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THE KANSAS CITY SUN, SATURDAY, MARCH 80, 1918.
?3 I mr'c rrm i?? r WIFE AS MANAGER Something for Which Too Few Hubbies Give Her Credit. Leader in Nationalistic Movement Tells Hoiv Race Kept Its Individuality Under Alien Masters He Was Not in Favor of Complete Larvdof I Jr A T TT 7T I TTft T PA s y Pcofe55o Michaelo ttrushevsky ( w. vnryr of tmf 'wpazvan pa) a Independence But Really, When You Look at tho Matter Closely, the Proper Con ducting of a Home Requires Some Thought. Mnny a business man goes home In the evening, removes his coat, sinks : nm- HE history or tho Ukrainian question dates from tho middle of tho seven teenth century, that is, tho time of tho great Ukrainian revolution of 10-18, which had given a glaring pub licity to tho problem and caused at tho same Umo the partition of tho Ukraine between the Muscovite em plro and tho kingdom of Poland. From that day began the decadence of nntlonal Ukrainian life. About tho middle of tho sixteenth century Ukrainian life had lost much of its strength. Tho aristocracy, deprived of any participation In politics, was forced to submit to tho paramount race (Poles and Lithuanians), while the middle classes were subjected to every kind of vexation. The peasant had lost the right to possess either house or land, lie had become a serf. Numer ous taxes weighed him down till ho was a mcro accessory of tho earth. The Orthodox church, which In those times was the representative of the nation, had become dependent upon a govern ment as ill-disposed toward it as to the peasants. It underwent a crisis which nearly brought about Its dissolution. Up to this period Lithuanian Ukraine had progressed slowly, but from the mlddlo of the sixteenth century It progressed more rapidly under the Influence of tho Polish institutions. Moreover, about 1500, nearly all the districts of Lithuanian Ukraine were taken from Its rule and simply annexed to the Polish republic. They were Volhynia, Eastern Podolla, Podlachjo (the western Bug district), and Kyjover. The Polish aristocracy came In num bers to reside In Its new territory, the Ukrainian aristocracy became influenced by the Poles, and the Individual life of the Ukraine ceased to exist. This did not take place without n reaction and a desire for n national renaissance. Having re gard to the special circumstances In western Ukraine, where the aristocracy In particular had been nearly demolished, one will see that the Intellectual and national regeneration could not hope to succeed In the long run. It found sup port, however, In a new social and political fac tor which at this critical moment appeared In eastern Ukraine, that is to say, the Cossacks. The Cossacks did not hesitate to proclaim the immunity from all Jurisdiction, nil foreign suzer ainty, nil taxes, and nil personal service of those who submitted to the power and Jurisdiction of the Zaporogue (Cossack) army. Thus they drew toward them an enormous number of peasants,, who at the end of the sixteenth century were leaving western and northern Ukraine for the cast in order to escape tho heavy burdens of serfdom. About 1590 the Cossacks came Into conflict with the Polish government, and their disagreements grew more serious as time went on. Each struggle inspired fresh energy In the Uk rainians, till nt last prolonged reprisals (1C3S-47) led to n revolution. In 1048 the people rose, led by Rohdan Chmlelnltzky. The Polish army was beaten, and the rising spread over the Ukraine, even to the distant re gions of the west. In spite of the number of In surgents, who totaled about. 300,000 men at tlie beginning of the war in 1048, their leaders did not consider the liberation of the people possible by the' means at their disposal. Chmlelnltzky hesi tated between two methods. The one was to create a federation of the orthodox states, Mus covy, Ukraine, Moldavia, and the Slavs of the Balkans. This nlllance would have been directed ngalnst Poland and Turkey. Several reasons, and above nil the weakness of the Turkish gov ernment, inclined Chmlelnltzky to decide for Mus covy. For some time Muscovy had not dared to accept tho protectorate of the Ukraine. It feared war with Poland and remembered the cruel de? feats which that nation had Inflicted nt the be ginning of the seventeenth century. Not till 1053 did Mlscovy decide to extend Its protection to the Cossack army nud to the Ukraine by committing itself to war with Poland. In March, 1054, the treaty was signed bearing the name, "Articles of Bohdan Chmlelnltzky;" therein wns defined the position of the Ukraine to Muscovy. From the moment the Empress Cntherlne came to the throne the days of the Ukrainian autonomy were, however, over. , In 1772, when Poland was first divided up, west ern Ukraine, now eastern Gnllcia, became part of the Ilnpsburg kingdom In virtue of certain long-standing claims of the Hungarian crown to this country. Some years later, Bukowlna (tho present region), which formerly belonged to Moldayln, was added to it. Tills passing of western Ukraine Into tho rule of Austria awoko n new national fervor in the country. Insignifi cant as were in reality the reforms brought about, this attitude nevertheless created n deep Impres sion upon the Ukrainian population, which once again enjoyed a sense of nationality and lost the feeling of despair with which it was stricken during the later years of Polish supremacy. Even after the Austrian government, under the Influ ence of the Polish aristocracy, had characterized Its Ukrainian policy by a strongly reactionary feeling, the energy of tho national movement was not completely dissipated. On the other hund, the Ukrainian territory which had fallen to the share of Russian rule on the partition of Poland had no cause to look for any revival of nationalist aspirations. The rigor with which tho Polish or Polonlzed aristocracy ruled tho Ukrainian peasantry became now more merciless still, supported ns the Poles were by tho authority of Russia. Tho longing to see the old constitution restored I .,.i itonif mnnlfit from tlmn to time, esneclnllv -,,uuw ,ovt . ' ' 1. nAnnlnnc. n a ftm TfllCCltnn I'flTllDI miltt t 60ught to recruit the Cossack militia in the Ukraine. The study of ethnography, and dialects, Uio re searches Into 'the life of the people, the renais sance of the Ukralnlnn longimgo and literature, 6uch as we see at the end of tho eighteenth cen tury and especially In the first half of the nine teenth century, brought together tho Intellectual classes. Under tho influences of which we have Just, spoken, and thanks to the Ideals imported from western Europe, Ukrainian political thought abandoned its aspirations toward an Independ ence that wns no longer feasible In order to re place them by a realizable political program. Xb oldest of these programs that was In any SWE SIBERIA J-VY- VITEBSK"") -VM0SCOW- VtADIMIR tUM f K 'V UFA. ,' AUSTRIA KIEvM.POtTAVAL ' U 'N HUNGARY JPKwvinceofttiej' 1. I JMrVSSE''ERINOSLAV? DON COSSACKS . V V way realized dates from 1840. It was started by the Ukrainian organization of Kiev, known as the Guild of Cyril nnd Methodius. They desired a democratic and liberal constitution which would abolish privileges nnd classes and everything In fact of a nature to debase tho people. Absolute freedom of speech, of thought, nnd of religion wns to be guaranteed. Actually all this practical activity was killed at birth. For, In the year 1847 one of the students Informed on the leaders and denounced them, with tho result that they were arrested and condemned. This repression put a stop to any development of political thought In the Ukraine, now that the most talented and nctlve lenders were reduced to silence. When they returned from their exile and assumed their patriotic task, circumstances, such as the sup pression of serfdom In Russia and the ameliora tion of the lot of tho peasantry, compelled them to labor chiefly for the comfort of tho peasants. They were occupied In teaching the agricultural classes nnd In educational work of various kinds ns well ns In creating a popular literature, etc. In spite of such moderation in thought, the Russian government regarded this nctlvlty with an unfavorable eye, because at the outset It hated any nntlonnl Ukrainian movement, however mod erate It might be. Moscow held strongly to the doctrine of "tho unity of the Russian people." Moreover, It regarded as dangerous any deslro to establish a separate Ukrainian literature nnd any endeavor to awaken national feeling In this unfortunnte race. For these several reasons then, the activities of the Ukrainians of Kiev were sup pressed, no matter hovf modest or how politically innocent they might be. Any establishments or organizations where Ukrainian scientific workers congregated were forbidden, and In the spring of 1870 the celebrated ukase appeared determining the fate of the movement for many years. This ukase forbade the publishing In Ukrainian of any "work other than those of a"hIstorlcnl or lit erary nature. The Ukrainian movement, however, wns not to be extinguished by such coercive measures. The educnted classes of the Ukraine fought Inces santly in Russia for tho national movement from 18S0 to 1900, nud endeavored to -turn to their own advantages any possibilities which offered them selves. When tho movement became no longer possible In Russia, it sought an outlet beyond tho frontier In tho territory of Austrian Ukraine. The exodus of the Ukrainians or tho di vergence of tho national nctlvlty toward Austrian Ukraine, townrd Lemberg, which became a cen ter for the natlonnl life, wns weighty with results not only for the Ukrainian movement In Russia, but also for the development of Austrlnn Ukraine itself. Already, about the year 1800, after tho first prohibition of tho Ukrainian language In Russia, this event had contributed to tho sus tenance of the Ukrainian national life in Austria at a very critical moment in tho development of this section of the subject people. After the movement had gradually grown weaker In the sec ond -quarter of, tho nineteenth century, under the pressure of the general reactionary movement In Gallcla, the year 1848 poured n refreshing breath over tho Ukrainians of Austrln. Tho Austrian government sought in tho Ukrainian population something to set off against tho Polish revolu tionary .movement. Tho final liberation of the serfs, the ndmtssio,n of the moral and political rights of tho Ukrainian people (or Ruthenlans), the creation of tho first institution of any Import ance In the domain of culture and politics, the nationalization of the schools, the formal promise of a university for Lemberg, tho administrative separation of tho two Gallclas (Ukrainian nnd Polish), which had been artificially united in 1772: all these influences assisted the birth of a Tiniir ari In trio IIt"V nf thn AncMnn TTlrrnfno Tint these years that were so full of hope soon passed, to be followed In their turn by tbe, reaction of 1850, which brought to the Ukrainians of Gallcla uiwuii krA;4 uvvvp Liuilo xiiv 'i vtuiuvu uiuv were completely forgotten for the most part, nnd the Ukrainians of Gallcla, after having aided the Austrian government in Its combat against the rising of the Polish aristocracy, were left to the unscrupulous rule of these same nobles, Into whose hands the whole administration of Gallcla passed once .again in the year 1S50. Thus arose a painful crisis In the national life of the Ukrainians of Gallcla. Dfssllluslons nnd doubts followed one nnother, and the way was open for the Russophll current toward which the Polish aristocracy was eagerly driving the Uk rainian element. The arrival of fresh Ukrainian Immigration, coming In 1803 to employ their nctlvlty on Gall clnn soil, after the suppression of tho Ukrainian movement In Russia, cannot, under the circum stances, be too highly appreciated. At a critical moment this influence brought the necessary aid to the Ukrainian element, chiefly of tho younger generation which had remained faithful to tho program of 1848. From about 1SS0 this "popular" Ukrainian move ment, ns It was called, took a firm hold of the people In Galicln, nor did It fail to keep in touch with the Ukrainian movement In Russia as well. The end of the century wns signalized by a rapprochment between the two Ukrnlnes. This had a most happy result for the nntlonnl life, thanks to tho reciprocal control exerted on po litical questions. From this moment the progress of national cul ture In Russian Ukraine has made rapid progress, in spite of all attempts made to stop Its course. Tho stormy years of 1904-1000 brought to the fore tho whole question of tho Russian reaction ary powers. The Petrograd academy addressed a memorandum to the Russian government prov ing that the current conception thnt the Russian literary language (Great Russian) was employed by tho whole of Russia, was false, and did not include the Little Russians (Ukrainians). In the most positive manner this memoir affirms tho right of exlstenee to the Ukrainian language and literature. In spite of this, tho delay brought about in tho progress of the language was not immediately dissipated; this only occurred In 1000, when the law concerning newspapers was repealed. This law did away with all restrictions In respect of speolnl idioms, under which term the Ukrainian language was Included. It looked nt this period ns If tho most Joyous futuro were In store for tho Ukrainian movement in Russia. Influenced by the aspirations toward political liberty shown by their brethren, the Aus trian Ukrainians also claimed universal suffrage. Gallcla was moved by a stronger national Im pulse than it had ever known before. It wns hoped that once "oecumenical" Ukraine achieved freedom in Russia, Its Intellectual nnd political power would bo strong enough to relenso Its sis ter states from foreign hegemony. These hopes, however, were not realized. A new reactionary movement disappointed all hopes, and all the promises mndo to tho Russian people In 1005 nnd 1000 were completely forgotten. This blow was especially hard for Ukrainians. Under the blow of the survival of the old aspir ations and tho disillusions they had received there arose a party in tho Ukraine who wished to nttempt onco again tho fight for tho independ ence of the country. Such hopes which ore found in the associations of the nationalist youth nt tho end of tho nineteenth century awoko onco. again with renewed energy in splto of tho Hl-luck which had always hitherto pursued thorn. JTOTTOgg UKRAINE, the part of Russia which has set up an Indepen dent government and made a separate peace with the cen tral powers, is a country rich In natur al resources that need only systematic development. Ukraine covers 850,000 square kilo meters, an area greater than that of France and only a Uttlo less than that of Italy, Spain and Portugal together, George Raffalovlch, a Ukralnlnn by birth nnd an authoritative historian, writes In the New Xork Sun. Taking tho figures usually given by European writers of repute, there are today 29,000,000 Ukrainians in the southwestern provinces of Russia, be tween 1,000,000 and 2,000,000 In Si beria, where they have, especially In tho Amur region, extensive settle ments; 3,500,000 in Eastern Gallcla, 40,000 in northern Bukowlna, nnd per haps 500,000 In northern Hungary on the southern slopes of the Carpathian mountains. The bulk of the Ukrainians consists, therefore, of those in Ukrainian Rus- slble to the assembly for his actions. If he offended he was Incontinently de prived of his office. The assembly, called radii, was pe riodical and comprised representatives of all classes of the community, who often criticized freely the policy of tho hetman. In the Interval between radas the hetman ruled the country by a se ries of decrees. When any section of the Ukrainian community wns dissatis fied with the person or the policy of the hetman It wns entitled to call to gether a radn, which in such cases was called a black rada.' If tho black rada happened to be representative enough, and the complaint met with the ap proval of the majority, the hetman might be compelled to resign. While the Muscovites lived under nn absolute monarchy, while the Poles were ruled by n haughty and exclusive aristocracy, In Ukraine nil were free un der the Lithuanian kings, nnd repub lican Institutions were gradually tak ing root. Many people would leavo the surrounding country nnd go to set tle in Ukraine. Such names preserved Views of Kharkov and Ekaterinoslav. ila, In Gallcla and in Bukowlna, for they Inhabit tho compact territory which is only artificially or shall we say politically? divided between Rus sia, Austria and Hungary. Leaving out the Rusnlaks, or Ukrainians of Hun gary, who express no deslro to work politically with the other members of their nation, and who insist, even in America, upon societies of their own, wo have a population of over 33,000,000 stretched between the Caucasus, the Black sea, tho Carpathian mountains and the San river. The Ukrainian Governments. The purely Ukrainian governments of Russia ore: 1. Ukraine of the right bank (of the Dnieper), Podolla, Volhynia, Kief and Kholm. 2. Ukraine of the left bank (of the Dnieper), Tchernihov, Poltava, Khar kov, southwest Khursk, Voronezh nnd the region of the Don Cossacks to the Sea of Azov. 3. On both sides of the Dnieper lies the Steppe Ukraine, comprising Ekate rinoslav, Kherson and the eastern parts of Bessarabia and Taurls. 4. North Caucasus, adjacent to the region of the Don Cossacks, comprls- in tho Ukraine as O'Brien and O'Rourke tend to prove that people came from much farther to settle Id tho happy land. Great Cereal Country. The famous black soil of Ukraine covers three-qunrters of the country. To the north as well as In the Carpa thian mountains are some 110,000 square kilometers of forest. The agri cultural soil covers 53 per cent of the aggregate territory of Ukraine nnd 82 per cent, If we take In the whole of European Russia, which Is, however, six times greater than Ukraine Itself. The annual production of cereals In Ukraine Is two-thirds of the whole pro duction In the recent Russian empire. It Is grenter.than that of Germany or France. Tho exportation of grains from Ukraine amounts to 27 per cent of the production, nnd of all the wheat exported from Russia nine-tenths comes from Ukrainian lands. As a matter of fact, the trade of Ukraine is more developed than that of any part of all Russia. Ukraine ranks highest among all the countries that compose the, vast Rus sian empire as to the annual agricul tural production. Wheat, barley and Into nn easy chair and breathes a deep sigh of relief. When asked why his brow Is furrowed he responds that ho has had a terrible day. Perhaps he had letters to dictate. He had to con fer with his associates and he had to talk to some customers. Ho spent nn hour or more nt lunch and he quit about five o'clock. He had a busy day and when home Is reached ho feels that he Is entitled to some rest arnJ quiet Such a man rarely thinks of his wife ns a manager, remarks the Indianapolis News. He does not recall thnt she may have been up before him. He for gets that she planned the brenkfast and, In many Instances, cooked It no well. After breakfast Is finished there are dishes to be washed and tho kitch en must be put to rights. Perhnps that Is a general cleaning day for the whole house; and there always Is dust to chase as well as dirt to sweep out or take up In the new-fangled cleaner. The beds hnve to be made and n score of other household duties need atten tion. If there are children they de mand this, that and the other. If there is a little baby In the house It must be bathed and put to sleep for Its morn ing nap. Then there is a noon menl to get, ns well as various other little things constantly coming up. The aft ernoon will be spent In many ways. A great many women spend it In work. They order groceries and they order meat. They buy the household sup piles, and the good housekeeper keeps nn accurate account of her expendi tures. Townrd evening she has to plan the dinner nnd when the children come home she must look nfter them. Later, she has the Job of putting them to bed. Meanwhile she has had time, very like ly, to rend a magazine, to knit a little for some soldier or to play the piano. She may have found time to go shop ping or to mnke a few calls. She makes no particular complaint about the routine she has gone through because she dues It every day. Thousands of women show more ex ecutive nblllty In running their own homes than their husbands show ire running their business. Yet there are many husbands who do not give their wives credit for having any business sense. Some of them who say that women belong in the home never real ize what a home is. One of these ex ecutive experts would be at a loss In n great many cases If he undertook the Job of running his own house for Q period of 24 hours. Saved Shipmate's Life. Few reports of heroism made to the nnvy department are more remarkable than that concerning James Marico, ship cook, first class, who will prob ably receive a gold life-snvlng medal, In addition to the letter of commenda tion sent him by the secretary of the nnvy. In the midst of a terrific gale Chief Quartermaster Eddker H. Rob ertson. U. S. X., was washed overboard from the U. S. S. Smith, while at tempting to clear a Jam In the steering' gear. Exhausted by the cold and rough sea, Robertson could no longer help himself, when Marclo, tying a line to his waist. Jumped Into the wnter. Catching the quartermaster, he clung: to the half drowned man until tho two were hauled aboard. Not only was the act of Slarclo's one of great heroism, but the test of his courage wns shown In the chance he took with such b rough sea. The gale at the time wns one of the worst In years and the ship was rolling at fifty-five degrees. This young hero enlisted In the navy 1 April, 1014, at Philadelphia. Farm In Ukraine. lng Kuban and tho eastern parts of the Stavropolskol and Tberska govern ments. In all these districts tbe Ukrainians form from 70 to 09 per cent of the total population, tho rest being Jews, Poles and, lastly, Russians. The Rurlk dynasty founded Ukraine. When It disappeared, as all monarchies must, the next organization that kept the Ukrnlno lands together wns the re public of tbe Cossacks, whose domain overlapped Lithuania nnd Poland, who occupied much of the Ukraine soil. Tho Cossacks were organized some thing on the lines of the chivalry of western Europe. Their precepts were obedience, piety, chastity nnd equal ity. The assembly was tho only authority they recognized. The hetman (head man) was elected ,by nnd was respon- rye are the staple crops of Russian ag riculture, and the annual production in Ukraine of these grains amounts to one-third of Russia's output As to other farm products, Ukraine's position Is also conspicuous. Beet root, for instnncc, Is especially cultivated In the Ukrainian provinces of Podolla, Volhynia, Kleff and Kher son; those provinces together yield five-sixths of the sugar beet produc tion of all Russia. Ukraine produces almost all the tobacco of the old em pire, nnd she has the largest nnd finest orchards and vineyards of Russia. The Immense natural resources of Ukraine furnish splendid opportunity for the development of manufacturing industries. As a matter of fact, 02 per cent of Russia's annual production of pig Iron and 58 per cent of Russia's production of steel come from Ukraine. Funston Has a Coward Test Nowadays they pick out the cow ards before Instead of after the battle, says a member of tho medical staff at Funston. A trained staff at the med ical camp spends Its time In diagnos ing the drafted man for symptoms of cowardice. When the symptoms are present the man Is disqualified for service In tho battle line. In some Instances he Is retnlned In the nrmy nnd serves his country at menlnl tasks. Tho officer ot tho medical staff who gives this Information, says he has became nn expert In this particular line of research, and has learned to spot the physical coward with ac curacy, but that of the 45,000 men who havo been trained at Funston only thirty have borne the bacilli of thc hesltnnt font. For Him Who Dares. The United States government Is to give offielnl recognition to nets of bravery on the field of battle by Indi vidual officers and enlisted men. There has been for many years whnt t& known ns the Congressional Medal &X Honor, which Is bestowed on soldiers; who perform deeds of daring in th face of tho enemy. It Is the henrt'ef? desire of every American soldier to win this decoration, for It Is this coun try's equlvnlent of tho Victoria cros of Great Britain and of the Croix d Guerre of France. She Knew Peggy. Patience Peggy and Jack are to b married before ho goes to the war. Patrice Oh, ho prefers to do bi fighting over there, does he!