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bh HkhhHh abb BHBh SOME BRIGHT YOUNG MISSOURIANS WHO ARE STUDYING AGRICULTURE. S THE MISSOURI AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, COLUMBIA, MO. ROW ARE THE MEN WHO TEACH THEM. SOME OF THE STUDENTS OF IN THE FRONT The Missouri Agricultural College. COLUMBIA. MISSOURI. Short Course Begins January 3, 1905 "Missouri does not know her Agricultural College." This was the remark made to me by a gentleman prominent in the late polit ical battle. These words are true but not strange. In one short decade every depart ment of the University of Missouri has made marvellous growth and it is no won der that people have lost sight of the de partment so near the interests of a vast number of the citizens of this com monwealth. It is hard to appreciate the immensity of the University as a whole with its nine departments and five hundred subjects covering almost every branch of human 'knowledge but much harder to single out one of its departments and hold it before you as it marches on to greater usefulness. The Missouri Agricultural Col lege is one of the Institutions founded by the Federal government In those good old early days when land was plentiful and so productive that it was considered useless for a boy to spend time learning how to make two blades grow in place of one. If two blades were wanted two fields were was manager of a creamery last year and this year has charge of the creamery and dairy business on the State Farm, where milk and butter are made every day. M. F. Miller and E. B. Forbes are also engaged in actual farm operations. Now these facts alone tend to make instruction practical but more than these, students do things just as they ought to do them on the farm. The boys judging the horse and working in the black smith shop and the orchard as shown in the pictures are going at the work to learn it by doing it. In the class rooms are the poul try and the field crops actually studied. In this way the very kernel of the subject is presented, and the boy goes back to the farm knowing something worth knowing. A Winter's Opportunity. To make this instruction available just when farmers can best take advantage of it is another exceedingly practical part of the College. This winter, beginning January 3, 1905, eight weeks' courses will be given in Stockjudging, Dairying, Horticulture, Ani mal Husbandry and Farm Crops. MISSOURI RIVER PEACH LANDS. J. D. Fay, of JefTerson City, reports that despite the failure of the peach crop in many parts of the State, his young trees on the Missouri river hills produced a good crop, most of which he disposed of at $1.50 a bushel. SPRINGFIELD TO HAVE PASTEURIZED MILK. The retail milk -dealers of Springfield, Mo . have combined to supply the city with better milk. They have built a fine brick creamery and pasteurizing plant where practically all the milk used in the city is pasteurized. All milk or cream not used by the trade is here made into butter. THE MOST PROFITABLE AGE TO FEED CATTLE. It requires about one-half as much grain to produce a hundred pounds of gain on calves as on two year olds. The work of the Missouri Agricultural College has defi nitely demonstrated that the most profit able age to fatten cattle is while they are still young. The older the animal the more food is required to produce a given gain. Other stations have also investigated this question and have arrived at the same re sult. The Central Experiment Station Farm at Ottawa. Canada, found by comparing one thousand pounds live weight in the case of calves, yearlings, two and three year olds, that the profit for each one thousand pounds was: For calves $31 " For yearlings 27 00 For two year olds 19 For three year olds . 12 80 A PRACTICAL LESSON IN FRUIT GROWING. MAKE CUTTINGS NOW. Few people realize how simple a matter it is to propagate one's own grape vines, currants, gooseberries and most orna mental shrubs. If the work is properly done these plants may be readily propa gated by means of cuttings made late in tha lo-i i-na arp off Of the ituiuuiu auci 1 11 .. .... plants but preferably berore cold weather comes on. Only well ripened mature wood that has grown during the preceding sum mer should be selected for making the cut tings, all soft or immature parts being dis carded. The cuttings themselves should be made six to ten inches long, and the base of each should be cut squarely just below a bud so the bud Is retained at the lower end. These cuttings should be tied up in bundles of convenient size, say, one hun dred in a bundle, their butts, or basal ends, all one way, well shaken down so as to stand level on a flat table. They may then be kept through the winter in a cellar or callus pit. Storing for Winter. If one has a good cool cellar which is not too dry. it will be a good place to keep the cuttings until time to plant in the spring. They will keep best if packed in moist sawdust, though slightly moist soil or sand will do.' Fresh, moist sawdust is best be cause it is neither wetter nor drier than the wood of the cutting itself. Place about two inches of the moist saw dust in the bottom of a box and stand the cuttings in, base downward, so that the smoothly cut end of each will be pressed firmly upon the sawdust, so as to enable it to- take up any necessary moisture through the cut surface in case there is a tendency to dry out. As soon as the boxes are filled with the cuttings sawdust should be shaken in among them so as to fill all air spaces as far as possible, and the tops covered with two or three inches of sawdust to keep them from drying out If the cellar is very dry a wooden cover may be placed over the box to prevent dry ing. If the cellar is fairly. moist and espec ially if it is warm, it is best not to cover the box, as the cuttings will be more liable to mould if covered. When Spring Comes. By spring most of these cuttings will have put out a callus where the butt of the cutting comes in contact with the moist sawdust This callus is the first start towards making a root system. In many cases even the roots themselves will be produced before spring. Upon the approach of spring, as early as the soil can be worked and before the buds on the cuttings have begun to grow, they should be planted out in good garden soil. The rows should be about four feet apart, to admit of easy cultivation, and the cut tings should be set very firmly in the soil, so as to leave no air spaces about them, r sir. A PROFITABLE FEEDING STEER. FIGHT THE INSECTS. This is the time of year to begin to fight the various insects that injure stored seeds, grain and dried fruits. It is absolutely necessary that the seed be threshed or the corn be husked, and that all grain or seed be placed in a tight room, box or bin, in which all cracks and crev ices should be stopped up as far as possi ble. Your Weapon of Warfare. When the cracks have been carefully stopped, turn on top of the grain two (2) pounds of bisulphide of carbon for every one thousand cubic feet of room space re gardless of the amount of grain or seed that may be in the room. The room should then be closed up tightly lor tnree aays, mm the expiration of which it may be opened and aired out thoroughly. It is absolutely essential that the bisul phide of carbon be placed on top of the grain, since this substance evaporates im mediately and as the fumes are heavier than the air, they will settle and penetrate every crack and crevice, and kill whatever animal may be there. If the bisulphide of carbon is placed in small dishes on the floor it will evaporate, but the fumes will not extend more than a foot or so above and the entire mass of grain or seed will not be fumigated. Where Dried Fruits Are Fumigated. In using bisulphide of carbon to kill in sects in dried fruit it is a good plan to place the fruit in paper bags or boxes or barrels, removing the same to an outbuilding. Satu rate a rag with the bisulphide of carbon and place the same on top of the dried fruit and close up the box or barrel or bag, leav ing it closed for three days or more, then air thoroughly. No Danger. Keep Up the Fight. Bisulphide of carbon will not injure the grain or seed or fruit for eating or for germination purposes. This fumigating process should be repeated in a month or six weeks in order to kill those insects that may have been inside of the seed and com pletely enclosed so that the fumes of the bi sulphide of carbon could not reach them, but which insects have by this time emerg ed and are about to deposit eggs for an other generation. One Precaution. The only precaution necessary in hand ling the bisulphide of carbon is not to en ter the room while the fumes of this sub stance can be detected with a lantern or lighted pipe or any trace whatever of a light or fire. It cannot be exploded by handling. Bisulphide of carbon can be obtained from the manufacturers in fifty pound drums for ten cents a pound. J. M. Stedman. TWO KINDS OF FEEDING STEERS. The highest priced beef animals always possess a certain distinct conformation or type. Such cattle are usually broad, deep, straight-backed animals. The shoulders, hips, ribs and loins are well covered with thick firm flesh. The head and neck are relatively short and thick. The Profitable Feeding Steer represents such a type fed at the Missouri Experiment Station during the winter of 1901-2. This individual gained 1.3 pounds per day on a daily ration of six pounds of corn and seventeen pounds of cowpea hay. The picture below represents an inferior feeding steer. He is of the same age and breed as the one above. He was fed for the same length of time on the same amount of grain and cowpea and sorghum hay. He gained only 1.1 pounds daily. The Profitable Steer was in good condition at the end of the feeding experiment while the unprofitable one would require a long time properly to finish for the market. The in dications of inferiority in this animal are. a large head, long thin neck and coarse shoulders. The top line and bottom line are not straight. The legs are too long and the body too shallow. The rangy appear ance of this animal is intensified by sharp hips and pin bones and rather long narrow back and flat ribs. The heart girth is de ficient and no part of him can be called thick fleshed. F. B. Mumford. AN UNPROFITABLE FEEDING STEER. CLOVER HAY FOR FATTENING CAT TLE. The Missouri Agricultural College has shown that a limited amount of corn fed with clover hay can be made a very profita ble ration for feeding cattle. The Missouri Agricultural College has during several win ters produced two pounds of gain per day on cattle by feeding six pounds of corn each and an average of about seventeen pounds of clover hay. An exactly similar lot of cattle fed six pounds of corn and fif teen pounds of clover hay, made a gain of only one pound per day and head. When large amounts of clover hay are not avail able, we have found that mixing equal parts of clover hay and corn stover has re sulted in a gain of 1 3-4 pounds of gain a day per head. Two pounds per day is a reasonably good gain when cattle are fed a heavy grain ration of 18 to 20 pounds daily. The cost of the clover hay and six pounds of corn is measurably less than the heavy grain ration, and the gains resulting are nearly identical. The grain ration has this advantage that it will finish the ani mals somewhat more quickly and put them in condition to fulfill the market require ments. F- B. Mumford. -A GOOD HORSE IS THE SUBJECT OF THIS LESSON. called Into service. But all thin has changed as our public domain has bean exhausted '. and soil fertility drained by these early ex ploiters. It is becoming apparent on every hand that these things coincident with our increasing population make it imperative that two blades must be made to grow in stead of one. To do this it is conceded that more attention must be given to prepara tion for this, our fundamental industry. Popular appreciation of this fact in Mis souri seems to me to be evidenced by a one hundred per cent increase in attendance at the Missouri Agricultural College this year. And yet this is not exactly an index of what people think of the matter. It tells but part of the story. People believe in education for the farmer but they do not believe in that education which has no bearing upon the practical problems of farm life. And this is what people think of the instruction offered by an agricultural college. This was my opinion in twenty-three years upon the farm and I had a host of neighbors who shared it with me. An agricultural college to us meant an aggregation of kid-gloved gentlemen who knew about as much about farming as it had to be done by the plain, practical tiller of the soil as an Igorrote Joes of the manipulations of the New York stock exchange. But some of us have come and have seen. We were wrong, at least so far as the Missouri Agricultural College Stockjudging. The course in stockjudging will give the farmer just the knowledge he will need when he wants to buy or sell a horse, a cow or a bunch of cattle and hogs. Dairying. . ' The Dairy Course will treat of such sub jects as What Cow Shall I Buy for the Dairy? How May I Know a Good Dairy Cow? What Will it Pay me to feed Her? How Shall I Handle the Milk? -and a hun dred other questions that arise -every day in the dairy. Horticulture. . Horticulture will be treated in the same way. Where Shall I Pqt the .Orchard? What Trees Shall I Plant? How Shall I Cultivate Them? How Shall I Keep the In- ' sects from Injuring Them? How Shall I Pick and Market My Fruit? and other sim ilarly ni.ictical subjects will be considered. -Animal Husbandry. Animal -Husbandry will ask and answer: What Kind of Farm Animals Will It Pay Me to Keep? How shall T Breed Them? How shall I Make Money Feeding Them? What Shall I do for Them "When They Get Sick? and many other questions equally to the point . , . . Farm Crops. What Shall I Grow This Year? What Seed m invested in feeding cattle was: For calves $557 50 For yearlings 284 00 For two year olds 198 75 For three year olds 177 50 Nine-tenths of all the cattle fed in the Middle West are two year olds at the be ginning of the feeding period. When these cattle are in thin condition at the be ginning of the experiment, they are often fed with profit; but starting with calves in the same condition it is unquestionably true that the calves return more profit for each thousand dollars invested than the older cattle. . F. B. Mumford. be given clean cultivation and hoed to keep down all weeds during the summer, when usually an excellent growth of plants will be secured. If one has grape vines which he wishes to propagate but which he does not know the name of so as to enable him to order more from the nursery, he may easily prop agate them in this manner. Currants, gooseberries, the Marianna and Golden Beauty plums, some varieties of quinces, the barberry, spirea, mockorange, privet and most varieties of shrubs, as well as willows, poplars and some other vari eties of forest trees, root readily from cut tings handled in this manner. J. C. Whitten. For some years the Missouri Agricultural College '-as been making experiments to de termine whether it is possible to improve corn by breeding. The results indicate that a thoroughbred corn is not only possible but is absolutely essentia to the best yields. In many cases the yield of corn can be in creased from 5 to 20 bushels per acre in a few years by the proper selection of seed. There is the same chance for the improve ment of corn by a careful selection of ears as there is for the improvement of live stock by a careful selection of animals and since it is increased weight per acre that is most important in corn, we must know the charac ter of the ear which will bring this result. A MONEY MAKING COW. A MONEY LOSING COW. A QUESTION OF COWS. Why will farmers worth from $5,000 to $10,000 work for 5c an hour? How can a man who has head enough to make a good living for himself and family and lay up money besides, be content with such a wage even for a portion of the day? This very thing is being done every day by men who keep in the dairy, cows that pay their owner only $5.00 a year after they have paid their board. There are thousands of such being kept in the State. They are those sh'aHow bodied, ' long legged crea tures, such as "The Money Losing Cow." This cow when put to a careful test was not able to make butter for less than 13.8c. a pound. This is for food only and does not include care or barn rent. The cow got all the food she would eat but she was not able to eat enough over and above that which was required to keep her own body, to en able her to do economical work. Why waste labor on such an animal when the same stable and same care with a cow such as the "Money Making Cow" will make a good profit? This cow made butter for 4.27c. per pound. The net profit on her in one year was $85.17. While caring for a cow of this kind the farmer will be making about 90c. an hour or at the rate of $9.00 a day. R. M. Washburn. LEARNING HOW TO RAISE POULTRY. is concerned. In the first place the men who give the instruction are actually en gaged in the thing they teach. W. L. How ard and J. C. Whitten have a fruit farm of their own on the Missouri river hills; F. B. Mumford is actually engaged in cattle feed ing, having just completed the largest sin gle 'experiment ever performed for the'Fsd eral government He also owns and oper ates a large stock farm. R. M. Washburn Shall I Plant? What Time Should I Plant it? How Shall I Prepare the Ground? are questions every farmer asks himself before beginning work In the spring. The Short Course answers them. In the light of these disclosures was the gentleman wrong when be said "Missouri Does Not Know Her Agricultural College' There is more to tell you. Write for It. Fred Kelsey. A TEST OF WHEAT VARIETIES. Tests of seventy wheat varieties at the Missouri Agricultural College the past sea son show some remarkable differences in the yields and indicate the most suitable varieties for the soil and climate of this state. Most of the seed was secured from Missouri, Kansas, Indiana, Ohio and Mich igan. It was planted on uniform soil and given uniform treatment throughout the season. The 10 varieties showing the high est yields in the order named, were. Nig ger, Mortgage Lifter, Lebanon, Economy. Deitz, Valley, Early Ripe, Lehigh and New American Banner, the yields' ranging from 28.61 bushels to 23.71 bushels per acre. All these showed a fair weight per measured bushel excepting the last, which fell to 53 pounds. Missouri Fultz was used as a standard for comparison In the tests, every third plot being planted to this vari ety. The average yield of these Fultz plolb fell a little below- the last of the above or 22.43 bushels. Too much dependence can not be placed on these results, as they are for a single year, but some of the -more im portant varieties, notably Nigger, Valley and Early Ripe have given large yields in some nearby states and are especially worthy of trial in Missouri. M. F. Miller. A SOIL TEST BEFORE SOWING AL FALFA. Many Missouri soils if not too acid will grow alfalfa. If yours is acid you must cor rect the acidity before you go any further. To find out about the acid, step into any drug store and buy a little blue litmus pa per.. Take a handful of soil and put it into a glass, moisten it to a paste, insert your paper and let the experiment stand over night Next morning if you find the litmus papef 'has turned red or reddish, there is acid in the soil and alfalfa will not grow until this is corrected. Lime will correct this condition and an application of 1,000 to 2,000 pounds of well air slacked should be made some days before seeding and thor oughly worked into the soil. VERY DESIRABLE SEED EARS. An ideal ear of corn is about ten inches long and it is about seven and one-half Inches In circumference measured at a point one-third the distance from butt to tip. Ears larger around usually have too large a cob. The shape of the ear should be nearly cylin drical; that is, it should be only slightly smaller near the tip than near the butt. This is important in order that the kernels may be uniform in size and shape and that there shall be a large proportion of corn to cob. The tip of the ear should be well rounded out with kernels and the butt compact, even and well filled, with a smooth round depression about three fourths of an inch in diameter where the shank was attached. The rows of kernels should run straight from butt to tip with little space between them at either top or bottom. M. F. Miller. TWO FRUIT TREE ENEMIES. In many localities two of the worst ene mies of fruit trees are the rabbits in the early fall and winter and borers in the sum- mer. Both of these pests may readily be kept out by wrapping the trees as soon as planted with what is known as "wooden ve neer wrappers." These are a special kind of shingle made for the purpose, being about one-eighth of an inch thick, ten inches wide and from sixteen to twenty-four inches long. These wrappers are put up in bundles of one hundred each, and, having been made from green wood, are always more or less moist when received. If they beconxE dried out they should be soaked in a tub of water t for an hour or two before being used, as 'when dry they are likely to split when be ing wrapped around the trees. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE CAPTURES PRIZES. The Missouri Agricultural College won five grand prizes at the St. Louis Exposition in competition with the world. One of these was given for cattle feeding. A CLASS-ROOM AS IT APPEARS AT RECITATION HOURS. A CHICKEN MITE REMEDY. Mrs. Ida K. Tilson, Instructor in Poultry Farming at the Missouri Agricultural Col lege, and owner of a large poultry farm in Wisconsin, gives this remedy for chick en mites: First, let the chicken house be thoroughly sprayed three times a week with a solu tion of one teaspoonful of carbolic acid to the quart of water. A hand force-pump may be used for the purpose; second, let every fowl by means of a small bellows be dusted with pyrethum; third, let the interior of the house as soon as it is dry be painted with Carbolineum Avnarius. This is the process to go through when the mites are once started. It is sure death to them. When once re moved they can be kept out by having the house thoroughly clean and placing onion skins, dogfennel, persimmon leaves or best of all tansy upon the floor and in the nests, always using a fresh supply daily. Mrs. Tilson has tried this remedy her self with uniform success. MAKING PORK FOR PROFIT. Pork is made most economically on pas ture. Experiments at the Missouri Agricul tural CpJege show that with corn at 30 cents per bushel, it costs $2.79 to make 100 lbs. of pork where bluegrass is fed with the.' corn, with rape and corn the cost is $2.50 per hundred weight, with clover and corn it is "$2.30 per hundred weight, and with alfalfa and corn the cost of 100 lbs. of pork is but $2.13. Cattle Roughage Influenced Hog Gains. Hogs following steers in mud lots at the Illinois Station made 3.66 lbs of pork from every 100 pounds of whole corn fed to the steers when the roughage was corn stover and timothy and 3.'78 pounds of pork per 100 pounds corn fed to steers with clover for roughage. The hog gets the benefit of the clover fed to the steers. So he does of oil meal fed to steers. Some Dry Lot Hog Feeds. For dry lot or pen feeding of hogs the cheapest feed is corn supplemented by wheat middlings or oil meal. At the Mis souri Station we have made 100 pounds of pork from five parts of 30 per cent corn and one part of $24.00 oil meal at a cost of $2.75 per hundred weight At the same time we made 100 pounds of pork from two parts of corn and one part of $15.00 wheat middlings at a cost of $2.88. In the same experiment corn alone made pork at a cost of $3.53 per hundred weight - A bulletin on the feeding of nineteen lots of hogs in pens at this College is soon to be published. E. B. Forbes. HOW TO ATTACH FRUIT TREE WRAP PERS. To attach the wrappers, punch holes "about an inch from one edge and about four inches from the. top and' bottom; use num ber 19 wire, which is cut in pieces about a foot long; insert one of these wires about half of its length in each of the holes and twist once around to hold it in place. The wrappers should be placed around the trees loosely, leaving a good big air space so that the bark will- not be injured by unnec essary shading. Wind the two ends of each ( wire around the .wrajjper" and twist :half way 'around, tjo not make the mistake of twisting several times, as it, .will be neces sary to take off the wrappers 'once or. twice each season to -search far apy stray borer that may have found its way inside. ' The wooden wrappers' my be secured from nurserymen or any box and basket company in the larger cities. They should cost from $3.25 to $4;25 per thousand, de pending upon their length, the buyer pay ing the freight. For .peach trees sixteen inches is long enough and for .'apple trees the eighteen inch Wrappers are very con venient. These cost $3.25 to $S.50 per thou sand respectively. W, L. Howard. LEARNING SIMPLE FARM BLACKSMITHING.