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ADVOCATE, WHKMEKSAl)VOCATfc AN OVTlt'lAL .lol'HNAL Jl THE SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY rUDLIUlID VIUT WISE IT TBI NATIONAL IXICUTIVI COM MITTS I. Central Office, SB EHt Fourth Street. New York City. Interesting oorrespondenoe sollolted from pro letarians In all parti of the world. Letters r tnirlDK answers should oontatn return postage SDB8CKUTION RATK8: One Year (postage free), $1 00 Si Months " - 60 PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. NOTICE TO 8lB8CKIHKK8.-Tbe date after your name upon the address label at tached to your paper Is the (lute of expiration of subscription. Thus mclillO means that your subscription expires with the end of March, 1890. Send your subscription money early, and notify ns of any fanlt in delivery or error on our part. SOCIALIST LAHOlt'pA liTV, National Exirmvi I'ombittis, B. J. (Jiiktcii, Secretary, 85 East Fourth street, N. Y. Board op SuriiRvisioN, L. Wkrnkr, Secretary, 013 Callowhlll street, Philadelphia, l'a. Labor Nrws Co., I'ahtt Job I'wntkht, 25 East Fourth street. New York. November Hi, 18H9. WILL THEY INDICT? In its issue of November 13, the New York World comments editorially oh follows upon the great Cooper Union meeting in honor of the Chicago martyrs : There is talk of the indictment of the vicious Anarchists who have been re cently engaged in uttering revolution ary sentiments in this city. These mad men are enemies of the Republic and they are seeking to stir up sedition. Their words are meant to incite to blood slH'd and they are clearly amenable to the law. But after all, these misguided foolB thrive upon prosecution. A cer tain freedom of speech must be granted under our system. Their is a power here which," when once properly arc used, will crush these virulent vaga bonds as easily as though they were cockroaches, Another outbreak and thh power will be called into action, Meanwhile the miscreants feel better wlien they talk and by this process they are prolonging their license. The World is the property of a man who was publicly charged by the late Win. lorsheimer, of the' New York Star, with having been a bounty jumper and deserter, and who never, so far as we know, squarely denied the accusation. If this be true, he should have been shot and buried long ago in a coward's grave. Ilis managing editor killed in St. Louis a man that they had jointly driven to madness by unwarranted abuse. He escaped capital punishment. Neither of them is a " madman ", but both are very had men, who corrupt the morals of the people with abomin able reports of scandals and indecencies. Two years ago, for purposes easily sur mised, they attempted to control theDis trict Attorney's Office-, but failed. Such men have no right to call unybody a "vicious anarchist" or a "miscreant", Now, as to the proposed " indict ment". Surely none can be found for the language used in. relation to the Chicago tragedy. The hanging of Spios, Parsons and their three fellow victims of class hatred is as much a matter of history, subject to review by the his torian in any form of language that he may le pleased to use, as the fate of Bruno, John Huss, Munzer, Mazaniello or Spartacus. The judgment of pos terity cannot be indicted, and however unpleasant it may be tfor prosecutors, juries and even judges to see from the growth of public ser'iment in then life time what this judgment is going to be, the law affords them no protection against it. We suppose, therefore, that the H'orM refers to the statement, publicly made by Shevitch, that after the first meeting of the Progressive Labor Party at Union Square bad been unlawfully dispersed by the police, two thousand working men had come to the second meeting armed with pistols, and lie (Shevitch) knew it. We shall not discuss here the question of legality. It will be time to do that when an indictment shall have been found, if any be found. We shall simply to-day remind the World, and the" New York press generally, and the District Attorney in particular, that no indictment has yet leen found against the police who, at the first meeting above referred to, violated the law, the Constitution of the State and the Con stitution of the United States. We know of men who are still Biiffer ing from the murderous blows inflicted by policemen under the command of Captain Iteilly on that occasion. We know of at least one who has been maimed and disabled for life. A voluminous statement of all these facts, duly corroborated by affidavits and other documents, was two years ago placed in the hands of the District Attorney by the able and fearless lawyer, Thaddeus B. Wakeman. What has been done with it? Will anything ever be done with it? If the police can stand an indictment for its conduct at Union Square, Shevitch can surely stand an indictment for his utterances at Cooper Union. The World, perhaps, had these facts in view when after foaming and( shout ing "sedition" it concluded J'after all, a certain freedom of speec aiust be granted under our system." So had the New York Herald, who on the, same day observed: "Dont arrest the New York anarchists. Let them alone and they'll talk them selves to death. There is nothing that hurts the feelings of a professional blatherskite more than to be ignored." We are quietly waiting for developments. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? In the performance of his oracular functions the partisan editor is gov erned by two fundamental principles: 1. Always predict the success of your own party. 2. When your party is de feated, never fail to say: " I might have told you so." Thanks to their superior ability in the compounding of sentences according to this valuable prescription of Doctors in political logic, the word mongers of our great metropolitan press are rightly considered the best informed and wisest men in the world. The per fect knowledge which they display to day, of " how it all came about " and of "what it means," is readily taken as conclusive evidence that their unfounded predictions of yesterday were merely well intentioiied, honest, heroic lies, calculated to confuse the enemy and entitling them to the highest regard of their party. Take, for instance, the result of last week's election in this good city of New York and find, if you can, a great editor on Park Row, who did not imme diately stute, in admirable language, that not only " it went that way " because it did not go the other way, but, that he knew all the time how it was going to go. Some, it is true, went farther in their comments and judiciously ob served, in relation to the small vote polled, that, by staying at home, many "good citizens" had displayed consider able indifference. While few people will be disposed to question the trutli of so keen a remark, we humbly suggest that the indifference of many good citizens on that occasion is not suf ficiently explained by the vcll-estab-lished fact that they remained at home. Like every suggestion highly pertin ent, this will le deemed higly imper tinent; but, born as we were with a fiendish disposition to inquire into the relations of cause and effect, we could not help making it. At the risk, therefore, of Wing deemed not only impertinent, but absolutely in tolerable, we suggest, furthermore, that the indifference of many good citizens to the recent fight for spoils between two gangs of politicians equally subserv ient to the plutocracy is in itself full of significance, Their present sleep may be of the kind that men take before fighting on their own account. There was such a sleep in 1885, and the awakening in 1886 made the reason of it quite plain to the dullest intellect. People then the working people, were very tired, but greatly deficient in econ omic knowledge ; un easy prey, there fore, to self seeking leaders and plaus ible sophists of the Henry George type. Since then they have learned much, and Socialism in fact, if not in name, has taken deep roota in their understanding. Men preach it openly, who three years ago denounced it bitterly. Aye.decidedly, the fact that nearly one-hundred thou sand citizens kept away from the polls last week, when they knew that the in evitable result of their abstention would be to place the government of this city, absolutely and without control of any sort, into the hands of the most corrupt organization that ever disgraced American politics, this fact, we say, is full of significance. It may mean, among other things, that those one hundred thousand absen tees have taken this method of not only proclaiming their readiness to enter an honest independent political movement of fie masses against the classes, but of forcing each other into such a move ment through a stupendous increase of misrule and corruption under a Tam many government. The receipt of a sample copy of this paper is an invitation to subscribe. IMPENDING EVILS. The progress of cotton manufacturing in this country is on a scale of unprece dented magnitude. In some parts of the South it is fast working out an economic revolution, the effects of which must soon be felt, not only in our Northern States, but to a much greater extent throughout England. No doubt can be entertained, that, in the course of time, nearly all the raw cotton produced in the United States will be turned into manufactures by American mills; and unless a country be found on some other continent, capablo of producing raw materi.il of the same quality and in equal abundance, the capitalists of the United States -will finally displace the British od the cotton goods markets of the world. Then, in all likelihood, a gigantic Trust or Syndicate will have the same world-wide monopoly of cot ton manufacture as the Standard Oil Trust is now enjoying in the production and distribution of petroleum. Of course, such a complete transfer of.the greatest industry of Great Britain to the Lnited States of America may not be effected without a mighty strug gle between the manufacturers and merchants of the two countries, involv ing numberless failures, suspensions of work, strikes, and a constant reduction of the wage rate. Of all these occur rences the latter is not only that which is of most interest to us; it is also the most obviously inevitable, as the decid ing factor of competition. The progress of the cotton industry in this country is, indeed, marked at every step by a corresponding degra dation of its operatives. It is an estab lished fact that they are now working longer hours and earning less in the mills of New England (whose millionaire owners were once so highly praised for their philanthropy), than do their fellow slaves of Lancashire, who have long been held up to the world as the most terrible example on record of the human degradation wrought out by the factory system. The American-born ojerative of tifty years ago was driven out by the cheaper labor of men, women and children imported by contract froui Great Britain and Ireland. These, in turn, were displaced by the still cheaper labor of the Canadians. Now comes the competition of the Southern mills, in relation to which we have some precious testimony of the most recent date; t. e., a statement, just prepared by J. F. Hanson, of Georgia, for the New England Cotton Manufacturers' Association, The following extracts from this inter esting document are highly suggestive: " The lalor employed in Southern cot ton mills is paid less per capita than corresponding labor in New England mills, while Southern mills are operated anywhere from ten hours and fifty min utes a day to twelve, and in some cases even thirteen hours." Again: "By com mon consent the advantages we have are: Proximity to the cotton fields, milder climate and cheaper labor than New England. To these are opposed your convenience to the various sources of supply for machinery, larger exper ience in the construction of mills, skilled labor and more abundant capi tal, and lower rates of interest." It goes without saying, that the artificial advantages of New England, as here stated, in opposition to the natural ones of the South, are either illusory or tem porary. On the other hand the advant ages of the South are real and perman ent. "Our milder winters enable our labor to work for lower wages than would be required in New England," observes Mr. Hanson, thus refuting once more the old theory of capitalistic econ omists, that supply and demand are the determining factors of the rate of wa ges, and vindicating the position held by Socialists, that the chief and primary factor is the standard of requirements of the workers. From all this it is quite evident that the growth of the factory system in the Southern States is pregnant with conse quences highly injurious to the labor now engaged in the cotton industry throughout the world. To this dark picture of what is to come there is, how ever, another side. The evils we appre hend may not be without some compen sation, first in extending the organiza tion of labor to a portion of the United States where, by the lack of any such organization, the wage-workers have been held in complete ignorance of the most obvious economic truth; and, secondly, in causing a greater struggle between capital and labor in Ne(w Eng land and Great Britain than has yet taken place; a struggle from which the laboring classes will emerge with a bet ter comprehension of their rights and a stronger determination to conquer them. PECKSNIFF. In mournfully commenting upon the success of recent strikes in England, the New Y'ork 2Vmc,s pays the following compliment to our comrades on the other side of the Atlantic : " The Eng lish socialist orators are much better educated and personally much more respectable men than the corresponding agitators on this side of the water ; but it does not follow that they are less mis chievous. On the contrary, the ad dresses of these sincere and instructed fanatics to London mobs have had much more serious consequences than any result of labor agitations thus far in America." Our Pecksnilfian contempo rary wisely concludes, therefore, that the bosses did well to yield, for the obvious reason that if their wage slaves remain at work " they will not be in the way of hearing arguments that they have a right to be as well off as their neighbors." As the modesty of our English com rades is only surpassed by their great worth, this recognition of their merits is not likely to give them an attack of " big heal" On the other hand the implied disparagement of American socialists will not greatlv affect our sensitiveness. We shall continue to speak, to write, to cogitate and to agi tate ad well as we know how, expecting as a matter of course that the New Y'ork Times will continue to carefully abstain from reporting our doings and progress, not because it would be dangerous to place its wealthy readers " in the way of hearing socialistic arguments," but because what socialists have done and are doing in America is actually of no consequence whatever. By the way, was not John Swinton the greatest editor that the Times ever had ? Was not Horace Greely a Social ist? Did not Charles A. Dana, the apostate, once profess to be a Fourierist ? Is not Sylvester Baxter as good a jour nalist ns theNobodySmith who now pre sides over the editorial staff of the Times? Is not the Rev. Edward Everett Hale of Boston entitled to figure in the Times' directory of the "Respectables?" Is not Bellamy a fairly well " educated " man, even by the high standard of No body Smith ? Go to, Smith ; you are an ass. POSTAL REFORMS. The conferences which the Post master General has lately been holding in Washington with a number of the most competent postmasters are likely to result in much benefit. One point upon which the postmasters have been practically unanimous is the inadequacy of the present service. Nearly everyone has told in forcible language how his clerks and carriers were overworked, and how much he needed an increase. Heretofore the ap propriation for Post Office purposes has kept about two years behind the growth of the country, and the result has been constant cramping of the service and injustice to faithful employes. The country is not disposed to save money at the expense of postal efficiency, and it will require but little pressure upon Con gress to obtain an adequate appro priation. A most important reform, which if carried out will further "extend the functions of government" (to the great discomfiture of individualists in general and of express companies in par licular), is likely to be recommended by the Postmaster General. We refer to the abolition of the distinction between third and fourth class mail matter and their consolidation into one at the third class rate. The third class is now for printed matter, and the rate is one cent for one ounce. The proposed change will reduce by one half the rate on mer chandise. Some of those who discussed the matter in the recent conference argued that the change would result in a diminution of the revenue ; but the weight of argument was in favor of the other opinion, that the great increase in this class of business would bring in within a very short time a much in creased revenue, It might be a ques tion whether the offices could readily handle all the merchandise packages which would be entrusted to their charge without considerable additions to the facilities and working force of the system. An interesting statement pre pared for the Postmaster-General, as the result of a count at some of the larger offices, indicates that more than 90 per cent of the merchandise packages en trusted to the mails are for points more than 50 miles distant from the mailing office. In other words, this is the point where mail service begins to success fully compete with express service. Within fity miles the express companies have heretofore been able to take large packages cheaper. The immediate effect, therefore, of a reduction of rate would apparently be to bring within a narrower circle the limits of competition by the express companies. This competition applies only to packages not exceeding four pounds in weight and which can be safely entrusted to the mails. The ex press companies have always opposed any extension of the postal service into their field, and they will undoubtedly oppose very strenuously such a reduc tion in rates. Their opposition may postpone, but it can hardly defeat in the long run so useful a reform. It is not altogether the reduction of rate which constitutes the benefit of the change, but the simplicity which it will introduce into the classification. The second class of mail matter is periodicals mailed by publishers at pound rates ; so that under the proposed reform the public will have to do with only two classes of matter, letters at two cents per halt ounce and all other matter at one cent for two ounces. Very many people are unable to cairy in their heads the existing classification, but they will find the new one very easy to remember. In commenting on these proposed re forms the Washington correspondent of so conservative an organ of capitalism and natural opponent of " government encroachments" as the New York Com vureiul Bulletin, endorses them without restriction and f urthermore observes : " The carrier service grows in popu larity every year. When it was first pub in operation in the smaller cities, some of them were reluctant to accept it, and only a few asked for it. Now the de mand comes from all over the country for its extension, and it is probable that the Postmaster-General will recommend, as Mr. Dickinson suggested in his report of two years ago, that free delivery be given to cities and towns of five thous and or more population, wherever com pactness of building and local conditions justify it. This would extend the ser vice to some 150 or 200 new towns ; but as the number of carriers required would not average much above two, the addi tion to the force in the country would, probably not exceed 500- In these smaller places there would probably be two daily deliveries, one early in the morning and the other about half-past. 3 o'clock in the afternoon. Postmaster General Dickinson pointed out in his re port for 1887 that the smaller towns were as much entitled to this service, where the conditions would at all justify it, as the large cities, and such an ex tension would undoubtedly add greatly to the popularity of the carrier system and the postal ervice in every section."" We are fast coming to a general re cognition of the fact that the experience of the Post Office shows the superior fitness of Government, as compared with individual or corporate enterprise, to carry out any business, regardless of its magnitude as a whole, or of its minute ness in detail. NOTES. At the recent school-election in the Barking (East London) District, W Watkinson, member of the Social Demo cratic Federation, was elected with a large majority. There is a scandal in Dr. Rylance's church. The Doctor is charged by some of the ladies under his spiritual guid ance with a more than Christian fond ness for kissing. The miners' strike in Sens, France, re sulted in a victory for the men. All their demands, including principally an increase of wages and the abolition of unjust fines and other abuses, were con ceded. The strike affected 15,000 men. There was another monster-meeting: of bakers in Hyde Park, London, on Sunday last. The meeting was addressed by John Burns, and resolutions were passed calling upon all persons employed in the baking trade to join in a solid movement for shorter hours and an in crease of wages. The privilege of substituting steam for animal power has been granted to the Broadway horse railroad of unsavory repute by our municipal authorities for a paltry consideration. Whether there is or is not a "a nigger in the pile" this is all wrong, and the joint action of Mayor and Aldermen should be em phatically protested against by organ ized labor. The anti-Socialist law will probably be prolonged two years by the German Reichstag. The bill submitted by the government has been referred to a com mittee of eleven. The Liberals offered to allow two Socialist members of the Reichstag to go on the committee, but the Soeialists refused the offer, declaring that the measure could not be made acceptable to them in any shape or form. The Trade Federation which was re cently formed in Alessandria, Italy, is taking in new organizations every week. The organizations so far belonging to the central body are: Bakers' Union, Hodcarriers' Union, Working Womens' Society, Shoemakers' Union, Bricklay ers' Union, Woodworkers' Union, Far mers' Union, Goldworkers' Union, the Workiugmen's Educational Societies of Alessandria, and the Agricultural La borers' Association of Cabanette. This federation, like many trades organiza tions in other Italian cities, took part in the parliamentary elections just held by nominating independent candidates. The National Conference of Miners held at Birmingham, England, repre senting 227,500 miners, declared in favor of a working day of eight hours, the rule to go into operation on January 1, 1890. A general vote is being taken of the miners represented at the confer ence, as to whether they will insist on eight hours a day after the day named. An affirmative decision is expected and there will be probably a general strike in January if an eight hour day is not granted. There will be a further con ference on November 27th to receive the reports of the general vote and decide on a plan of action. The conference also appointed a committee of three, composed of Messrs. Burt, Crawford and Pickard, to call an international miners' convention.