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REVIEW OF THE WORLD WAR AND OMR
cpllfir vi nppo Ocnrg declared Ajistrla-llun. of the silled rotlimnnn-ltiillwcs mid the t ns successor of Dr. t. Oil July 22. Slain Iti-t Germany, nnd -Itulng the number 11 sixteen. entrance of United States Into Conflict Outstanding Dcvelopmcr Past Twelve Months Political Upheaval in Russia Affects i' Struggle British and French Smash Teuton Lines on West Front Austro-Germans Launch Drive Against Italy. By DONALD F. BI0Q8 THE WORLD WAR. After tlirca nud n half years of the noit sanguinary nghllng In history, the great nations of tho world, loReth r with tunny of ttio smaller ones, uro till) ut death grip. With less prospect of an early peace tliuu wuh thought to xlt n year ngo. Undoubtedly the greatest dcvelo Kent of the year wuh the I'litrimec of the United States of America Into tho conflict. The throwing uf the tre mendous resource anil limn Hiwcr of the American republic Into the bulnmv on the side of the entente ulllcs, III tint opinion of military experts has muro than offset the advantages Rained by Oermnny ntid her nllles during the past twelve month uml hnt made sisshlo the coutluuiitiee of the ronlllet until 11 bark to new lines which bail been pre. pared, Brltlih Lab -"ntlv. The llrltlsh Inline second (rreat offensive of t ,,(' Flanders front on Jul.. on d 20-mlle front from I'l.x ,n Warnetou, lifter three week' v tense artillery prepiirntlnn. The It. Ish forced their way Into the Oerniim line' to n tlepth of two to two and n halt mile, taking ten i Hinges anil more thnn fi.Otli) prisoners. I'ope llenedlrt, on August 14, trans, milted H'aee propotnis to nil bclllRcr ent anil neutral governments. Tbe Italian forces openi'il n Rrnlid offensive tin Aiimist If iitliiplclnt on The relations between tleriunny mid n front M mil... lime? from Ti.tmlmi to the United Statin wire further strain- the Adriatic den. On August the ill March 18 by tha receipt of rciHirt Italians raptured Monte Suiitn. nn Alts, of the KltikltiM of three Aincrleiin Irian stronghold on the lnnzn front, steamers, the City of Memphis, lilt Two niore nations entered the war on nobs and Vlglhiticln, fifteen of the lut- the side of the nllles In August. Li ter's crew being lust. ( berln declurliiR war on (lormuny Aur- n Munh 21, President VIIim Is- ust 7, and Cblim declnrltiR war on sued ii prui'lamutlnii chIIIiir congress both Oermnny and Austrlnllungiiry In speclul session on April 2. AuRiit 1 1. On AiiRiist Us, President The Ainerlenn steamer lleutdtnn Wilson's reily to the peine proposals was inriHiliH-d without wurnliiR. March of Tope lletieillet wus made public. It 22, 21 men ImlmlluR sewn Amerl- ileclnred that "ue cannot lake the cutis. In ItiR iit, j wr, f , present rulers uf tleriunny Ur.llcJ States Declares War, ! ns n RUiirnntee of nnylhlug that Is In On April President WIIoii np- endure, unless explicitly supHirled by pearnl lufnre u Joint session of con such conclusive eihleneo of the will mid purpe of the Herman pinple thcmclio ns the oilier people of the World would be Justified In accept ing." Cither tilllcd Rim rniaelits later adopted President Wilson's unto us their own reply In the 'pe. Hatty In September the Indians con Untied to make progress In their drive on the Isoiixii front, iiiiiiniiiieltiR on September 1 the enplure of 1 1 strongly fori lllnl mouulnlus, can-In; nn II mile bremb In the Austrian lines and resulting In the enptiire of 27.1s") pris oners. Chaos Threaten In fluids Conditions In lttsn grew more rhn otle durliiR the month of September, gn-s mid culled fur u dei hiriilloll of a state of war with liermauy, Un April tlmo when it definite military decision -I. the senate avei n resolution de- can be obtained. elarlliR tin- existence of u stale of war. There have been n half dozen or 'Ibo resoliillou was ndopted by the more ouMnmllnR cicnt In the past j house of n pri'setitntlics April tl mid year. Some of there huso been nt vim idgm-il by the president Ihe same purely military significance mid others ' day. Al tho same tlmo til tiermau tuiio been nccurrcuics of u Hitltlcul mi- "wm-il vessels In Amerliiui ports were lure which bale hnd ii fiirreuchliiR ef- selr.nl by the Rot eminent. I'uba di rect upon the titanic ronlllet, I clnreil war on llermntiy on April 7. Chief nuiutiR tbe imMtlcul upheavals j Tim following day, AustrhidluiiRary of the year wus the Itusslau reiolutlon 1 severed diplomatic relations with the which resulted In the overlbrmv of 1 United Stales, Czar Nicholas and ruliiiluatisl durliiR The ItrllMi forces on tin west front Ihe closing months of the jear In u hcRnn the llrst Rreat orfeulti' of lt'1 " conulerreiolutliin which taailliallv on April tl. liem tratlnu tbe enemy no- I'tlialtinted ltussln from the ranks of , Mllons north mid south of Arrm to u Heiienil Kornlloff. eommnnder In chief the nations ops)setl to tbe ei nlral siw. ; depth of from two In llini-miles. the ltulan iirmles, on September in iiemainiiii nan nil etui iimi mili tary siwers be plnenl In his tiands. 1'remler KerenUy Innnisllalely de HiMil lieiieral KomltniT and ilill war tlirnitennl ns UornllolT, at Hie bead November 8. I'-emler Kerelisky tied from I'etroRrnd, ami other members of the cabinet of tbe proiMoiiiil ro em inent were nrresled. Un November 10 the rebel riii eminent made Lenlne pre mier. Kerensky, nt the head of a body Of lojnl Cossnck troops, attacked IV- troRrad November I'J. but was badly defenleil. The botshevlkl were appar ently In full control of ltusla by No Tcnibcr SJ, when the l.enlne Roveru ment proposed n Reueral armistice to II belllRerents. American troops on , the west front suffered their llrst eastialltes on No vrmber H when tiermau troops rahbd salient held by I be Ataerlnms, kill ing three, wotindliiR five and takluR 1" prisoners, (hi Nm ember the American patrol boat Atceilo was sunk by it torpedo and 'J I were lost. During tbe lut du)s of November nnd the early part of iH-eember the Uertaaiis made determltiisl elTorts to ri-Rnlu some of tbe territory captured by the llrltlsh around Camhrnl but the ItrllMi held n Inrge ortlou of the ground tnketi, Inlllctlng heavy losses on the Hermans. The Austro Herman forces began n new offelislie In llaly arty In December, forcing the Itallnii lines baek for n dlstunce of several miles ut some slnts. l.ntly In December It was ntinouneMl that n large number of national guiinl troops from the United States had ar rlnil In Trance, nulls from eiery state being lncliiil.il. tin liivinher 7, the fulled States eotigre-s dei hired the existence of n state of war with .iltil!i-l limirnry. The following day It was iiiiiioiiiiiviI that Ihe Auierleau destroyer .lioi.li Jones lind bis-ii sunk . by a (ieriuan Mibuiarliu' with u loss i of HI men. I 'Ihe ltulnti situation was furiher i-otat United by n lii-w reio'l iigalii-l I the iolhelll;l golertllili lit laillii hisl i by ISotieruls Knleillue' and KorullolT, crs. i rom n military standpoint the i chief eients of the )ear bale been the launching of the Herman ruthless aubimirlno campaign, whlih wus ill-' ret-lly rohli.nslble for the entry of th.t ( United Mutes Into the war; the llrlt tli offeiislves on the west front, tlrt i In t lis Anas sector, later n 1'lnnders 1 nnd still later on the td-mlle front he tween Arras and St, (jueutlu; the Itnl Ian offenho ugalnst Au-lrla from Tolnilno to the Adriatic nnd Ihe nub-1 neUiiit offelislie of the (Icruiaiis and i Austrian ugalnst Italy, wblili restiltisl In the oierrunuliiR of northern Ituly by the Teutonic nllles. The entry of China, Cubit, llrntll, Slain nnd oilier countries Into the war I on the Klde of tho entente allies, the oierthrovr of King Constantino of (I recce on the demand of l-'rulice nnd tier allies uml other events Inipnrtnnt In Ihemselvea were overshailowed by the greater developments of the year. American Paaca Effort Falli. At the year opened tho only military movements of Importance In progress were those aimed by Oermnny and her nllles to complete the annihilation of Kiitimiiiihi nnd attention was centered upon Ihe request that had been mudo by ('resident Wilson that the various l)lllgereiit nations statu tho terms up on which peace might bo discussed. Tho replies seemed to preclude nny further action by tho United States as n peacemaker, but un January I'res lib ut Wilson In en uddresa before tint M-linto laid down the principles which tie declared should guide Ihe United Elates In participating In u league to enforce peace ut tho closu uf tho pres ent war. Un JutiLury 31, Oermiiuy announced the Inauguration of ruthle. mbiaurluo warfare. l'resldent Wilson acted promptly, revering diplomatic relattoua with Oermnny on February 8. Tho Cunurd liner I.aconln wan aunlc without warning off tho Irish coaat February 'JS with tho lota of 18 Uvea, Including thoie of two American wom en. On February i!8, It waa announced that tho United Htatca government waa In possesion of a communication ad dressed by tho Oerrnan foreign mlnla ter to tbe Oerman mlnlatcr ut Mex ico City, Instructing hliu to pro pose ou alliance between Oermany and Mexico, and to suggest that a soon aa war with tbe United State waa certain, tho prealdent of Mexico communicate with Japan, offering to mediate between Japan and Oermany. 4! a a reward Mexico waa promised gen eral financial eupport from Oermany nd the reconqueat of loat territory In STexaa, New Mexico and Arizona. Tbe United State) department ot tate announced, March 12, that It bad determined to place armed guard upon all American merchant vexaeta ailing through the Oerman war aone. March U, It waa learned that tha American ateamxhlp Algonquin had been aunlc without warning by a Oer man submarine. On the tame day China levered diplomatic relations with Oermany and seized German mer chant ships In the harbor at Shanghai. Czar Nicholas Dthrond, s On March 19, tho Itusslau revolu tionary movement, wblch had begun with rood riots and strikes, culminated In the abdication of Czar Nicholas both (or himself and bis son. Pending tho meeting of a constituent assembly the government waa vested In tha execu tive committee) of tbe Duma and newly chosen council of ministers with Prince bvos as premier. Tbe Oerman fores on the west .front, on March 17, began a general retirement on a front of 85 miles from ;outh of Arras to Solssons, tailing The rrciieh fun-en launched nn of- fen. lo iignlut Ihe enemy on u ".Vmlle front hotwis-n Solou and Helms, April lit. nnd lifter three ilnjs' lighting rejKirtiil the capture of more than 17, ism prl-oto-rs. The llrst Ainerlenn disunities In the wnr W'-re reHirle. Apill when Ihe uriiieil American tank steamer Vacuum was sunk b) u submarine nnd sevcrul American gunners were lost. American Fleet In Action. It was learned on May 111, that n sipmdroii of American detro)ers tin der Itenr Admiral Slmms bad safely crossed the Atlantic uml had been pa trolling the seas III war scrilco since Jlny I. The United States nriay draft bill heenme n law May IS when President Wilson ultlxed Ids signature to tho measure nnd Issued n proclamation fix ing June fi as registration day. Dining the early pari of June grow ing unrest In Husshi begun to attract the attention of the nllles, Ou June 1, workmen nnd soldiers seized limn slnilt, the llmisliiu fortress defending I'etrogrnd, nnd repudiated the provls. of ii large for f ins-p. man bed on I'etrognul. The ri hellion cothtpsiil, how ever, on September l.'l when liein-ral liorullolT tigrei-l in surrender In Cem-ral AleMleff, chief of stuff of , the ltislan army I The llrst Ainerlenn riiualllcs In Franco were tuitimiuctsl on Seplemher I, when four Americans into hilled In n Herman raid on American hos pltals in I'm nee. Ataerlin's war prepii1 rntlons were continued rapidly, the I llrst contingent of the per rent of the new- National army urrlilng ut their cantonments September ft. The replies of normally nnd Austria' Hungary to I'ope llcm-dlct's ponce pro posals were made public September "1 They accepted the isiih' offer lis n hit sis for Ihe beginning of negotiations. but made nn definite eonceslons, Italian Driven Baek, The great Ausiro-fleriuan offensive ngalnst the Kalians was launched lonal government. On J M, the V?' ..' . ." " ' emoer -i. mn American eonrmlsshm to It n. head-" " "'"" ""'" irces mm ed by nihil Hoot, and the American railroad commission, bonded by John I', Stevens, arrived safely at Itusslau ports. On June 7, the ltulans In posvissoii of Kronsladt yielded to negotiations nnd recognized Ihe pro visional government. In the meantime the American prep arations for the wnr were proceeding rapidly. On June n. nearly lO.ixm.ODO men of military age registered for mili tary scrilco under the selective draft law. On June 8, Major (lenernl John J, I'erslilng, who had been selected In head the American expeditionary forces In France, arrived with his stuff In London. On Ihe aamn day Wash ington reported tho snfe nrrlvnl In Franco of 100 American aviators, the llrst American fighting forces to reach Hint country. King Cenatantln Dethroned. A solution ot the Oreek altuatlnn, which had endangered tho operations of tbe allies In tho llalknns, wax reach ed Juno 12 when nn tho demand at France, Oreat Ilrltaln and lluisla, King Constantino abdicated In favor of hi second son, I'rtnco Alexander, who waa known to be favorably Inclined toward tho nlllca. London reported another big raid by Zcpprltna on June 13, In which 1.17 persons were killed and many Injured. The aubacrlptlona to the first Ameri can Liberty loan closed June IS, tho loan being oversubcrlbed by $750, 000,000. On Juno SO, It waa announced that the first contingent of American troops, under command of Major flenerul fil bert, had arrived safely In France. Tho new Oreek cabinet, headed by Klcutherloa Vcnlielos, went Into ofdcu on June 27 and two days later tho new government severed diplomatic rela tions with Oermany, Austria-Hungary, Hulgarln and Turkey, On the first of July, tho Ttunlan forces, under the personal readership of War Minister Kerensky, electrified tho allies by launching a powerful of fensive on an 18-mllo front In Oallcla, capturing ' many atrongly fortified towns and taking thousands of pris oners. For two weeks the Hussion continued to advance along a front that widened to 100 mites, but on July 10 the Rusalan offensive collapsed and turned Into a rout, when many Rus sian regiments mutinied and fled. Kerensky succeeded Prince Lvoff a premier of Russia on July so. Tbe first political crisis In tbe Oer man cabinet during the war resulted retaken nil the territory won by the Italians In two months' lighting uml hml overrun nil of northern Ituly, The United States begun to take n more active pnrl In the lighting during October, Ihe llrst Ainerlenn troops go. lag Into the llrst line trenches In Franco on October 1M. On October 17 the American transport Antilles, re turning from France, was lorpciloi-d nnd sunk, with n loss of 117 lives. The second American Liberty loan of M.tKN 1,000,1 id closed October ".7 with nn oversubscription of nearly 12.000, 000.000. Several more South Amerl ran nations took n decided stand In favor of tho nllles In October. Fern broke off diplomatic relations with Oermnny October 0 nnd Uruguay took simitar action tho following day, On October 20 Ilrazll declared the exist enre of a statu of war with Oermnny, There were ovldeurcs of Internal ills turbnnces In Oermany during tho month, n mutiny ot Oerman sailors nt Ostend being reported October 18. On October AO Count ficorge von Herding was mado Imperial chancellor ot Her tunny, Chancellor MlchaelU having re signed. On tho sea the chief event of the month was tho sinking by two Oermnn raiders of two llrltlsh destroyers and 12 Scandinavian merchantmen they wrro convoying in trie Worth seu ou October 17. On October 91 the Amerl can transport Finland, returning from France, was struck by a torpedo and eight men wero killed. Italians Stop Invaders. nig events crowded fast upon each other during the month of November. The Italians, after reforming their line back of tho Tngllumento river, wero forced to execute a further re treat, falling back to the Plavo river, Tho Italians, re-enforced by llrltlsh nnd French armies, which reached the Italian front November 2.1, withstood repented attacks launched by tho Aus tro-Oennon armies, holding their lines nt all points along the I'lnve. On November 20 tho llrltlsh opened Ihe greatest offensive of the year on tho west front between fit.Qucntln and tho Scarpc, In n surprise attack, be gun without the usual artillery prepa ration, the Brltlih Infantry under Qcn eral Iiyng, headed by n large forco of tanks, smashed through the Hlnden burg line toward Cambral, taking many town and thousands of prisoners. Russia was thrown Into ctvil war during the month by a counter-molu-tlon by mean of which the bolshevlkl 'under tbe leadership of M. Lenlne, m . . . ,. 1 UUUCr 114 O ICftUVIlUlU U SI, on July 14 in the resignation of Chan-j goTernment at Petrograd 6a (iiaek lenders. ItrllMi. 1'reuili nnd Italian troops on Deeember 10. captured .leril-lllem. wbleh for U7!l jears bus been under Ihe undisputed sway of the Moslems, on Di-cenihcr Id. It was iititioiuicod 1 1 in i llniiiti nnd Teuton i'mlnrlo hml lgned ii four-weeks' nnnl-ilif. one prot Hon of whli h was that pence no- llailoiis should begin Immediately. THE WAR CONGRESS Tie- tlrsl "wnr seoti" of the Sixty- llfili coligros whli h opened on April was ihe lined momentous sesloii In the liMory of the Fulled Slates up to thai lime. The llrst war bill piied by congress was one iiiilhorlrlug the Issuance of bothls In mi amount nut i-veisslltn- 5.V issi.isiii.isti mid nuthorlzliig the seen- lnr of Ihe treasury to purebae se curities of goicmiueiits nt war with (iirmauy to the amount of &Um,(hi,. isi. The iirmy conscription net was pnsed by Ihe house April 2S by a vole of :iti7 to 21 nnd by Ihe senate on May I by u lute of 81 In S. The llrst big war appropriation 1.111. currying appropriations aggregating f;i.'.'M.O!ll.rll.i',o for the army and navy, was passed In the bouse May 2 with one opposing vote nnd In the sen ate May III without u roll call. The measure known ns the espion age net, Intended to preietit ilMnynl acts ou tbe part of residents of Ihe United States ami ulsu containing pro ilslotis glilng (he president power to place nn embargo ou exports, was signed by Ihe president June 1.1. A bill llpproprlllllliR I1I).iHHI.IkK) for Ihe development of the ulr service wus pussisl without u record vote by Ibo senute on Juno lit nnd by the house on June 2S. The food control net, under wblch broad powers were glien to the presi dent for Ihe regulation of the sale of food nnd fuel, wus passed In Ihe house June -II by u vote of .'likl to .1 uml In the senate July 21 by a lute of HI to il. The second Rreat bond Issue net, iillthorlzliiR the Issuance of bonds to the amount of $7,r:i8.0l.l,illO nnd war savings cerllllrntes to the amount of S2,000,000,000, was passed In the house September 0 nnd In tho sennte Septem ber 13. Tho revenue act, first Introduced In the bouse May 0, wus passed by tho house May 2:1, but wus not passed by the senate until September 10, Iho conference report wns accepted Octo ber 2. Tho message provides for tho raising of nearly 13,000,000,000 annu ally, largely from Incorao uud excess protlts taxes. Tho second big war appropriations art, currying a total of .1.:i.V),000, 010.0,1, Including 103.1,000.000 uddltlonul for the emergency shipping fund, was approved by the president October 0, The second session of Ihe wur con gress opened December 8, and Ibo fol lowing day President Wilson delivered a message declaring that nothing will turn the United States usldo from Ita task until tho wur Is won. During December both houses of con gress opened fnr-reuchlug Investiga tions Into the wur preparations of the war and navy departments. DISASTERS 0NLAND AND SEA Tho yenr 1017 was marked by many disasters on land nnd sen, aside from thoso resulting from tho hind and naval operations of the countries at war. Thousands of Uvea were lost and millions of dollars worth of prop, orty was destroyed by fires, explosions, earthquakes, tornadoes and other de structive agencies In all part of the world. On January S, an earthquake In'For inosa caused tho death of 300 person. On January 25, an earthquake klUed CO persons on Ball Island, Malay arcbl pellgo. On February 2, an explosion and flr In a Chicago tenement killed 25. Oa February 3, 30 wen- killed nnd 3M !iurt In n ship explosion at An haiigol. On Ihe same day an explosion ut Yo kohama killed 100. On 1'ehruury 21. the llrltlsh truniort Mend I was sunk In n collision, 02.1 South African In surers being lost. On March It, n tornado In east cen tral Indiana killed more thnn 20 per sons nnd nn March 23, .IS were killed and more thnn 2u Injured when u tor nnilo wrecked part of the city of New Albany, Ind. Hxplnslotis n n Itiissinii iimmttnltbin plant near CMie-ter, I'u., klllnl 112 per sons April 10. An explosion In Ihe Hastings mine near I.Udlow, I'olu,, April 27, raiiseil n loss of III) lives. May 22, the i lly of (l.ioenoes, Hun gary, wns devastated by lire. Thirty lives; were lost and great damage Was done by n storm In Knnsns May 2.1 and the following day tonindoes In central Illinois killed 1.10 persons uml destroy si property worth millions of dollars. May 20, many persons were killed In tornadoes in southern Illinois, Ken tucky, Tennessee, Alnbntim nnd Arkan sas. San Salvndnr. capital of Sulvmbir, and n number of surrounding towns were partially destroyed by mlcnnle eruption, enrlliiiiake and lire June 7. More than IW men pcrMied In n blaz ing mine ut Untie. Mont., .lime H. Thir teen were killed and many Injured when n wnter tank fell on I In sleiimer Christopher Columbus nt Mllwnukee, Wis.. June llii. t A NliiRarn Rorge trolley ear plunged Into the rapids, July I. nnd '.'S were killed. A mine cjphMoii nt New Wu lorford. t'upo Itreloti, killed 02 men on July 2.1. A mine explosion nt I'liy. Ky.. cau-ed the los of III lives oil AllglM I, Nineteen were ol when Ihe Itrll Mi steamer City of Athens, eurrilng tals'louarli-s in Afrlni, vus sunk by a 1 Moating mine ou AtlgilM 10. Uighteen Were killed III II trolley ear collision near North Itranfonl. ("otiti.. August l.'l, Ou August 1. a illastrous lire swept Salotilkl, (I recce, dcslro)lng II largo part of the city. Mntiy persons wire killed In n ty phoon mid Hood lit Toklo. October 2, nnd a llioiisiinl persons were n-Hirtis1 Irow'tiod In great llss In Natal. South Africa. October 2". About l.'.'iSI persons were hilled uml millions of dollars woilh of property destroyed Decvinher ll bv an explo-loii and lire whlili followed u collMon in Ihe harbor nt Halifax, N. S.. hclwim Mont lllane, u French munition ship, and the Imo. laden with supplies for Ihe Itelglali lletlef t'olnmlfloli. INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC Industrial unrest was apparent In the I'nltisl Stales throughout IHI7. largely us n recall of war eomllllniis and In spile of efforts innde by the government, ailed Icy leaders of organ- Irisl labor, to preietit strikes whlel would delay the nation h war preparn lions. Fatly In the jear n iiiillon-wlde strike of the skilled railroad emplo) which hml been nvi rled In IIMil bv lie passage of the Adalaon law, providing Indirectly for an increase In wiiges, was again threatened, owing to lln fact t Ti ii t the placing of the Adatnsou law In operattoti was dchijed pending II ilccMiill by the United Stales Sll promo court ou lis nihility. Tin threatened strike was nverted March IK by the capitulation of the railroad malingers, On the following day the Fulled States Supremo court bunded down ll decision holding Ihe Adaiuso.l law' iiiiistliutlomil. Serious troubles were precipitated In the Allzoun copper Holds July 1 when llie miners slruclc. Disorders were re ported from several points nnd on July 12 Ihe people of HUbee, Ariz., de srlei I.'.ihi inimberH of the Industrial Workers of the World, who It wus cliurgi-d had fomented (he strikes In the copper mines, Ou July 31, 32 I. W. W. leaders were deported from Hallup, N. M. On August l, Frank Lit tle, I. W. W, leader, who bad been prominent In the Arizona troubles, was lynched ut Unite, Mont., where be bud gone to take part In u strike of miners nnd where he wus alleged to have mnilo speeches uttncklng tho govern ment. A serious tie-up of ull shipbuilding plants In tho country wus threatened In August uml September. Machinists mid bollerinnkers In Eastern ship yards went nn striko August 21 and 23,000 skilled mechanics uud other workmen struck In Sun I'm nil sen Sep tember 17. On September 20, Presi dent Wilson named a commission, headed by Secretary of Labor Wilson and representing both employers and employees, to net as Ids personal rep resentative In allaying labor troubles during tbe wur, Tho striko In tho San Francisco shipyards was ended Sep tember 20 through the efforts ot the covcrntnent mediators. Leaders of organized labor In the United States took a decided stund throughout tho year In support of tho government preparations for war ana agulnst antiwar propaganda. At tbe annual meeting of tho American Fed eration ot Labor In Buffalo In Novem ber, union labor pledged Its soUd sup port to tbe government in too prosecu tlon of tho war. Tho railroad of tho country faced another crlals during the closing months of the year when demand wero made by the four brotherhood for wage Increase averaging 40 per cent, affecting, directly and Indirectly, approximately z.ooo.oou railroad em-ployeea. Labor trouble of the year wer clesely alUed with economic develop ment, growing out of the tncreased cost ot living In the United 8tatea. Is order to prevent further Increases In prices government .regulation of many Industrie was undertaken as a war measure. On May 10. President Wil son selected Herbert C. Hoover, chnlr man of the Ilelglnn relief commission, as head of n food control board, nnd Inter, on August 11. following the pass age by congress of u food control bill, Mr, Hoover was made food adminis trator. On August 21, President Wil son Issued nn order tiling the basic prices for bituminous coul In the pro ducing districts of the country. On August 23, President Wilson appointed Dr. II. A. Ourfleld fuel administrator for the United States. On August 30 tbe United States wheat committee tiled tin; basic price fur tho 1U17 crop ut $2.20 ii bushel. DOMESTICAFFAIRS The Danish West Indies, purchased from Denmark fur $2.',WI., passed under the Jurisdiction of the United States January 27, and were renamed Ihe Virgin Islands. Serious race riots In Knst st, Louis. Mn., July 2, resulted In Ihe killing of mure than 20 negroes nnd two whltn men mid a In a y property loss ly lire. The riots were followed by prosecu tions by stnto ofllchil and a congres sional Iniesttgntlon. Soldiers of the Twenty-fot tb U. R. Infantry (colored) started a race riot til Houston. Tex,, August 23, resulting In the denth of 1.1 whites uml seicrsl negroes. Interest In the general elections on November 0 wns centered In New York and Chicago, where Socialist tickets Were defeated by Inrge inajorl lies. Judge lljhin. Democratic nomi nee, wns elertiil mayor of New York ner fusion. Id piihtlinti and Socialist candidates. In Milwaukee. Vs November 23. leu siii'iiieu and ll wolu-iti Were kill ed by Ihe explosion of n bomb found. Ill ll iblireh and lukiu to sdlce heail ipt.irlers. Thirteen negroes, ronvleted by court martial of purltilputltig In the men riots m Houston, Tex., August '.M. wero hanged nt San Antonio. I H comber tl. Forty-one others were glien life seu-Iciu-es, The house of representatives, on De cember 17. adopted n resolution, al ready adopted by tho senile, submit ting to the states ii constitutional nmemlmetit for national proMUtlon, MEXICO AND UNITED STATES The friction between the United Slates nml Mexico, which bad thn-iil-enisl for two jears or more In res-ilt In open wurfiire, began to itliip.enr early In 1017 and when the alien-, tlon of tbe people of the United Slatir wus foctisi-d iisiu inure Important: mailers by the enlran f lh I'nltisl States Into Ihe world wur. Inn Mexican "crisis" faded from the publlcj lew, Desplto (he failure of negotiations! with the Carrniizn Roierntuent I'resU dent Wilson ordered the withdrawal nt the American troops from Mexico nnd! on February f. (lenernl Pershing nnd! y his troops marched out of Mexico nf tcr having been In Hint country almost ii Jear. on March 11. (lenernl Can aura wast formally ilectisl president of Mexico, I'roiti lids time on conditions In Moil co became more tranquil uml therm were evidences Hint President Cnrmn rn wns sui cdlng In restoring order In the republic It wus pot until lutaj In tbe year that Villa ngaln hernme nc live. On Nm ember 13. troops led by Villa's aids, capttinsl ojlnnga, on tho American border, after u hard light. Several hundred Curraiizii soldier lied across tjo- imnier nun weru nttimea In the i'nltisl Slates. POLITICS IN FOREIGN LANDS A spirit of unrejt was apparent In many widely separated countries In 1017, lending In some eases to revolu tion nnd civil wur. The revolution In lliissiu, resulting In the uhdlrntlnn of ('ar Nicholas and Ihe forced nhdlcas tlon of King Constantino of Oreecn were eients closely allied with tha war. Disturbances In China, Including nn attempt to restore tbe monarchy, were Influenced partly by tbe war. Conditions in China were unsettled un til June 30, when under the Influence) of monarchists, Hsunn Tung, Mnnrhu emperor, announced bis resumption of the throne nf China. Civil war Im. mediately broke nut and on July '10 tbe attempt to restore the monarch collapsed. On July 13 tho mnnarchlat army, led by Chang Hsun, surrendered after n battle at Peking. The repub lican government wns firmly establish ed npnln nnd later declared war on Oermany and Austrla-nungnry. Civil war In Cuba threatened to dis rupt that country during tho early months of the year. The rebels went badly defeated In several engagement and on March 7, Oomez, their leader, waa captured. The rebellion wa stamped out quickly after the capture of Oomez. , Great Ilrltaln continued to wrestle) with the Irish problem throughout tbs year. The Irish nationalists, on March 7, demanded Immediate home rule nnd marched out ot tbe bouse ot commons In a body. On July 23 a convention proposed by Premier Lloyd Oeorge and representing all factlona In Ireland met for the pnrpoao of drafting a homo rule constitution for Ireland. Some misunderstandings between the United State and Japan over far Eastern matters ware cleared away by the signing by diplomatic representa tive of the two countries on Novem ber 2 ot on agreement by wblch tht United State recognise the fact that Japan baa special Intweat In China because of It proximity but guaran teeing the territorial Integrity of China and tha maintenance of the open door policy In that country. . (Copyright, U1T, by ths McClur Nswapas er lyiidleate.) I u Li.-.