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The War Fifty Years Ago
Lyon Defeats Confederates Under General Rains at Dug Springs, No. -Confederates Gather In Force at Wil son's Creek to Attack Lyon at Springfield Aged General Scott Miffed Because McClellan Is Invited to a Cabinet Meeting He Opposes McClellan's Plans For Reorganizing Army Administration Upholds McClel lan "Little Mac" Creates the Army of the Potomac. His Popularity and His Skill as an Organizer and Driller of Troops Extra Session of Congress Adjourns. Br JAMtt A. COCERTUN. Copyright by American Press Assoc! tlon, 1811.) Ttli: week ending Aug. 5, 1901, saw little actual fighting. The battle at Dug Springs, Mo., was tlie only ono worthy tbe BAine. Tlio condition of the two con tending sections vat roughly ns fol low: lloth congresses were In session, that nt Washington being near It close, as the vxtru session adjourned on Aug. 0. General Johnston and Bcaureganl were threatening Well ington, whero General McClellnn wus fortifying thu city mid beginning tho creation of the Army of tliu rototnne. General Joint A. t)lx was In command at Italtlmore nnd General U. 1'. llutler t Fortress Monroe, both quiet Gen eral Hanks had snpplnntcd I'd t tenon In the vicinity of llnner!i Terry. In wcntorn Virginia General W. H. Hose rrnti hnd succeeded McClellnn and General Itoliert 12. a' had J lift tx-pn designated to command the Confed erates In place of GcnciTA Gnrnett. kill ed nt Itlcli Mountain. In Kentucky Colonel Anderson, of Sumter fame, was rcrruliltig for tho Federals. In the vicinity of Springfield, Mo., General I.yon was stationed at the head of bout 0,W0 Qieti, wltii a vnaUy supe- atminAti jons a. nix, a union or tii FAIOi:H UIHI'ATCII. "IK ANY MAN AT TKMITH TO 1'UI.I, DOWN THK AUKIIIGAN VI.AO, HIIOOT HIM (IN till'. HI'OT." UUN Bit a I, JJtx uc:ki:iji:i (iknkiiai. n. r. BAN KM IN rOUMANII AT UAbrillOIIK XAHLX IN AUUUXI, 1661. rtor force under Geticrnls McCulloch, IUIni and Price and (Jovcrnor Jack on approiichlug to give buttle. Previous articles buve recounted bow General I.yon inn relied from Boonvlllo, Mo., to Springfield, arriv ing about tho middle of July. Colonel fUgel In IiIh retreat from Surcoxle hud reached Springfield ahead of l.yuu. A mall troop from Kansas also Joined the Dnlon forces there, uiuklug thu total of Lyon' command a little mow) than 0.000. Here the I'edcrul com mander called for re-enforcements uud wallet) lu vuln for their arrival. In tho 'meantime General sterling Prico nd Governor Jackson, at tho head of the Missouri state troops, hud been Joined by General Itulns and General lien McCulloch, with troops from Ar kansas unil Texas, and weru begin nlng to draw a net about I.yon, Battle of Dug Springs. Tbe lust of July the Federal com Bsnndcr learned that the Confederate were un the march toward Springfield -with more Hum 'Jii,uuo troop. They were approaching In two column, ono from the south and the other t'romtbi -west, lie decided to uttnek them In detail and for this purpose moved out with tits nrmy oil Aug, 1, leaving a mall garrison In the town, lie aimed his first attack at tho force approach ing from tho south. My ulght he hud advanced ten tulles to Cuvo creek, whero lie encamped. Thu neit morn ing ho marched to Dug Springs, nine teen tulles from Hprlugllcld, whero ho encountered the enemy under General Italns. Dug Springs Is located In u alley about live miles long, with pro jecting wooded hills Interrupting the lew, Tho presence of tbe Confeder ates was discovered through tbo ap pearance of a cloud of dust at tho oth er end of the valley. General Lyon thereupon formed bis forces In line of tattle and advanced, with a company f Infantry and another of cavalry In the lead. Suddenly a force of Confed erates COO strong emerged from the wooda and sought to cut off tbe in fan try from tbe cavalry. Captain Stanley, In command of tbe cavalry, ordered bis men to Ore as soon as the Confederates were In range. Tbe Are was returned, and there waa a brisk fight for several tnlnutes, wben oue of Stanley's offi cer ordered a cburge. About twenty Sve cavalrymen responded and fought with such spirit that tbe entire body V ' evJus jasaVJaBaVJasaVJiBkw &sarJasarJarJarJarJaTfe.BBrJarJarJarJh of Confederates gavo way In confu sion. I At this Juncture n large body of Con federate cavalry appeared, and the fight was resumed. Tbe Federal nr tlllcry now enmo Into nctlon. As the shells fell among the southern horse men, killing several, tho whole body was thrown Into dlorder and soon afterward fled. This ended the battlp, General llnlni withdrawing his forces . and making a rapid march to Join I General McCulloch, who was lending the column of Confederates approach ing from the west. Tho next day tho Federals mado a vain pursuit of their foes and on Aug. 4 returned to Spring field. General Lyon hnd lost eight killed and thirty wounded In the light at Dug Springs and General Italns about forty killed and nt ninny wound ed. , The effect of the battle was to dis courage General McCulloch from mak ing n direct nttack nnSprlngneld. tint General I'rlro Insisted nnd oven pro posed to withdraw I1I1 MNxourl tronpi , nnd fight It out nlonc. At thN Junc ture nn order came from General Leon Idas Folk, In command of the district, I directing that thu nttack bo made, and i McCulloch consented, provided he was given chief command. The entire Confederate forco now moved forwnrd In three columns toward Wilson's creek. As tho battle nt that point did not occur till tho following week, It 1 will to described In a subsequent ar ticle, Scott Opposei McClellan, To return to Washington. General McClellan came Into conflict with Gen eral Scott almost from the tlrst Mc Clellan lilmn-lf recounts how, on hli second duy -it Hip capital, lip called on the president and was Invited to at tend u cabinet meeting In tho nftcr tioon. After leaving tho president he en lied on General Scott mid after an extended conversation excused him self, saying lie had been Invited to at tend a meeting nf the cabinet Scott thereupon grew Indignant that a sub ordinate oltlcer should have been shown such nu honor nnd tho general In chief not Included and ordered Mc Clellan to employ his time picking up ftrngglers about Washington. McClel lnn afterward explained to Mr. Lin coln why ho did not attend the cabinet meeting, nt which the president seem ed amused. Tho differences between the two gen trills Involved a much more serious mat ter than social precedence, however McClellan's plan of organization eon tcuiplnted brigades, divisions, corps and armies, lie objected to the old geographical divisions. In all except tho brigado formations Scott opposed him. The general In chief insisted that the geographical divisions were necessary. He also said that he bud only brigade organization in Mexico nnd Implied that what was good enough there win good enough lu the war between thu states. McClellan re joined Unit the eutlre number of men engaged In Mexico wus but u buudfui Li OUNFIUL nFN VCUM.00H, O. B. A., WHO KNIKIltD MISSOL'III IN COMMAND or AIIKANHAH AND TRXAH TROOPS IN BOM. UUII OK 1801 ANU JOINTLY COUIIANUKD COt'KDKIIATKrt AT ilATH.K OF W1LHONH CllKKK; KlLbhl) AT IIAT1LK OF I'KA HI HUE, AUK., tIAKCU 7, ltMS'2. compared to those required in the civil wur and that a more siientllic and up to dato form of organization was nec essary. Scott rcmnlnud obdurate, however, nnd McClellan went forward on bis own Hues, which caused tbe breach between tbe two to widen. Congress and tbe administration tood behind McClellan. Considering what afterward happened this state ment has a strange sound, but tbls was In the beginning of August. 1801, Tbe differences between McClellan and the administration did not develop till later. Army of the Fotomao Created. The Important outcome of the new policy wus thu vreutlou ot tbe Army of 9 r the PotoBiac. Under McDowell this had been a geographical division after tbe old idea. Under McClellan It be came a military division a compact fighting unit. Tbls method of organization extend ed In time to all the northern forces. Aside from any otber question, tbls credit Is due to General McClellan, that ho brought to the armies of the north that which they most needed In tho beginning of the war an etlielent and ndequnte form of military organi zation. This he may have learned In KuroH). Yet be could not have learn ed It nil there. Hl type of mind was distinctly Hint of tbe engineer uud or ganizer. At this time McClellnn was univer sally popular. Despite his strict disci pline tho soldiers About Washington bad already beguu to call him "Little Mac" nnd to look upon him as anoth er Napoleon, He was restoring contl denco and spirit to the troops. Per sonally thero nre many things nbout McClellnn I never liked. He talked too much of himself and was given to belittling others. To rend bis book ono Is left with tbe Impression that at this tlnio tho Confederates hud the finest nrmy on the planet, while tbe Union had only a few efficient soldiers and these lacked training and had oth- ai t ik, aWt Hi JM 0siM V '-JUT .aaavC Jk aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaV 'aaaaaaaaB BaBBBBBBBBBBBBmraBBBBBBBBlr orctiRAt, sntnLnta rnrcc, c a. a., ex- oovr.HNon op uifbodbi. joint com- MANDKH WITH OCMKHAb IIKlf M'COLLOCH OP CONFKDRftATK TllOOIH AT IIATTbROP WILSON'S CIIKI K, rol'OIIT THIIOUOIIOUT THK WAII AN11 DIED IN BT, LOOIB IN my. r faults. Yet after discounting these personal defects In his character ouo must admire tbe man's ability In tbo creation und disciplining of armies. 1 tblnk history will decide that be waa tbe ouo mail needed at this Juncture. Things do not happen by accident, ci ther to liidtvldnnlH or nations. With n great need conies thu mnn or men to 111) It Whatever wo may tblnk of htm ns n man or as a soldier, Georgo II. McClellan wus needed In 1H0I. Call It providence or what you will, one cannot read history understand ingly without being struck by tho larger Intelligence that Is behind tbe bailing of events. Wc enll things of this kind coincidences, but that Is only a term behind which wo hldu our Ig norance, However men may scheme rihI seek special ends, however blind or self willed they may be, this larger Intelligence goes on shaping tho trend of things. No mnn of Insight can fol low tlie story of our own laud, enn rend the annals of the Involution and of the civil wnr. without seeing In them tho expression of what Ktnerson calls the "oversoul," without tracing through them tbe linger of God. Tlinn's n divinity that thnixs our ends. Hough hw I hum how will. It mny be objected tbnt all this has little to do with a story of the war fifty years ago. but In my own view it had and bat a great denl to do. One of tbe laws procured by Gen eral McClellan tn the curly days of August was that authorizing tho ap pointment of additional alds-de-cump to gcneraLafilcers. These aids might be taken either from civil lire or from tbe nrmy, and none of tbem was to rank blgher than colonel. It was not till a few weeks later that tbe order was given to form tbo Army of tho rotomac. but when It came It was on tbo Hues laid down by McClellan. Extra Session Adjourns. , Tbe extra session ot congress wui row drawing to a closo. Un Aug. f, the day before linn! adjournment, thu two houses by Joint resolution culled upon the president to "recommend u duy of public humiliation, prayer nnd fasting, to be observed by the people of tbo United States with religious solem nity, nnd tho offering of fervent sup plications to Almighty God for tho safety and welfare of these Ktates, til- blessings nu their nrmx uud a speedy restoration of peace." The session had lusted only two days more than one month, having convened on July -I, yet during that time It bad provided mentiti for cur rying on the wur. defined tho nation's attitude In regard thereto, increased duties on Imports, authorized a loan of K.'fO.OtiO.otiO. provided for tho Issue of $50.0),000 of treasury notes, laid Increased taxes for the future, repeal ed tbe speclo clnuso of the subtreus ury act. Increased the nrmy to almost any size tho president might think tit, approved the taking of slaves engaged In mllltury occupation a "contra band of wnr" and generally hnd mi lled to tbe support of the administra tion In a manner that left no doubt a to tbe attitude of tbe people of tbe north. Little wan said nt tbls session of congress concerning the ultimate fate of slavery. The preservation of the Union wns the one theme, lint In one of the last debates Thuddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania did predict that as a wnr roenstire It might become neces ary to free the slaves of those in actual rebellion against the govern ment. He would nut 1:0 further thnn that. Wns this a prophecy ot the emancipation proclamation Y SWINGING TROUGH FOR HENS faslly ut Together With Pew flecee ef Inexpensive Board and Cev rd With Netting. A good plan for making a swinging feed trough for the poultry I given below: Take two pieces one by six Inchea, three few long, two the same width, jne and oup-hnlf feet long; nail these logelher for the sides and ends. Put jn a bottom of matched boards, make s frann- of laths, cut In one-foot lengths. Make tho frame fit the Inside 9f the box, Put on a cover of poultry setting, nnd attach a strong wire to Swinging Feed Trough. aeh corner. Swing this from the offers and adJuBt to hang nbout two ut iles Irom the floor. Arrange the net :lng so one side may be raited to put in the food. SUCCESS ON POULTRY FARM Business Tactics Far and Above Everything Else and Knowledge ef Finance I Essential. rtv W ,, CAIll. Mttirlmtrr. Conn.) Iliislnei's tactics on n hen farm seems to be the last thing thought of py tin- majority of beginners, by the poultry press In general nnd teacher In particular, when above everything else Ii'h tlie moat Important. Strange, inueeu, it the fact that wben tieoole full ut everything else they will take up hen" farming and expect to suc ceed; truly they should succeed at everything else before they tackle the hen biulneae. Vulona of a cool plat ta, a hammock, a shute by which eggs i oil right from the hens to mar. ket, Another shut by which tbe gold en flnioleon roll back Into one' oel- lar throughout the warm season and the comfort and easy life of unlhn Ited wealth during the winter aeaaon: of this Ilk are the pipe dream of the novice, and failure without number continue and nine time out of ten all because the would-be farmer doe not know even common finance. To rate chicken or to produce egg at any old time, to keep coop and land In the sweetest of condition doe not mean auccess by a long shot, but of course should be practiced; yet with out business tactic and a knowledge of the worth of dollar and cents one I a failure, no matter how practical or thorough, In short, a business H not a business unless run like a bust nets; th details are the cents that make the dollars, and 99 don't make 100. Standard Varletle ef Duck. There are twelve standard varieties of ducks raised In this country, a fol low; The White Pektn, White Ayles bury, Colored Rouen, Illack Cayuga, Colored Mutrovy, White Muscovy, In dian Runaer, Gray Call, White Call. Black East tndta. Created White, and Blue Bwedteh. Of these varieties, the flret e?n are considered profitable to raUe; the two varieties of Call and th Black Eaat India are bantams, and are bred more for the showroom; the Crested White may be considered as almoit purely ornamental, while at present but little I known of the lllue Swedish In this country. Cur Egg-Eating Hsblt. Guard against the formation of egg eating habit by giving tbe fowl plen ty of lime, oyster shell, bone or simi lar substances to Insure a firm shell upon the eggs. The hen can put nothing Into egg that she has not eaten. A hen thnt Is lnylng requires more kinds of food than does a cow In pro- .limlnff milk. Once you get a farmer to see where the profit comes In, be becomes Inter ested in poultry. The South African government em ploys a veterinarian to study tbe dis eases of ostriches. Two-year-old gobblers with pullets or yearling gobbler with two-year-old bens Is good mating. The ben seals up her product In a shell, and tbls and the yolk demand a supply of mineral matters. On the farm there Is no branch of th. work that yields a aurer profit, or 1 a readier profit than poultry. I No farm, today, has Its necessary equipment until It has one or more The best trap nest, and tbe only practicable one, 1 that In which the ben abut the door a she enter. Do not cloae the window until the weather get real cold. Thla advice pertains to the ben house and not man'a house. The Incubator will batch chickens every three week, but It takes sis weeks before chicks can get along very well without a brooder. In a natural state' the hen Is omniv orous, eating all kinds of animal and vegetable products, and this demand requires a variety ot supply. ASCERTAIN AGE OF CHICKENS Mules Qlven Thst May Be Relied Upon and If Followed Closely Will Qlve Deelred Information. rty Tt. O. WKATHKR8TONB.) There are not very many poultry dealer, even among thoee who bav been In the buaines for years, who can accurately tell the age of a fowl. The following rules, however, may be relied upon and It followed closely with good Judgment, tbe age of any bird can be very closely arrived at: Young cockerel develop old-looking spur sometimes, but a cond year bird preserves the short rounded purs of a cockerel. The beet guide, perhaps. Is the delicate freshness of tbe skla of the face and comb; al though occasionally an old bird will be found whose ekln Is almost as soft a that of a youngling. A young bird will show rose-colored vein on tbe surface of the skin and under tbe wings, and there will also be long silky hairs growing there. The veins and hair disappear after one year and the skin turns white. The breast-bone also becomes hnrd and cannot be bent aa In a growing bird. The skin of a fowl past one year be comes coarse and dry, and these symptoms Incrense with age. It Is very difficult to tell the age of ducks. After a duck Is a year old It begins to waddle and walk with some Fine Type ef Laying Hen. flfflculty, and after two or three year i depression down th breast Is no- Jced. Wben geeee become quite old, say Sve or six years, they acquire an ab lomlnal pouch of large size and thla Is tn unfailing sign of old age. Young turkeys usually have black feet, wblcb, after two years turn gray and dull, nnd become paler and more sickly as age advnnces, In squabs the flesh Is whitish, as een through the skin, but In a year old bird It takes on a light-purple thnde and grows darker with age. ROOST THAT IS MEDICATED Tabular Legs and Cross-Bar Are Fill ed With Wleklng Whleh Absorbs Intact Destroying Fluids. The tubular legs and cross bsrs of the poultry roost shown In tbe Illustra tion are filled with wleklng, which ab lorbs Insect destroying fluid fed to Medicated Poultry Roost It from the tanks. The legs and cross bars are provided wltb perforations for the escape of tbe fluid. Breeding Turkeys. Turkey breeders find that the finest young stock Is bred from fully ma tured parents, (luard against the breeding birds becoming too fat. Keep I hem away from the feeding yards, give a variety of food nt tho night feed, but unless range Is very poor do not give a morning feed of any kind, no wot mash, and little corn, Do not overmate tbe gobbler. Ten females are enough for one male. Mate them early, and try to keep the first mntlngs through the senson, We had tho misfortune of losing a fine torn one year in April, says a writer In an exchange,. When a new gobbler was Introduced Into tbe breeding yard tbe hens would have nothing to do with blm. Some stood around In a critical attitude, watching bis excellency strut around and spread bis wings; but others flew over a six-foot fence to es cape him. Where tbe hens have not been mated tbey will take up with any male; hence the practice In some countries of driving tbe hens to a neighbor's gobbler; but a mating once made, tbo hens object to a stranger In tbe harem, and there Is lack of fer tility till an acquaintance ha been made. Keep the hens free from lice and tbe poults dry and warm. Break Up Broodiness, The in oat humane way to break up broodiness In bens la to pen them nlone In n cage or u pen where there urc no ncets. As n rule, after being thus Isolated far a week or ten days they will "chr.tigo their mind" and be elu !u)lng again. AUQHTINQ IQARD IS D0U1LI For Production of Honey t Be Betel Extraeted or In Section, Devlee Shewn I Useful. For the production of honey to bsv" sold, either extracted or In sections, tbe double alighting board showa herewith will be found advantageoua, say tbe Orange Judd Farmer. The upper board I Intended to catch moat of the worker bees and make them pses directly Into th honey storing chamber, which Is protected from the entrance of the queen by perfoiated zinc sheet which excludes Workers' Alighting Board. joth the quenn end the drone; thus inly the workers cun enter the upper .-number from the lower one. Ily those who have tried this sy-. :etn, tbe plan Is reported as working cll, since It prevents the deposition it eggs In honey cells, and also aide n keeping the hotiey clean. In tho manipulation It Is desirable, where he strength of the colony and the prollflcness of tho queen demand It, o put tbe combs of unsoaled and jewly sealed brood abovo the queen, ixcludlng zinc, and replace tbem with imply or nearly empty, onos, or those that contain brood In advanced stages, as well aa combs heavy with bee Bread. Ily alternating stortea, every two week or so, th swarming prob m can be very largely onotrolled. HANDY ATTACHMENT TO PLOW Intra Blad With It Trailing Red. 8curd to Meld Beard, Crum bles Sell After Turned. The Illustration given herewith how an attachment for plow which crumble the oll aftr It ha been Crumbles Soli. turned over. The extra blade wltb It trailing rods Is secured to tho bottom of the mold board of the plow. Encourage the Boy. When a boy present un Idea that Is feasible, pat him on the back and encourage blm, nnd he will develop a love for agriculture and become tho pride of your heart In your declining yean, and will love the homes and the farm that you have worked so hard to pay for. If farming haa not paid In your case, by all mean give the boy a chance to begin without your handi cap. "What waa good enough for mo is good enough for tbe boy," Is a maxim unworthy of a New England farmer. Give tbe boy a chance at an agricultural education and be will help you to stop the leaks and turn the past and present Into a brighter future. Winter plowing seems to be gaining In fnvor. Ithubaih plants mny be set out ei ther In the spring or full. Every department of tbo farm must be watched for leaks and waste. As soon as the ground can bo worked in spring, pens should be sown. Good time tn get tho manure pile out of sight nnd spread It over the fields. Agriculture nowadays needs brains mixed with It In order to make It suc cessful. There Is no part of the farm which will pay so well as a little space de voted to asparagus. Weeds Injure growing crops by ap propriating the available plant food and by removing water from the soil. jfanure and phosphate properly used will give a good yield .of grain and a thick set of timothy and clover. Turnips can bo grown on wet land better than olther carrots or mangela, so they can be sown nearly a month later. After every heavy rain the ground; should be gone over wltb the cultl vator to kill all weeds and restore tbe dust mulch. Bentlment msy have a place In flow er and garden, but It I not profit able tn making a farm It by holding It there I a continual loss. There I no uso In drilling or dig ging a deep well to get puro water If the curbing or the top of tho casing allow the entrance of dirt or filth. tjilut'i-u- j.tj.itd!MMsVntf i , k tnurmnmsmk !.