and b Inseparable
thsrefrom, (J ranting perpetual water
right tn other than usera without
compensation to the public Is open to all
th objection which apply to giving away
perpetual, franchises to the public utili
ties of ihe cities. A few of th western
stale haveiglready recognItd this and
have Incorporated In Iheir constitution
th doclrln of perpetual state ownership
of water."
The nnle.
Considerable attention I given the col
onle, and especially the Fhllipplne. Thl
section nt th melange begins by citing
th need of Hawaii and 1'orto lllco, of
which he aayai
"In Hawaii our nlm must be to develop
the territory on Ihe traditional Anurlcau
line,. We do not wish a region of large
etate tilled by chtap labor. Wo ulh a
heitithy American community of men
who themselves (111 the farm they own..
All our I'Klfttatlon (or the Island ehotild
lie ahapfd wlth thla end In view. The well
bHng uf tho average homeuiukcr must
affonl the true test nf the healthy toe.
opmeiit ot the Islands, Thb land pilU'y
ahould a nearly ua foaaible be modtled
sqie our Iwuyslead ajtrm"M, , ,
Ot Furfo'lClcd he auy th Island It thriv
ing ag netr brore,.And It tu'trur adrnjnls
feirfl entctentir'gmnionratty "tn deem
no legislation neceeanry except that con
cent In: the public land nt the Island,
II calls nttrnthm lo the fact that In
Cuba Jbt independent nave rj-.turut of the
Island will soon ba In control, and In Ihe
tame connection urgr strongly the need
ot rcclprocil trade. reUt'n ulih Ihe new
nation, upoh which subjtct heraii. '
"In the care of Fub.t there are weighty
reasor.s of morn lit y and of national J mer
est why the pMlcy ahould be held lo hav
a pecunar pill(-atl;n. and I most earnest
y ask out ultent'on.td the wlidom.lr.deed
to the vtlnl nerd, of providing for a tub
etantlal reduction In ihe tariff duties on
Cubs n Imports Into the Frilled Htates.
Fuba hat In her constitution nlhrmcd what
we desired Untune should stand In Inter
national matters In closer brd-more friend
ly relations with us than vlth any other
power, and we are bound by every consid
eration -At honor ami cxpMJepcv.fn piiss
commercial measures In ihe Interest of
her materia! welt being."
For the Fhlllpplne he recommends much
In the way pt 4egllallan. but Ualn court
tela caution that we go neither ion far nor
wllh too great haste. Ilesayst "We hope
to make our administration of the IslaiNla
honorable to our nation ty tnaklnrtl of the
highest benefit to the Filipinos themeUe(
and a an earnest of what we Intend to do
we,; point lo'v what, -we have crone,
Already a greater mrasure or material
prosperity , and of governmental honesty
and efTtchincy hat been attained! In th
1'hlllnplne than ever before In their his
tory." H ay we do-not desire to do for the
Inlander "merely w hat haa elaewhere been
done for tropic people by even the best
fdrelgn governments. We hop to do for
them what ha never before been done for
any people of the tropic to make them
lit ror self-government after th fashion of
the really free nations." ,
Hut tin Idea of the president It thatVe
cannot leave the litamlt at thlt time, of
which he sas: "To leave the Island at,
this time would mean that they nould
fall Into a welter of murderous amlTcny.i
Huch a desertion of duty on our part
would bo a crime against humanity."
Hut he believe suttlrlent-'progrcre has
been made along the lines under which we
hava been working In the Island tn war
rant us In passing new legislation, but In
mis conrtcciinn tie (intra me neea oi rail
4tlon. Ha believes ihe time has come when
the IndnstrUs of which the Islands are
capable should be encouraged by granting
franchise for their development, and of
this he says:
"Not litre better can be done for the Is
lands thnnMo Introduce Industrial' enter
prises. Nothing would benefit them to
much at throwing them open to iRduitrlal
development. 1 n a connection
hfleneM and mischief Is proverbial, and tha
opportunity to do remunerative work is
cours no buslnese man will go Into Itt
Fhlllpplne unless It Is to hts inte rest to
QQ so, sno it is immrnmj jy .... -
ot the Islands that he should go In. II
therefore necessary that the congrest
should past laws by which the resources
of the islands can be developed, o Mat
franchise (for limited terms oi years) can
b granted to companies doing business in
them and ry ncouragerr.ent be give n
to the Incoming of business men of every
"Not to permit thl 1 to do a wrong to
the Fhlllpplne. The franchises muu be
granted and the business permitted only
under regulation which will guarantee th
Islands against any kind of improper ex
ploltatlon. Hut the vast natural wMlth
of the Islands must be developed, and th
capital willing to develop It must b given
th opportunity. Th field must be thrown
open to Individusl enterprise, which has
been th real factor In th development of
very region over which our (lag ha flown.
It la urgently necessary to enact suitable
lawa dealing with general transportation,
mining, banking, currency, homesteads and
lh ma arifl nantnhln of the lands and
timber. Thee law will glv fre play to
Industrial enterprise, and the commercial
development which will surely follow will
anora to in people oi in inanu i
best proof of the sincerity ot our desire
The construction of a Faclfto cable la
also urged, either that the government
lay such a cable to connect Hawaii and
the Fhlllpplne, or that an arrangement
be made by which the advantage ac
cruing from a government cabl may be
secured to the government by contract
with a private cable company. Thl he
deem necessary for both commercial.
political and military consideration.
The lathraUn Canal.
lie calls attention lo the need ot on
Isthmian canal, and says
"Its Important to the nation la by no
meana limited merely to Its material ef
fect upon our business prosperity, and
yt with a view to these effects alon It
would bo to the last degree Important
for us Immediately to begin It. While it
beneficial effect" would per hap be moat
marked upon the Pacific coaat and Ihe
gulf and south Atlantic stales, tt would
also greatly ben-nt other eectlnne. It la
emphatically a work which It 1 for the
Interest of th entire country to begin
and rnmnleln a a annn aa noaslblei tt la
one of those great work which only a
great nation can undertake with proa
pect of success and which when done
aro not only permanent asset In the na
tion' material Interest, hut standing
monument tn Its constructive ability."
Of the new treaty recently concluded
with F.ngland he es "1 am glad to h
abl to announce to yon that our negotia
tion" on ini uujecc wnu ureal iiinain.
conducted on both sides In a spirit of
friendliness and mutual good will and re
spect, hav resulted In my being abl to
lay before Ihe senate a treaty which It
ratified will enable us to hegtn prepirattont
for an isthmian canal at any lime ar.d
which guarantees to ihl nation every right
that It haa ever asked In connection with
ihe canal. In thl treaty Ihe old Clayton
llulwer treaty, so lorg recognised aa In
adequate to supply the base for the con
struction ard maintenance of a necessarily
American ship canal, 1 abrogated. It spe
dally provides that the Fnltrd Htatea
alone shall do th wnrk of building and
assume the responsibility or safeguarding
th canal and shall regulate It neutral us
by all patient on term of equality
without th guarantee or Interference
of any outside nation from any quar
ter. The algned treaty will at once
lie laid before the senate, and If ap
proved th congress can then proceed to
give effect to the advantage It secure a
ut byprovldtng for the building ot the
The Monroe Iloetrlsie.
The president set forth the objects of
tha Monroe doctrine, and th spirit in
which It ha been received by other
countries, and In connection wllh It say
thl nation ha not the slightest desire tn
acquire any territory at the expense nf
any of our nelshhor. and cite our atti
tude Inward Cuba aa a guarantee of our
5ood faith. He aaya also Ihat "thla
oclrln has nothing lo do with the com
mercial relation of any American power
av that It In truth altowa each of them
lo form such a It desire." That "w
do not ask for any exclusive commercial
treaty with any other American state."
He ay of this!
"The Monroe doctrine ahould he the
cardinal reature nt th foreign policy of
all the natlona of the two America a
tt It of the United Klate. Just ?t yean
have pasaed since President Monro In
hla annual message announced that 'the
American continent ar henceforth not
to be considered a subject for future
cnlonlxallon by any Huropean power,' In
other words, the Monroe doctrine la a
declaration that there must bo no terri
torial aggrandisement by any non-American
power at the expense nf any Ameri
can power on American toll. It It In no.
wise Intended a hostile to any nation In
th old world. HUH lest It It Intended to
give tover to any aggression by one nw
world power at the expense of any other.
It la simply i step, and ft lot,g step, tn
wart assuring the universal peace nf Ihe
world by securing the possibility of per
manent peace on thla hemisphere."
The president urges the continued up
building of. .the Jiavy na a meant of per
tormlrg our international duttet aa well at
a protection and safeguard for our Inter
nn llona I rights. He urges-that our place
as a first-class power necessitates th
building and maintenance of a navy In
keiplrm with our place among the natlor.a
of tne world, and rajs:
"Ho far from being In any way a provo
cation to war an adrquate and highly
trained na'vy Is th best guarantee ag.ilnst
war, Ihe cheapest and most effective peace
lneurance. The cost nf bulhllnrtrd main
taining such n navy represents th very
lightest pmnlum for thsurlrgpcar which
thl nation ran porslbl) !'
Ha recnm mcmls Imth thi construction
of more ship nnd Ihe addition uf more
oft) err nnd men ,a ibaolutcly necessary
and says;
TThrro should he no cessation In the
work of eomplettntf our navy. ,Ho far In
genully lvwt been .wholly unnble to devise
a tihlhire for" tho gre.it wnrcmftnvhnse
hammering gun beat nut the mastery of
the high ecu a, It I unsafe and unwUe
not lo provide Ihl year ror several addi
tional btttleahljiN nnd heavy urmnred
cruiser. WIth""htWlluiry'and lighter f.raft
In proportion. For the exact number and
rhurat'trr I retr you, to the rrjtort of the
afrreliry nf the mivy 'Hut there 1 some
thing w need even more thnn nddltlnnHt
ships, ond thl I additional nfllrer nnd
men. To provide hnltlmhlp nnd cruln
ersnnd then l.iy them up, with ih ex.
peclntlon of Icitvlpg them unmanned uh
tll they are needed In nrtjul war, would
be worae than folly. It, would 'he a crime
against the nation.
"To tend any worship it gainst n, compe.
tent ; enemy tin lean tho'e aboard It have
tfeen triiincd by yr nf actual acu'eerv
Ice, Including lncemin gunnery prac
tice, would 1m) to Invite not merely dla
aater, but the bitterest shame nnd humll
latHn. Four thousand additional ea
men nnd a thousand nddlHonal mtrlnea
ho.iH be provided, aid on Increase In
the officer should -be provided by making
a large addition to thtiiclassea nt Annap
olis. There ta one small matter which
hould 1m mentioned fn connection with
Annapnll. Th pretentious and unmean
ing title of 'naval cadet' should tm abol
ished: the title of 'midshipman,' full, of
historic nssoqiAtron. should be restored.
"e now nave i, n.iTtiesnin annrnni
ated for. cf which nine are completed
and have been commst..oned for nctu.il
service. The rematnUig eight will be
ready In frvm t to.four year.- hut It
w;U leVe a .least thatAlme to rrcrutt and
train the men to flghtlhem.. It l of vast
concern that we havedrnlncd crewa ready
for ttie veJa hy tho time they hre-com-missioned,
flood ship und good guns ar
simply good weapons, and the best
weapona are tutefesa aavo in the hands of
meii.who know, how to fight with Ihem.
Tho' men must he trained anJ drlllrd un
der a thorough and well-planned system'
of progressive Instruction, white the. re.
cruitlnK must, be, carried on with still
greater vigor. livery effort muet b mad
tn exact theVmntn function ot the nfllrer
the command of men. The leading grad
tmtes of the naval ncademy should ho as
signed to Ihe combatant branches,1 the
line and marine." ,
The Army. ' ' "
No Increase In the . regular army la
deemed necessary. at this time, but 'there'
art several changea In.ihat branch. of th
government service which the prVsMent
recommend to congress, Chief of these
It the estRbltshment of a staff 'department,
and .of this hesaa;
"A general staff should be created. At
for tht Rtnerat staft and aupply depart
ment, they should be fllUd by details
from th Hoc, th men to detailed return
ing alter awhile to their line duties. It la
very undesirable to have th senior gradea
of the army composed of men who hav
con to fill th position by the mer fact
o seniority, A s)ttem should be adopted
by WniCn tnr Wiail um Mil iiim.uuii
jrid by grad of those who teem unfit
to render th best service In the next
rrai-. J uit ica to the veterans ot tha
civil war who ar still In the army would
seem to require tnav in tne ramir ui re
tirements they D given uy law ine same
f rlvlleget accorded to their comrade la
be navy," , . , .
Another recommendation which th prea-
Mnt makea In connection With the army
It lor th reduction of the "paper wow
of in service. Known to enc puuuo aa ru
tape." Of ihl he tayti
Kvery effort ahould b made to bring
th army to a constantly Increasing atat
ot efficiency. When on actual service, no
work tave that directly In th tine of auch
service should be required. The ("P"
work In th army, at In th navy, should
b greatly reduced. What la needed la
proved power of command and capacity
to work well tn th rtld. Constant oar
Is necessary to prevent dry rot In tha
traniportatfon and commissary depart
ments." . .
He also urge the enactment ot lcglt
latlon In connection with th mltltta and
national guard forces of the natton that
they may be better fitted for active serv
ice tn time ot war, and says:
"Our militia law It obsolete and worth
Us. The organlxatlon and armament of
the national guard ot the ssveral atates,
which ar treated a militia tn the ap
propriation by th congress, should bt
made Identical with those provided for
the regular forces. Th obligation and
duties of th guard In tlma ot war should
he carefully defined and a aytlem estab
lished by law under which the method ot
procedure of raising volunteer force
should b prescribed in advance. It la ut
terly Impossible In the excitement and
haste of Impending war to do thla satis
factorily It the arrangements have not
been made long beforehand. Fro vision
thoutd be made for utilising In the first
volunteer organisation cafid out th
training of those citliens who hav al
ready had experience under arma, and
esneclallv for tha "election In aJvanca of
I the officer of any force which may be
raiavui lor caret ui "election ot lite Kina
necessary It impossible after th outbreak
of war.,f
He praise the veteran nf th civil war,
the war with Hpatn and thoso who have
rendered the nation valiant aervlce tn the
Indian uprising of Ihe west and In th
Fhlllpplne. and counsel continued lib
rallly In the natlon'a dealing with them.
The Civil Service.
II recommend the enactment of legl.
latlon that will plac under th ruling
ot tha merit system many class ot em
ployee not now governed by It, Hla rec
ommendation for thlt It aa follows;
"I recommend th passage of a law
which will extend the classined service to
the liltlrlct ot Columbia or will nt least
enable the president thut fo extend It.
In my Judgment all lawa providing for
the temporary employment of clerk
should hereafter contain a provision that
they be selected under the cltll tervlc
He alto wishes the merit system to ob
tain In tho government ervlc In tho
colonic, and aaya.
"Not an office ahould be filled In Ih
Thllipplnea or Forio Itlto wllh any rrgard
lo th mm'i partisan affiliation or serv
Ices, with any regard to the political, so
cial or peraiial influence eihlch he may
have at hla command. In abort, heed
ahould be paid to absolutely nothing save
the man t own character and capacity
and the needa of the aervloe,
"The administration of these islands
ahould be a wholly fre from th aus
plclon ot partisan politic a th admin
istration of the army and navy, All that
5fit?"k. ,rom '.h PuWto arvant In Ih
Fhlllpplne or Forto lllco I that he re
flect honor on hla country by the way In
which he make that country' rules a
V nr Popte who have come un
der It. Thl Is all that w should ask.
?." cnnot BrCora 10 ba content with
Olher Re com men da Hon.
Among other recommendations which tho
President mkes are those asking for leg.
Islatlonthatwlll Improve th ronsularserv
Ice along line outlined In bills Introduced
at previous sessions, and he says thttt
"It It true Ihat th service Is now In "he
main efficient, but a standard or excellence
cannot be permanently maintained until
the principles tet forth In the bills here
tofore submitted to th congress on thlt
aubject aro enacted into law."
b.n,Vf; ltX ,tm h" orrlved when
th Indian should cas to b treated at a,
membtr of a tribe, but aa an Individual,
and recommends breaking up the tribal
fund, putting a stop to the Indiscriminate
permission to Indians to leas their allot,
ment and stopping th ration system. If
recommendi alio the establishment of aa
Industrial educational system, and an en
deavor to encourage Ih Indiana to becom
cattto raisers rather than agrlcMimrittt
whrr their lande are ur.sulted to tTTe latter.
He i recommend liberal appropriation for
th Louisiana Furchaa exposition and an
appropriation covering expense Incurred
by the Charleston exposition In removing
government exhibits from the Uuffalo ex
position to that at Charleston.
Another ot his recommendations for
a permanent census bureau, at It would In
aura better, cheaper and mora satisfactory
work In th Interest of business, statistics,
tconomlo and social aclence.
The Postal gervlrr.
He call attention to the growth of the
rotiai yim ana to the fact that the an
nual deficit In thlt department of th gov
ernment service ha been reduced lo Ihe
email sum of ,S:3.:T; This, he-says, could
further be Increased and possibly a surplus
thnwn but for th fact that many publi
cations are now securing the pound rata
a second-clan mall matter which ars-not
entitled .tn th same -under the law. Of
this he say; '
"Th full measure of postal prpgrcst,
Whlrh might be rrallxrd hat long teen
hampered and obstructed by th heavy
burden Imposed on. Ihe guernmr-nt
through the Intrenched jtnd well-understood
abuses which have grown In con
nection' with second-class - malt matter.
The extent of this burden appear when It
la atated that, whit the second-class mat
ter make nearly ihreo-flftht or the weight
of all the mall, It paid for th last fiscal
year only t.Vt,4is of th aggregate rosttil
revenue ot SIU31.1M. If the pound rate'
of postage which produce the. large Ion
thus entailed and which wa fixed by the
cotigreea tvlth the purpose or enoou racing
the dissemination of publlo information,
were limited to the lerltlmate newspapers
and periodical actually contemplated by
the'law, no Just exception could be tnhen.
That -expense would be the ocognlxed and
accepted cost of a liberal public policy de
lihcrattly adopted for n JunifJtiWe end.
Hut much of the matter which enjoya the
privileged rate' is wholly outside of the
Intent of ihe law and lias secund admis
sion only through an' evasion tvf Its r,
ntilremrnte or. through lax construction.
The proportion of such wrongly Included
matter 1 estimated by postal experts to
be one-half of the whole ottitne of second
class mall. Ifilt'he only one-third or ope
quarter, the magnitude of the burden Is
apparent. The post office department ha
now undertaken to remove ihe abue so
far aa possible hy a stricter application
of the law and It should bo austalned la
Its effort,"
The Chinese Ilimenltlee.
Ite rails attention to the satisfactory
settlement of the Chinese difficulties of
mai . ypjir.i nn.4 cuif .nation pari in tne
settlement, and says provisions 'have
been made for tn mi ring the future safety
of the foreign representatives. Of th
promise mnue byJflilrui h says:
"Th Chinese government haa agreed to
participate financially In the work ot bet
tering Ihe witter approaches to Hhanghal
and to Tientsin, the1 centers of foreign
trade In central and northern China, and
an International' conservaacy board, in.
iuvu viuwF'inm-nt is largely
represented, ha been provided for the
Improvement of the Khanf bftt river and
the control of its navigation. Tn the same
Hue of commercial advantages a revision'
ot the present torlft on Import hat bn
assented to for th purpoie of substitut
ing specific fur, ad valorem duties, and au
expert ling been m abroad onthe-pdrt '
ItvVh'iJ.,(U.',l.8u.t.eVt5 ""'at In thla .
W0.rk'-.AJl,Jt ol.frttclfa to remain free of
dutv, tnrludingrflnur, crrenla i TaM,-rMe
Cold ood silver coin and bullion, ha also
een agreed upon In'the settlement."
In conclusion, he mentions the Tan .
A?lerl,n.eo.nleMn?w ln Mlon at tho
City h'MexicoJ and'Wers to the getth of f,
Qu'fP-y ctor a and live, dowager eraoTesa '
in c.ernuinr. wnicn aroused the genuine
aympVhy of the. people ?f,thls couatry
which aymn4ihv wa fully reciprocated
by the people..0fboth1th-i nations Tup"
th assassination of President McKlnley.

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