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TILLERS OF THE SOIL!
An Interesting Two Days' Session of the Farmer's Institute Full Particulars of the Meetings. The Hull Count Fanner's Institute has come :tnl front', and those farmers who exhibited interest enough in the meetings to attend feel amply repaitl for tin1 timi' cuusumed in rubbing up against the men who constitute the state insti tute eorps. To have an opportunity to hear such men as T. 15. Terry, the great llitvr in clover. Abbot on agricultural education, John Patterson on dairying. T. O. Stanley on good roads. G. W. "Wa ters on stock feeding. Murray on horti culture, etc. is certainly it treat, or should be regarded as such by all pro gressive and intelligent farmers. Mr. X. K. Murra. who has Iwcn with the l:ard constantly since the institutes wen; begun, returned home Friday, and at once went to work, impressing upon our farmers tin- imj-ortance of attending these meetings. Mr. Murray presided at the Tuesday forenoon meeting, and in opening the meeting made a pnictitsil, sensible, hut brief talk. He thought the farmers in stitutes had lecn gaining friends, sine, their establishment, the farmers cspi ially realizing that much information could lie gained which would help them in adopting Iietter methods in cultivat ing the soil anil the breeding of sto-k and a more systematic farming. Mr. Murray introduced I'nif. Mum ford who spoke about the agricultural college and gave more information aliou! tilt much discussed agricultural college, than many of us would learn in a life time without the actual exierience. He said no one entered any business with out lirst becoming acquainted with the nature and requirem nts of the calling ana studying it so as to ie master 01 ins profession. In an agricultural comttiun ity everything dejK-nded upon the sue cess of the farmers, and when competi tion was so gn-at as now, it required close calculation for all tillers of the noil to make a profit. He must know his business. The agricultural college came in here to his assistance. The course of study brings out the theorry and prac tice." The student learns how to analyze the soil. It takes the student into the cattle shells, and each student learns the strong and weak iioints -and the various breeds are thoroughly under stood. They are taught to analyze the food so that they may know just what is required to produce the greatest quantity of beef, or milk, or butter. They have to face the conditions there just" as it is found on the farm. In the horticultural dejortment they are taught budding and grafting, etc. He sjwke of the short course of 12 weeks, beginning in January, that has lieen inaugurated at the college, and which he hoped would be crowded this winter. East year they had 25 students in this course and ex pected 50 this winter. The cost he said was 85, which with Ixiard and incidental exjienses would amount to $i0. Any young man he thought by taking this course would gain the experience that would take years of jcrsonal ex perience to acquire. He sjioke of the experimental stations established in the variros states for the purjiose of making experiments at the expense of the gov ernment. The report of all experiments are published and sent out to the peo pie so that they may get the benefit of these experiments. He cited the ex perimcnts that had been made in jrata to growing: amount of seed and kind of seed to plant; as to the number of eyes: four-fifths of the stations agreed that a whole potato would produce more jiota toes, but they also agreed that the extra amount of seed did not pay for the in crease of j-oattoesj'iroduced.butdid agree in general that about a half potato was the best amount of seed to plant. Uon being asked by J. D. Tritt as to whether cheese making was taught, Mr. Mum ford replied in the negative, because the apjiaratus had not yet been secured by reason of lack of the appropriation, but hoped it would come in the course- of the next vear. Mr. 'Menifee was glad that he had attended the meeting, and had learned much more alout the short winter course at the agricultural college than he had ever known before,and hojied our young farmers would take advant age of the opportunities offered. Prof. Muniford was first on the pro gram on Tuesday afternoon. Quite a fair audience was present. His subject was SHKE1-, and during his talk he mentioned that he had handled them several years at the Michigan experiment station. The professor said that of course he heard this remark in almost every com munity in Missouri. ''Yes, sheep may be all right, there arc none in this coun try." He then intimated that more should lie kept, and that there was more profit in it lhan in cattle. The number of sheep in the United States declined from 50,000,000 in 1881 to 38.000,000 in 1890, and in this state, from one and one millions in 18S4 to half a million in 189$. The causes of this were that prior to 1831 sheep were kept, for their wool produc tion, and that the great profit, for mut ton, was just getting to be understood, and that the mutton profit, is the only profit in sheep. Sheep require less labor and handling than any other stock, and they clean a farm of weeds and underbrush as no other stock will do. Sheep eat 200 more species of weeds than do cattle or any other stock, and are now being imported into the Dakotas to eatup and kill out the horrible Russian thistle. The professor said that the Merino grades were the best breed for thiscoiin try. and could bo successfully erossed with the Shropshires, Hamp-mires or Oxfords. He recommedded farmers to have their iambs to come early to cseaje the hot weather: to feed the Iambs for fattening the grain and crowd them.and thus have them weigh from tiO to 80 pounds in the fall. He then gave some nit ions found to be most successful in fattening, and showed bya series of ex jieriments he had himself conducted that 120 lambs gained more than twiceasmuch as 10 head of cattle on the same feed.and that the price of mutton was more and remained steadier than that of liccf.That feeding sheep had leen profitable every ear and that feeding cattle had not. Corn and clover hay as a nit ion gave the liest results, and that roots and corn stalks took the place of the clover hay, where that could not be pneiircd. lie also gave an account of a list of cxjeriments showing that it was more profitable and greater gains were made by giving sheep, as well as cattle, their grain regularly and just what they would clean up, and not leave it. before them all the time. He also said that it was not profitable to shear the Iambs in the fall, if fattening for the market, but that it did pay to do so a few weeks tie fore they were sold in the early spring. T. u. TF.KltV, one of the most successful farmers in Ohio, followed, and what he had to sax was learned from actual exjiericnce. He spoke of moving to a farm 25 years ago that was completely worn out and would not produce more" than 8 bushels of wheat per acre, but through the fertiliz ing influences of clover, which he alter nated with iiotatoes and wheat, every two or three years, had raised the pro ductive qualities of the soil to produce 40 to 50 bushels jier acre. He allowed no manure to go to waste, neither solid nor liquid. Plants absolutely require three kinds of food, said Mr. Terry. They must have nitrogen, phosphoric acid and iot ash. The great abundant source (if j nitrogen is the atmosphere, but unfor-j tunately the com, wheat and most other ! food grains and tuliers have not the , power to absorb it. The clover can and does absorb nitrogen from the air, and stores this gas in the roots and stalks. To obtain the other kinds of plant food the clover extends its fibrous roots into the cold subsoil, sometimes five or six feet, ami brings them up to the surface for the crop that is to be grown from the land thus fertilized. Of the various kind- of clover. Mr. Terry thought that the common red was the h.-st for our fa- m-rs to u--c. because it is well Mlapted to this latitude and ' of the avocation that the pupil was like-br-eanse il 'iclt'stwo eroiis. the first to tit to choose in after lite. lie liirvstetl as ha. the second to lie cut and turned under for a fertilizer. In the improvement of the soil of a f. trill e.'over mif-t not alol!" be relied U -on. Much tlejM-ndttl ii, on intelligent cultivation anil th-xii. A s.iil that will yi-vl on! o.-diirtry cros will not pay. Tiie crops hum bedoub'etl by giving the soil greater fertility throiiL-h cultivation nn l the use of clover, betore any con sid rahie profit could be realized. H-had learned by evjierieiiee to pro tl.i'i- enough s.i as to be able to handle it -nth the least expense. The larger the qu-.ntity the less expense comnra-tiv.-.y. He was able to put pot:tto.s on th t.ck for 15c per bushel, but he did n it put them there for tint price. His av-ri-e price h id been about 10 to !K) rent.-. He produced them by the car l-KOf. t. ii. t.-:i:i:v. load, and usually made 200 jilt cent at least often more. They cost about S-'M) per acre and they realized him $IW. This price comes from having enough of the product to attract good buyers. He now mised two cro-is wheat and iiota toes, and rotated these with clover, each every three ears. Without clover he could not practice this rotation, and the fertility brought by theclover cost noth ing. If commercial fertilizers were used it would cost c rhaps $30 er acre. This expense he did not incur. We grow more hay in clover than in timothy, and secure from two to three crops per season. Clover contained mere albuminoid than an ;mv other hav and is worth at least one-third mon for feed, except for driving horses; his work horses were fed on clover exclusive ly and no gniin. He sowed clover in tht spring on the wheat, and in the fall had a crop. It was green all the time, and when not green is dead. It gives good results in both fall and spring. The best wav to keep it over the winter is to mow the young clover and let it lie on tin ground. He used cemented tools to catch all the liquid manure, which lie was ery careful to have conveyed to t tie various lortions of his farm by stniw al-Mi.-ji tion. Frost will kiil oung clover if the seed has germinated on the top of the ground, but if you sow early so that this seed has time to settle in the ground, frost, as a rule, won't hurt. He claimed that clover hay properly cured is of cquaJ value. iound foriotind. with oats. He did not allow a rod of his land to remain bare in the winter, he has it cov ered with clover. Hi- believed greater increases were ob tained through intelligent tillage. He cultivated lengthwise and crosswise, then rolled, and pulverized thoroughly. He did not think corn was a suitable food for voung growing animals, or for milk animals. He thought the farmers here needed clover hay to be grown in rota tion with the rorn. which he believed would in a few years materially increase the production. He gave his personal eeriences and believed much of his success was largely due to the education his father gave him, which he put to practical use upon his farm, which today had uon it build ings upon which he carried $0,000 insur ance, while some of his neighbors .had been closed out under mortgage. Messrs. Montgomery, Luker.s. George Meyer, George Murray and others asked ques. tions which were intelligently and pleas antly answered, all of which are in our general matter above. He did not think that as good results were obtained by pasturing as from abstaining from pas turing on clover. TI-KsllW KVKMMi the court house was comfortably well filled with our people, and we were glad indeed to notice such farmers as Judge Morgan. M. I). Walker and others in the SKC'l:KTlV .1. I.. IMPI'KY. audience. Robert Montgomery was called to the chair and presided in his usual pleasant manner, who introduced Mr. K. Abbott, who spoke upon .(ii!icr!.Tri:.i. kiux-ation in our public schools. Xo more ini'Mrt ant subject is up for consideration by the Missouri fanner than that of seeur ing the introduction of the teaching of the elementary principles of agriculture in public schools. Thoughtful writers recognize its importance. He was sensi tive of the difficulties to be overcome in order to successfully bring about a nidi cal change in melhtxls of elementan education. There is nearly a consensus of opinion in favor of the nroiiosition that agriculture phall be taught in pub lie schools. Mr. Abbott's line of I ri int,,.i t I.,(ri.il .....I ...... ...... .' a.'l. Ml .III,, ,.1111, 111, llla .11 present, he said, only one state in the union has uixm its statute liooks laws authorizing this to be done, and this state was Tennt-ssee. Several other stall's arc agitating this question, and Missouri, Minnesota and Wisconsin un expected to soon to be in line with Ten nessee. lie called attention to the f.tet that Secretary Rippey.of the state lioard of agriculture, through his annual reimit called theatteiition of our jieople to this matter, and he believed he intended to continue this demand, and believed it would be presented to the notice of the comimr legislature. Ho showed the foil of teaching the political geography of isolated countries, while the scholar was in ignorance of the Useful things with which they came in daily touch. He thought the pupil should learn some thing of the principles of plant growth, of animal fir,.. anfj the names and habits of insects, injurious and beneficial, that swarm in his way. As the student ad vanced to the higher school work, he thought it would be vastlv more inter esting to the pupil, and more useful to him. if he knew something or how plants feed in two worlds: involving the beauti ful problems of nitrifaction in the earth and the fixation of cartion from the air, than to know the names of the fixed stars in the lielts of Orion or the con stellation of Ursa Major. He lielieved this was a practical age, and thought .i..., ...i ,: i i.l 1...:,. i... .;.,:.. lll.lt VUlllJlimi ZMJlllllIt inZ III Wl- UIMT.UUII He wasqnite severe uniii tne average director of the runil districts for quietly sitting down and cniiitting his children to 1m educated prejudicial to Hie larm and more to fit them for city life- to instill in their minds to be the lawyer, the doctor, the merchant. Hither than to educate them to lie intelligent, pro gressive farmers. He reminded liis farm er friends that they were large tax-jiay- ers and contributed largely to the sup jNirt of the public schools, and he could not see why the elementary bninches upon agriculture should not be taught there as well as the geography of China, He advised the teachers to get them selves reatlv to teach this branch, for hi1 believed tin; dav was not far distant when they would have to jiass an exami nation in this branch. He regretted there being such few works uiion the subject, but recommended those pub fished bv Mills ,fc Shaw. Professors Vohries and Winslo.v, and estieciallv Professor Haves on Runtl and Domestic Science. Following Mr. Abliott's excellent ad- dre.-s. Miss Alberta Murray gave charming recitation, highlv suitable for the occasion, ami which was most excel l-iit! rendered. t:ik j.-:i:si;v cow- was the subject of a highly interesting Ki)Hr by Mrs. Dr. r. M. Green, of tins city, lii substance Mrs. Green's paper saul that one of the most mniortant ele m-nts determining our material prosper ity, ai.d our iiei-iuaneiit progress, is an enlightened system of agriculture. In our agriculture we need new ideas and methods: we must nonlv the lessons we have learned from history and exper ience. The Am-rictn farmer is dtMir ons to excel: he wants to have the best of everything that pertains to his call ing. It is of the first necessity that he supply himself with the breed of cattle best suited to his neeus -cattle that sh-ill help to make farming a source of material prosperity and ierictual pleas urc. The Island of Jersey, the native home of Jersev cattle, is the chief in size, of the group called Channel Islands, lying in the Knglish channel, near the coast DIE. T. K. WHITE. of France. The writer here gave an exhaustive report of the laws prohibiting the uuiortatioii of any cattle, and in IS2Gthe fine for importing French ani mals was fixed at 1.000 pounds, solely and only for the purpose of keeping the island breed pure. Several attempts were made to cross the Jersey with the Short-horn and Ayrshire breeds, but thev were abandoned, and the progen? slaughtered, liecause it was inferior to the Jersev. Gradually the attention of progressive dairying was attracted to this breed of cows, and in ls.CS the Koyal Jersey Agricultural society was estab lished for the purpose of improving the island cattle. Tlic soci.tty fixed a high standard which was to lie worked up to. Two of the liest cows were selected, from which to make up a scale of iioints one of them being considered jerfect in fore quarters and barrel: the other in her hindquarters and udder, rairs were held each year, in which her Majesty, the Queen, became patroness in 18.17. Tile Island Herald Hook was started in lSf'il! and was due to Chas. P. LeC'ornee. By examining the approved offspring he hoped in time to root out the jKHir ani mals, so that with six or seven registered crosses animals might be bred more to a certainty. In siicaking of the case of the Jersey cow on her native isle, Johannet tells us that when the cow has dropjied her calf, there is sprinkled ii.on it a handful of powden-i salt. While the cow is licking her calf, she is milked and she herself drinks the first milking. The calf is laid ution a bed of straw in a warm, dry place: after some hours, the cow isagain milked and this milk given to tie- calf. The sixth day the keeping of cn-nm for butter begins. The milk is .iven to the calf twice every day: cooked fl itir and sometimes pieces of bread are atUI.l to the miik. A little snlt and hav are ad ded occasionally. As the cow's milk be comes less, cooked cornineal and bran take its place. The reputation of the Jersey crossed the ocean to Amcriea.and in 1S."() several American gentlemen of wealth began to make importations. In lsfi3. Geo. E. Waring and others Jersey breed":s held a meeting in Philadelphia, Pa., which n-snlted in the organization of the American Jersey cattle club. This club now has a membership of :500. and its objects is to foster absolute puritv. and i no animal can be registered as imnort.'d from Jersey without certificates of that fact. The I lertl Register is now the stand artl of iiedigree in this country. Sht; re garded the Jersey as the most beautiful of all the lttnine races matchless for ymmetry. variety of beautiful colors nd shadings, and for that delicacy of frame ami fineness of quality which makes the race attractive to all lovers of bovine beauty. The Jersey excels all others in the amount and quality of but ter. oiuce me practice oi testing lieeame itoptilnr up to 1887 over 1. 000 Jersevs had produced 11 pounds of butter in a test of seven days.while !M) of these have pro tested unus or upwards in a week, HON. N. F. MURRAY. One cow lias made by official test 4G pounds anil 12'... ounces in seven days. Here the author gives an elaliorate description of scale of mints, 1(5 in num ber, and the escutcheons are classified into 10 classes, which together with the scale of points art; recommended as a guide in the purchast; of animals and as an aid in In-ceding. Here the author gave a few -omiaNsons as to the merits of the Jersey as to the Welds uf milk and butter to the 100 iounds of live weight: Jersey, III to 50 pounds of butter: Hol- stein, 20 to 2b pounds of butter. Jersev. 700 to 800 pounds of milk; Holstein, 075 pounds of milk. One pound of Jersey miik is equivalent to 2 pounds of Hol stein milk; it takes 5 to 18 pounds of Jersey milk to make a pound of butter, 22 to :i8 or Short-horn and 28 to 50 of Holstein milk. The Jersey produces a milk differing greatly from that of almost all other breeds by the actual chemical tests of milk as food, cream and cheese, the Jersey milk is unrivaled in quality and richness, and to substantiate her asser tion refers to the tests made at the world's fair, and in proving these facts the tests give the stamp of publicity and authenticity to the Jersey cow as the greatest dairy cow in all essentials that tne world lias ever produced. From iiersonal knowledge the author gave a few items and said that their family cow,"Golden Bessie, which died last spring, averaged while flush, .i(J ounds of milk per day for 28 days, and was not on pasture at tne time; the low est yield was ,'J0 and the highest -11 pounds: the total was over 1,000 pounds in tour weeKs. uurmg tht; three and half years we owned her she was milked every day, Iieing a jnTpctual milker, and gave I. pounds of milk the ilay before her calf was liorn. During her seve years of life she droptied five calves, a heifers. Her daughter, at 2 years of age had been fresh three months, having also hail a lieifer ca!f,now seven monthsaftcr, she makes over two pounds of butter day. She believed a good Jersev would earn from 25 to fit) cents a day above he feed. The author closed her interestin patier by saving: "Xo doubt many of you know that the champion cow at tin; world s fair came from Holt country. She was "Merrv Maiden." belonging to Mr. Grave's lwnl at Maitlnnd. Her strain, known as the combination family, has ever since, been eagerly sought by breeders all over-th country. It I nave lieen able to convince an of you that out; Jersey cow will yield you more profit in milk and butter the vear round, than you are new deriving from two to three common cows and with less expense, as one Jersey will cost you less to Keep than any one of the common cows, to sav nothing of the increase of profit from the sales of the calves, shall feel well repaid for my trouble in" preparing this article. HORTICULTUKE was the subject of Hon. N. F. Murray': address, which followed the paper read by Mrs. Green. He said that notwith standing the fact that little or no at ten tion was paid to horticulture till within the last 10 years, it had worked its way onward and upward till at last it has to- come an honored profession, and one of the most reliable, pleasant and profitable in which man can engage. In all the universe we can think of nothing mon1. pleasing to man than watching the growth of things, and all things that have life must grow or die. In the spring time, as we watch the bursting of the buds uiKin our trees from the dormant state, and bshold the bosom of mother earth clothed with living green from the generation of tiny seeds, and behold our trees bloom and bear their rich fruit on (lending, bough and our broad fields of green ricn into golden harvests, we are drawn into closer communion with our Cn-ator. We now see here and there a fruit grower over our state making from 850 up to &,0i jHr acre, and the intelligent fruit grower has no fear but that he can make a comfortable living and educate his children from the income of a 40 acre fruit farm. On the other hand wc find many who fail in the fruit business, and complain that it don t pay. There were failures in all business, but in agricul turc and horticulture they were far less. than in merchandising. Where is the trouble? Simplv this: One knew what to do and how to do it, pushed forward and made a grand success; the other did not know what to do or how to doit, but having energy he pushed forward.worked hard, and his efforts ended in failure. Ignorance was the prime cause of fail ure. We imported last year 818.000,000 in fruits and nuts, and exported but $3, 00J.030. We find many of our citizens cutting down their pecan groves that can be made to pay from 8100 to S300 per acre, in order to plant more corn. This is only one illustration of the ignorance that abounds here and there among our people. He thought education was one of the great remedies for such failures, and was enthusiastic over the work being done at the school of horticulture and agriculture at Columbia. We have miliions of acres of the finest fruit land in the world right here in our state. Her mineral features of the sou paint her fruit, as no other in the world is colored. If we ever extiect to see this great industry, tor wnicn Missouri is so wonderfully adapted iiecomc a success then he insisted that the young men must be educated in the science of horti culture. We have a great advantage he said, in the fertility of our virgin soils, over the worn out, exhausted lands of the east, Missouri is noted for Iieing a clear weather state 1411 davs are clear: 173 :iartiallv so and onlv 40 ilavs of the year is the sun obscured. This clear weather and clorius sunshine, aided bv the iron and other rich minerals with which our soil is impregnated, is what gives our fruit rich life, giving juices and paints it with that high degree of red and golden color unknown in any country or state in the world. With all these superior advantages before us. with a rapidly growing market ill around us for our fruit, and with millions of acres of choice fruit lands to be had at from 85 to 850 jer acre,it must be evident to every oliserving mind that Missouri with all her pn-sent attainments is verv far from having reached the highest iHissible point in profitable fruit growing. Mr. Murniv closed his talk with a brief sketch of his personal struggles with fruit growing in theknobsof Holtcounty how he went in debt for his land, paying l interest from 12 to 20 per cent, and how today he had a fruit farm that was a source of a comfortable income to him in his declinig days: he gave dates as to some sales where he had realized 3,500 from hi.i orchanl: he had sold 10 acres of Den Davis apples for 81.400, and the following ear sold for 61.500. He felt confident that his SO acre orchanl had netted him 10 per cent over all exjieiuiest- for the past 22 years. WEI1XESDAY EOltENOON was largely consumed by Dr. White, the state's veterinarian, who entered largely into the discussion of our quarantine laws and as to w hat our state was doing to protect our peoples stock from con tagion. He also explained these laws, both national and state. He explained that our farmers lost heavily by reason of the foreign embargo on our stock. lie- cause, as hi; said, they claimed that all American export stock was more or less diseased. He gave an extensive talk upon what fie hatt done toward "Knowing something alioiit Texas fever and was fully con vinccd as to the cause, the remedy and prevention of this disease. He told what the exiic-riment station at Columbia had been doing anil enteral into detail as tc tests that had lieen made enquiring into tne disease. He also stated that owing to no appropriations Iieing made for this purmise. he had to depend upon the generosity of the authorities at the Col unibia school: he told of the large num ber of post-mortems, andexjierimonts he had matte, had siiecimens of the "ticks that caused Texas fever, and other speci mens: he told of how three cows were experimented uixin: and how they died from inoculation by these "ticks." He thought that still further experiments would lie made next year. Ills opinion was that every indication pointed to these "ticks" as Iieing the cause af "Tex as fever." The doctor answered many questions as to the liest treatment of lump jaw. black leg: on Iieing told of the death of the Charles Hoffman cattle, stated that he lielieved it was what was commonly called Dry Murarin, and in fact it was nothing more nor less than indigestion, caused by eating too much dry food usually from stalk fields and'too litlte water and salt. Etnpaction follows.then fever, then death. Plenty of good, clear water and salt should always be provided for when stock is turned in on such food. Treatment: Two pounds Epsom salts, then a handful of barrel salt what was needed was to create a morbid apetite for water, in order to liquefy the food. The doctor mentioned the fact that France gave Pasteur 8100,000 for dis coveries leading to the treatment and cure of Anthrax,but did not expect to get over 100 cents from the State of Missouri-for what he had done toward solv ing the Texas fever problem. He also thought that the cornstalk disease as many called it was the result cf a parasite growing on the stalk or shuck of the corn. He recommended change of feed and water cf the stock. He attributed the dying of many horses in the various parts of the state to this di ;ease. For these horses so afflicted ho recommended from four io eight drachms of aloes powdered tine and given in a caiisule made of papenasa heroic remedy miuht give an ounce at cue dose. Ho attributed hog cholera to a specific germ and no one as yet had been able to solve a renieur. The doctor did not think there was anv contagious diseases in the state at the present time. Hig jaw in cattle was not always lumpy jaw, and it is otten found in other irts of the body, and did not regard the meat as fit to eat. Bots are caused from the nit fly, which dcKisits eggs ami are finally taken into the stomach, from which they feed from the stomach juices, and regarded them as harmless, as the horse's stomach was its natural home. All cases supposed to be injured from bots. are caused from colic or some other malady. Did not lie lievetherewasahor.se in Holt county free, from" bots. A contagious disease must have direct cause. There is a sjiecific germ which alwavs produces the same disease. The work of the deiuirtment to which he was attached was to investigate these germs and study the life history of these microtics. Many fevers and other diseases were often caused by bad water in iwnds and surface waa?r that is impure. In answer to a question he said that he had never seen a case of Texas fever without the Texas tick. The best way to destroy dead animals was to burn" them, liecause sufficient heat destroys the disease germs. In drenching a cow he stated that not over a half -up full should be given at a time; in using Epsom salt, mix witn uiko warm water thorough-, in a pitcher. pour the amount in a bottle and give it in that manner: as many cows are killed bv drenching as are killed by disease; they cannot swallow rapidly, and alway: wait for each quantity to pass down lie fore giving another. The doctor's talk was one of the most interesting of the institute and was thoroughly appreciated by all, and the onlv reirret is that thero were so few practical stock feeders and breeders present. POL'LTlSV was the first subject taken up in Wed nesday afternoon's meeting, and this question was handled by E. T. Abbott, of St. Joseph, who went into his subject with lwth sleeves rolled up. t He stated that few realized the magni tude of the poultry business of this country, and yet it was a shame that we wen; importing eggs irom uaaaua anu other countries. Missouri ranked lirst in poultry and fourth in gg prjxluction. anit there was no gooa reason in iiismiua why Missouri should not also iw lirst in etnrs. tho onlv reason he could give why Ohio got more eggs than Missouri was that he believed tnev ireaicu lueir aens lmtter. and especially in the winter sea son are thev treated badly they should be kent wariu by having a snug hen house for them, and thought two feet from the ground was high enough for their roosts. Management and kindly care were paramount to get good results, and these tf given thought and care will bring you abundant eggs just when they are com manding the highest prices in the dead of winter. If you cannot manage the ordinary breeds there is no use in your trying to handle tho extraordinary breeds: but he advised to get pure breeds, and take care of them and treat tho old hen right and she will recipro cate by giving you eggs regularly. Don't exhaust her vitality by eomtielling her to roost in tho trees m the winter season by not feeding her regularly and with clean wholesome, egg-making food and clean fresh water. He like the Plymouth Rocks, on ac count of uniformity in size, color, etc,. and these were excellent qualities. He fed two parts of bran to one partot hora inv meal: mix in winter with warm water, ad'd few oats and let them soak, till soft. then stir thoroughly, not too soft and feed in troughs, etc.. to keep feed clean: at noon ho fed oats and wheat-ind at night fed corn, all they could eat. He regarded lime and sulphur as best disinfectants. When they die from disease burn them. There will be little sickness if you give them warm, dry quarters, and burn tho sulphur occasionally: burn the sul phur under the roosts, close up the house tight while doing mis; ii tney seem to smother open a door or window until relief comes: this is a proper remedy for roup, but you will rarely ever have trouble in this direction if you follow alxive rules. The hen house should lie cleaned daily every afternoon or even ing, and droppings should be used for manuring garden, or sjiecial plats, as it is the richest of all manures. Empty their water vessels three times a day: keep them cleen and always see that they have plenty of clean, ircsn water. (iOOl) KOAllS was the subject handled by T. O. Stan lev, of Pettis countv. who is a surveyor of that county, a practical engineer, and one who has given this subject not only much thought, but extensive practical consideration. He seems deeply inter ested in the subject. He said the ques tion of roads had been talked aiiout and read about, but nothing practical had been submitted in this country until recent years. That the majority of fann ers do not seem to realize the cost and expense it is to them to have bad roads. ' lie contended that the average cost of 'marteting farm products amount to ' , . ai ' ...1 1 aooilL ci per iicru mure wn-ji intuitu over bad roads, than where hauled over good ones, thereby reducing the profits. . . , , . i , , i in order to nave gooa roans, ineiiouoy or notion oi aonering io section lines should lie as nearly in a direct course as it were possible, great can; Iieing Ufrten to avoid long steep hills, and the grade should not lie over live feet to tin; HU the shortest wav was frequently around the hill, and on ground from which the water can be the most easily drained. All wet and boggy places in-contended should be tile drained, liefore the road bed is thrown up; ihat cross drains should lie built of stone or other durable material, and of sufficient size to carry off the water, fcvery county road should have side ditches aiiout 20 feet apart, straight, sufficient size to lie able to carry awav the water, and so con structed as not to allow water to stand bv the road side, ana that the center of the road lied should be 12 inches higher lhan the sides. The.road grader is the first to be used. and after having graded up and shaped the road, then it should lie rolled in using a six to eight ton roller until the road lied is hanl and firm. He was a great W;liever in tile drain age, and exhibited diagrams and charts, bearing upon this subject, and strange to say not a single road overseer was to be seen in tht; room. If the avcragoi nvul overseer was half as much inter ested in making good roads as he is in drawing the wish from the t-ix payers, of his county. Mr.lStanley thought we would have much iietter roans in a very short time. At present the principle use ol the public- roads are eontfned to the neigh borhoods in conveying their farm pro ducts to town, and the railroad stations, and hence are local, and consequently the improvements must tie local, and must be looked after by the local au thorities. A farm on a good road is worth more than one on a bad one. If, he contended, one horse can draw a load of 1.00) pounds, and on a poor road it requires two horses to draw same load, it is evi dent that tho farm that is 10 miles from market on a good road is as near the market as the farm that is only live miles away on a bad road. In other words, that the products of a farm that is on a good road can be hauled to market for one-half the cost of that of a farm the same distance from market on a bad road, and of course worth more money. As a general rule when tht; farmer was busy putting in his crops tho roads were in good condition, and when, the reason came for marketing his products, the roads were bad. He lielieved that with improved highways would come an in crease of 85 per acre to every farm along those hig. -ays. He took for an example as to what the farmer lost by having bad roads a 120 acre farm, divided into 40 acres each, of wheat, corn and hay. and showed that he lost :$9 cents per acre on his wheat. 04 cents pt-r acre on his corn and 05 cents on his hay, or a total loss of 878 on his 120 acres, or a 0 ier cent loss on a 80 per acre basis. He was also opposed to eontinuingthe narrow tire in use. and with charts and ninjis showed the great suiteriority of the broad over the narrow tire, that they were from 2S to 50 jier cent lighter, anil hence requin-d less horse iniwcr. He was in favor of convict lalior Iieing used to make the roads, and thought ail jail birds should Ik- ctmijielliil to work tie; roads, by breaking macadam, etc. He was also in favor of a state highway commissioner to look after and make plans for uniform system of road making as it is now you have asmanydifferent plans for making roads as you have overseers in your countv. and when the fact is known that there are ti.OOO over seers in our state, who annually exitend 80.000.000 in the same time in working our roads, he thought it about time that Missouri was doing something to ward getting some substantial benefits from such large expenditure of the tax payers money. Till: MI.NlsTUV OK FMIWEKS was the- ojiening subject for the evening program, and a goodly sized audience was present, to great those who would take part. The alKive suliject was pre sen ted l-y Miss Ella O'Fallon, and ojien ed her subject bv asking. "Did you eve pause, aitd think what this world would be without Mowers? How much they added to the joy of life and what a dark, dreary world it would be without them she reminded her readers of Him who said, "consider the lilies." Each season had its jieculiar beauty, and spoke o the first, with the coining oi the J-aste lilies, that seemed to say "I am the re surn-ction and the life: the violets and the fragrant spring flowers, the ferns, Summer ccuies with her wealth of roses. anil the sweet peas throw out their fra granee. and rear their gav heads "likean army with banners." Then comes Julv. sweet heart of the year." with her red. red lilies, the pop pies. With autumn comes the hedge rows bright with golden rod and asters, the cardnal flowers, and with Xovem lit-r comes the lovelv chrysanthemum, native of a strange country and strange customs, io how many charitable en terprises have they lent their gracious-U-auty: she called to mind the In-autiful show of this flower recently made in our citv: she spoke of how flowers through window cuiture brightened the home when Mother Earth was mantled in snow. She siwke lieautifully and touch inglv of Memorial dav. and the clevat ing and refining custom of honoring the memory of the nation's dead with flow ers. It was a beautiful fact she said that many of the battle fields around Richmond, that had lieen red with blood, have been whitened with daisies since the bloody strife; the seed it is thought were carried there in the hay, fed to the army horses. It is said that the thistle which is gen erallv considered such a nuisance, once saved the whole Scotch nation,by a liare footed soldier stepping on one, gave a loud cry of pain, which alarmed the camp of sleeping soldiers, and theenemy were driven liacK. ami m grate.iul mem ory, adopted the tfower as their national emblem. Flower mission work had become a n-g- ularly organized branch of work in many philanthropic so?ieties. and cited a ease where a flower missioner in one of our great cities had said that when she could get a miseralile tenement family to tend and care for a scarlet geranium. dirt and squalor vanished, and as long as she could see the scarlet blaze in the yvindow she knew all was well within. In closing her excellent patier. she said give the children llo'wers, even if they were mere toddlers who would pull them to pieces the next minute: do not let them looK with wisttui eyes ana hearts unsatisfied. The love of llowers was inborn in every child: encourage it. let them grow up surrounded by Howers and the love of the ueautilui cultivated DA1KV IIUS1XESS. Uncle" John Patterson, of Kirksville, tht; great butter maker, was then intro duced. He has lieen in the dairy busi ness tor many years ana Knows more alxnit cows and how to make them give the greatest quantity of milk for butter punioses than he was alile to tell in the time assigned him. In the first place cows should be treated kindly. 1 hough well fill and afterwards roughly treated, they would not give satisfaction in eith er milk or butter. We do not supply near all the butter in this state that we consume, et we have the best grass and corn land anil the best climate in the world. He thought the dairy business paid Iietter than raising cattle for Iiet-f. Tht; feed that will make a pound of beef will make a iNiund of butter. Beef will bring you only aiiout 5 cents anil first class dairy butter should bring you from 17 to 25 cents. It was true that it required more work to make butter, but there was not the difference in the work that there is in the price .received. A man must lw at home mornings and evenings if he is in the dairy business. Tho wife" should lie relieved from the duties of butter making. He lielieved if ho had to follow a plow- all day, that it would rest him to .set down ami milk a gotnl gentle raw. When he got 17 cents for his butter his iicighliors got 5 cents, and when 25 cents his neighbors were selling at 10 cents. To make good butter you must first learn just how sour the cream should In-.; If too sour it loses its flavor and quality. The teiuR-raturo should lie about 00 de grees in winter and t'- in summer, or as near these as possible. He was partial to the Jersey, liecaiisesho was the cheap est feeder and liest butter maker. lie regarded fodder as the more econo mical few! for cows than timothy, and should be cut while the leaves were green, put in large shock until cured, then haul to the barn or shed for pro tection from snow, sleet ami rain. Keep your feed in barns or sheds if possible, lie thought it profitable to build a good liarn big enough to hold all the feed he will use through the winter or Iietter tin; year round. In raising beef vou get your money every two or three ears; in dairy fann ing it is coming in all the time, tie used a Xo. 2 seiwmtor, the cream going out through one siiout and tiie nnlK , through another. It will pay any one milking 8 or 10 cows to have a sejiamtor. A good cow should make nine iounds of butter per week, nine months of the iKir. Sonrhuni was a good feed for dairy cows, give it to them whole, seeds and all. Bv keening his cows in the barn he also saved gn-atly in fertilizing matter. A good barn would save 20 per cent of cost in fertilizers every year. Stop churning when the butter comes to the size of a grain of wheat; don't gather it in the churn: use an ounce of dairy salt to the pound: when the water runs clear it is the tune to pn-pare it; impun-salt is an injury to your butter. In jacking use parchment paper, it ex cludes the air. Build up a reputation for vour make of butter, and it will sell itself. Corn and cob crushed, clover, millet, ship stuff, etc.. were good feeds, and al ways feed in the barn, which should al ways be warm enough to keep manure from freezing. Miik with dry hands, and with the finger ends. Did" not lie lieve in letting your cows go to the jond for water- supply them with good.claen water. He was iartiai to the revolving, barrel churn. Mr. Patterson's talks are always en joyed from the fact that they are told in that practical, logical way that interests everyliody. STOCK FKKIHSi; AM liKEEDlM!. Col. G. W. Waters talked of pure breeds and thoroughbreds, giving many facts of interest on this and other inter esting topic's pertaining to the farm and other kinds of Jive stock. He takes the osition that all kinds of stock an- sim ply machines for the manufacture of the raw product of the farm ready for the market, some kinds of stock being bet ter machines than others. The question for the farther to determine is which breeds of these machines is the liest and eheaiiest for manufacturing purioses, with a view to a profit above what could lie realized from the raw products of the farm. That the scrub breed is not the best no one has any doubt. He stated that each animal in its class, sprung irom a common origin, having some trait thot was with their ancestors in the Iie- gmning. c can not give to an animal a trait thai was not in some way devel- oih'U in its ancestors. Animals are im- provcd by selection, fettling and train ing. ion can not get a race horse in breeding to horses that wen; never in the speed ring or in training for the purpose of bringing out their liest etforts in this line. Environments, or surroundings, fettl ing and breeding had as much todo with development of a henl as with tht; indi vidual. Good breeds ure wore easilv handled than senilis and will develo more rapidly on less feed and will brinj; better prices on the market. Nature, surroundings, etc., produces a certain tvpe of horses or cattle, swift horses were grown on the Arabian deserts bv the mother retiring far from the jungles which were the home of wolves and other carnivorous animals ready to pounce upon the young foal as soon as droptied. and there in seclusion she would nurture her young: and as it Iie- came older and stronger, she would re turn with it to the forests, when; wolves would give it chase, and unless Meet, the colt would U; run down and devoured. It was a question of the "survival of the fittest." and that is where the thorough brttl horses originated: here is where seed was developed: endurance develop ed: fright, viciousness. and combative- ness, came from and is seen in the horse, He had found by close study that dif ferent fixids have different comjiositions, and that different compositions are de sirable for different results. We should know what the compositions of a food is if we wish to get the liest results. Cer tain foods produced muscle: and others produced fat. A voung calf would re- tiuire a larger amount of the muscle pro ducing food, while a steer Iieing fed for the market would ncil a larger amount of the fat anil heat producing food. He thought the farmers lost more from ignorant feeding than from all the stock disease combined. Feed onlv what the stock will eat and digest well, not what thev will eat and pass through. Mr. Waters is a scientific man. having given the subject of his lecture vears of study, and having demonstrated nearly every iioinciiy careful experiments which prejiares him for going licfon; tht people to reveal to them what can lie accom plished in improving our stock and the best results to lie attained in handling and prcpanng them for the market that the largest iwssible profit may lie reali zed. THE Exiliurrs. There were several verv nice exhibits made.but wo regret there were not more. Mr. A. i'olk showed two squashes, one weighing -P and the other ol pounds. S. M. Stout exhibited varieties of the Crawford, Vick's Surprise and the Rural ew lorker potato. .there were several tine plates of ap ples. Out the exhibitor did not think enough of them to attach his name. Mr. Blanchard had some fine samples of corn. X. F. Murrav showed a number of plates of apples, and some tine orchard and ornamental trees. A number of fine chrysanthemums were shown, but no card to tell us who exhibited them. We believe, however, Mrs. Murrav and Mrs. Mary Currv showed some. Mr. Landers showed samples of the vine less yams and sweet potatoes. W. R. Vining showed some very fine Ben Davis and White Winter Permain apples. Ciach exhibitor was given a year s suliscription to some agricultural journal of the state. The institute, was very poorly attended, hut those who did attend feel amply mid for the time consumed. It is a shame that the people are taxed seven to eight thousand dollars annually to support these institutes for the benefit of our farmers, and so few take any inter est in them whatever, and yet many of these fellows will hang around the street corners, and awp, "don't do anything for the farmer. Come again, gentlemen, the people of our lieautiful little city greatly appreciate these institutes, if the average calamity howler does not. They are educating :ind refining, and hence beneficial to all oui jieople, whether they lie farmers or not. Our Cornet band kindly furnished music in the evening. Catharine Hahn the Winner. Another very important case taken from the Holt circuit court, has been handed down by the supreme court, which alliruis the decision of the lower court, and which has been known under the tltlo of Catharine Halm vs. (Jeorge W. Cotton. The. cane has been 11 most stubbornly contested one. by the Httor neys, Messrs. Dungan and Knowles for Mrs. Halm and Alkire and O'Fallon for Cotton. The contest came up in the form of an ejectment, and plaint itf wanted posession if certain ...I acres of la nil 111 section 21, township ;7., range .'S3; that plaintiff anil defendants were adjoining riparian uviiers of certain miitli.; a large coiitigu ous biuly of accreted lands h:ul formed adjoining these lands; tha'. tiefendan iy extension of fences, etc., enclosed the nhole bar in frunt of the lauds of both plaintiff and tlefendant, anil iiroceedet to put same 1:1 cultivation, and tliereby took possession, for which the suit was brought liy Mrs. Halm to eject Cutton from the luad, and in trial in the circuit court here, she obtained judgment, and Cotton's atturnejp appenled to the su pi fine court, which body affirmed the decision o: the lower court on lues day of this week. Public Sale. I will sell at public auction at my res itlence in Oregon. Mo., on SATURDAY, DEC. 12. 1SX. the following described property, to-wit: Wardrobes, Bureau, Chairs and Rock er.-. Heating Stoves, Cupboards ami oth er articles loo numerous to mention. Terms op Sale: All sums of 25 and under, cash in band; on all sums over 85 a credit ofb months will be given, our cha-er giving note with approved secur ity, iiennng 8 per cent interest from date. Terms of side to be complied with before any property will be allowed to be removed. Sale to commence at 10 o cock a. m., sharp. Rudolph Schixitziiai.f.k. R. C Bentox, Auctioneer. Letters remaining in poetoffics at Oregon. Mo., for week ending Dec. 4th, 180C: In cnlhng for these please say, "advertised:" Rev. G. L. White. James Edwards, (dead Tetter.) HESRT SlItTTS, P. M. INKS' DOOM IS FIXEO! The Supreme Court Affirms th Kill ings of the Trial Judge and tho Appeal for a Hew Trial is Knocked Out Wednendar. Iterembcr 30th. 1896. U th ly I'Urd hjr tiie Court for th Kxcutl.n. The supreme court tin Friday, morn ing, Xoveaiber 20th. sealed the fil'e of James B. Inks, by affirming the decision of the trial court in Holt enuntv, and lh court fixed Wednesday. December :10, 1S9C. as the day for the'execution. The court was unanimous in sustain ing the conviction of Inks. Now that it hRStlecid-Ki the case, the attorneys will doubtless make the last effoil to save Unaccused, and this will be- in the shape of a petition praying t!u g.ivernor to commute the sentence to life imprison ment. I tt is is denietl the case is again crtilied buck to the proper olli;er., and the mandate is issued that "James B. Inks bo hiinsed by the nc c until he is J- It. INKS. de.nl." It is fair tu presumo that Inks' attorneys will Ink every itdvant ige and resort to every rnovt; upon the. legal chess boml to give their client as lung si lease of life as possible. Sheritr I, i wards feels nnxious in the mutter, ant! does not c.iro to go to the trouble .ind expense of erecting tho gal lows and making preparations fur the execution if the sentence is to be coai inited t life imprisonment, lie saye Inks has been a model prisoner tciving him no trouble whatever, and evidently dislikes the idea of b inging him. Yet he says if h has to b il.me be will do hie duty, and d-i it in the most quiet and humnae way poet-i tie. As for Inks himself he retains hisc.Kif. calm manner. His l-ig confinement b made him pale, and he looks feeble an J careworn, but Ids general bearing would hardly inihcite that he standi in the 6hadow aftbe gallows, and that during the holiday tide, unless the ercrCUtive interferes he will b launched into eter nity. It will b. the first legal execution that has occurred in the history of our countv. The Weather. Corrected weekly by William Kauchor Justice of the Peace, Oregon, Mo. PKKCIrllATlllP Rain MAXIMUM. MINIMIiM. Fall. Slmw Nov. 2t! 58 17 C.37 27 1 Tratv Trace 23 18 1 29 2T1 .1 30 20 0 Dec. 1 41 15 2 34 24 3 40 17 Trace- The nercury failed to fail below zero- here in November this year, but aloair the northern border the severest winter weath-r prevailed. Temperature rang tog fro ii 10 to .10 degrees below zero hare been recorded daily for about two weeks past.. This was accompanied by severe anow storms that hare bsea de structive to life and hive suspended all trade and travel for davs at a t-.me. The cold extended to Galveston and New Or leans, where ice was formed. At Huaton and Galveston more snmr fell than here. this is remarkable when it is considered these places are more than ten desreee further south than we are. but then osr time villi probably com-later on. As long as it does not we will perhaps be contented. Ihe rninfall for November. was below the average and is so for the early days of December. A heavy snow fell in Georgia on the 2nd. The street. cars in Atlanta were impeded by it. No neteora in November when thev should have appeared. the mean temperature for November for 42 years, including the present year, is 3U.ll degrfes; the lowest 0.5 below zero 011 the 27th day in 1887. Other years in which the temperatu-e fell to zero or below were us follows, to wit: 185 -1.0 on the H. 1857 -1.0 on the 23 18G3 -3.0 on the 28. 1871 -3J cm tbs 29 1872 -1.0 on tiie 'JO. 1S73 -4,0 on tus 29 IS!; 0.0 on the 30. The rign - means below zeru. It is a notable fact that the -oldest weather in November has appeared on or.aboi t the 12) th day oftener thnn any other, for it has so occurred thirteen times in 42 )ean. 1 he blithest temperature for tbe month in 42 years was 82 degrees in 180C. Only five times tin ring this period liaa the temperature rearhed 80. to wit: I8C6. 1SC8. 1871. 1382 ami 1887 I'iie mean rainfall fur 42 years is 1 7 inches. The grealeel was 7.81 inches in. 187:). Th- least, 0 18 inches in 187.r. Tli mean emiwtull for 42 years 1 33f incite, anil th greatest. 13 inches in. 18.17. X11 mmt fell in Nmeinlier 111 If 01 li-ir., 1883. ISDObmi 1-DI. The Stock Shipment Muddle. An informal, but important confer ence was held at .Jttfermn City TuetUuy of last week between representatives of the railroad linrs centering in Kansas City, representatives of Ihe Kansas City stock yards, ami the Kansas City Truffic Association and the state board of railway commissioners. The con ference was held ae a result of the movement by phippers for the abolition of the ore-tent syMem of shipping live stock by weiuht, and tho restoration of shipping at car-load rates. The con ference developed the fact that rates on stncK are higher on the roads going into Kansas City from north of the Mis souri river than they are on lie6 en tering that city from south of the river. The fact that the present method of shipment discriminates against Kansas- City ic favor of Chicni;o was uleo shown. A conference is to be held in Chicsgo this week, and the ret-n it is to ke re ported to the state lx.au! of railway commissioners on' the loth mst., at whish time the board is expected to take the matter up, and make a ruling upon it. ' What X Told Jf cEinley. Mr. Editor Ifcaw a squib in the Demo crat an though it was writen to Major McKinlev, ami I thought if the same came unW the Major's notice he would think there was quite a contrast in the opinion of the two jiarties in Oregon. I wrote Mr, McKinley a few lines on th 9fth of Octolier. and congratulated him on being our next jiresident, ami these repudiators.anarchisLs antl silver cranks would lie buried so deep that they would'nt make the Law abiding and lib erty loving jieople of this great and glor ious country any more trouble, especi ally on that line, and that confidence-1 would be restored and the flag of our country would hang to the breeze and would have to be respected both on land. and sea, and would have the pleasure of bidding farewell to our free soup houses, and our American people would be em ployed and our farmers would have pro tection by having our home market re stored. Jacob Kura.