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WOK.1C LINK'S -A.D VOCATIS.
WBKMKSAt)VOCAT 4N OKflOUu Jlll'KNAL Or THE SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY rtTBUxiiKi) svbhv wms m nM tUTHIMAL IXBI.'I'TlVS IflMHITTrE. Olitral Ottlr, (V Kant Fourth Hl rt-Kl. Sew Vm k It v. Interest tnifenrret-iMinileiiccsiiltellixl from pro Ictnr'Htik In all parts of Hie world. Letters ru QiilrlnK HHHWIT8 should ccmtdii return iioclaKii. SlUKtHII'TION 1UTK8: One Year (postage free) Six months " 1'AYAHLK IN ADVANCE. 1 00 50 NOTM'IC TO M llsUtlHKKH.-Tliu dato after your name iin the ailnre.ss-laliel at tached to your impfr 1h the lat of expiration of uliRiTlitlon. 'Ihus inelitM means 1 1 1 t. your Mi I mi rlialwi expire with the end of March, IKSil.-Seml ymir hiiIikc rliitli.n monry early and notify iih ol any fault lu delivery or error on our part. SOC I A 1.1 ST 1. A HO It 1'AHIV Nvi'ui. KxKriTivK CoMMrrrieii, K. J. Urutcii, Mtvretury, KaHt Kourth street, N. Y. Ilum or (itorVANcitH, Kiinkht ('. Heiiixiii Kll Neeretury, Vi Dover street, liostou, Mass. La boh Nwn Co., I'aiitt Job Phintckt, East Kourth Ktreet. New York. Skptkmuku 27, 18 DO. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION. We commented in our hint upon the com punitive failure of the cereal crop in tliiH Country, and showed Unit, whW Home speculators in foodstuffs might he benefited hy the cot)Heiuent high prices of the greatest necessaries of life, the farmers, as producers, would receive no corresponding advantages, hut the people at large, aH consumers, would he curtailed in their comfort to the extent at leant of the deficiency. Nor is this all. It may he taken as self-evident that a reduction in the volume of the cropH must of necesHiiy he followed hy u, reduction in the volume of certain nia nufacturea and of trade in general. From a statement just issued hy the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury De partment it appears that the reduction in the volume of trade Iuih already he gun, our exports in August allowing tl decrease of nearly four million dollars, and our imports a decrease of nlsnit the same amount iih compared with the cor responding month of hint year. Again, some railroad are reporting a decrease of groB8 receipts, although their tarilT rates liave been mo advanced as to main tain their net earnings on the same high level. Mont of the lines, however, are still showing a progress; hut thiH may be due in great part to the movement of grain produced hy the purchases of speculators, who are in a fair way of cornering our cereals If such he the case the present movement is only tem porary, and instead of indicating busi ness activity reflects merely the pres sure under which the farmers are dis posing of their products in order to meet their obligations to Shylock & Co. There are, however, a number of in dustries that do not at present and will not for some time be sensibly atrected by the short crop. Fc r instance, it is reported from New Kngland that the shoe factories are all very busy now and will continue busy until the end of Oc tober. A rise in prices has taken place, in spite of which large orders have been received for spring goods. Of course, labor is paid no better and several firms are threatening to change locations in order to compel their operatives to give up their unions ami submit to lower rates of wages. The tanners are pros perous; so are the paper manufacturers; and in those two industries the process of capitalistic concentration is rapidly following its course. The brandies of labor most likely to be injuriously affected during the com ing year are in the first place railroad building and the great iron industries, machine shops, Ac. connected there with. The building trades ma. also re ceive a severe shock if a further tighten ing of the money market which may occur at any time shall compel a large number of speculative builders to sell the vast amount of property which they are now carrying under mortgage. As already observed, the industries which rest upon the conversion of cereals and other raw products of agriculture into manufactured goods will have to reduce their output, ihusdriving out of employ ment many wage workers. If ti t the most interesting result of pre sent conditions: must be looked for in the cotton industry. The cotton crop, us previously stilted in these columns, has been unprecedentedly large, and other crops in the South have been on the whole quite satisfactory; ho that the Southern States will occupy a privileged economic position during the coming year. This circumstance cai.not fail to hasten the transfer of many Northern industries to that section, or at least the development therein of industries which cheaper labor enables already to compete with the older establishments of our Northern and Western States. We need not observe that the effect of this trans, fer or development will in any case be injurious to the labor of the latter States, alt hough it may at the same time stim ulate among the wage-earners of the South a spirit of organization calculated to put a new face on the labor movement. A POLITICAL FARCE. We clip from a New York daily the following report of a meeting of the Hoard of Estimate and Apportionment held hint week : There was an unusually large crowd in the Mayors office yesterday when the Hoard of Estimate and Apportion ment met, for it was known that the mat ter of the inadequate school accom modations would come up. The mem bers of the Hoard had hardly taken their seats when the Mayor turned to hcliool OiiinmisMiotiers O'liricn and Tamsen anil said : " Gentlemen, I yesterday sent a letter to your Hoard asking for certain infor niation in regard to the public schools of this city, which information I have not yet. received. Now, 1 want to put myself right once and for all upon this question, Last year when your repre sentatives appeared iiclore this Hoard, they went awiiy saying that we had given them sufficient money and that no children would be wanting in school accommodations the coming year When you came lief ore us asking for money to build a new department office building at rifty ninth street and Madi son avenue we were again assured that all the children would lie provided for and when we provided money to rent and lit up the Hebrew Orphan Asylum building as a school, again the same assurance was given. "Now, greatly to my surprise and sorrow, I hear complaints on all sides upon this very subject, and I want to ask you if you can tell us what is to be done to secure proper accommodation for these children. "The Hoard of Education is not to bluing " ,,,iu,.-a..i,iI .. .......i vw.....n "ii.iiiv, n.ir,. 11 i v'OiiiMiinniiMU , 1 1 H O, "The fault rests with the Trustees of the schools, upon whom the Hoard depends for information. These trustees have recently Iwon asked to explain why these snort accommodations exist. The Mayor This Hoard has given you all the money you asked for. If you have not adequate room say so now and let us remedy that at once. Commissioner O'Brien We recognize the liberality of this Hoard, but we can not accomplish impossibilities. We have done the best we could. The Mayor Well, if (hero is any way that we can help you, say so and we will do it now These children must lie cared for. Comptroller Meyers Such a slate of allairs is very surprising when it is con sidered that the Finance Department still has $1,650,000 to the credit of the Hoard of Education for building pur poses. Why do they not use that money ; Commissioner Tamsen We lrive nev er received money so liberally as last year, that is true, and we will now try to make use of it. mayor urant u en, if you hnd you cannot build schools fast enough I shall favor renting buildings. The children must la cared for. I will call a meeting whenever you say. The Hoard then allowed tSO.000 for teachers' salaries in the evening high schools, f 18,000 for a school site m East Thirteenth street and $247,000 for ad ditions to school sites in Horatio street West Forty-sixth, Fifty -fourth and Eighty-second streets and East Eightieth stret. On the application of the Mayor and Hoard of Aldermen of this city, the Hinlding Uepartment haa granted a per mit to erect a new school house at the corner of Christie and Hester streets. It w ill le 170 feet front by 1)3 feet deep and ill he five stories high, to he built of stone and brick. The estimated cost is $250,000. Is not this on its face a political farce of the most ludicroas sort? In the early part of last February the School Conference a body composed ol nearly all the labor organizations of this city held a mass-meeting at which a careful statement was submitted, show ing that over one hundred thousand children of this ity were deprived of education, that the amount of money j available for school purposes had been shamefully withheld from use, and that the evident object of the politicians who control our municipal affairs for the sole benefit of plutocrats was to foster ignorance and child labor. Copies of this document were duly Mint to the Mayor, to the Comptroller, to the Aldermen, to the Board of Edu cation, to the School Trustees, to the (i jvwrnor of the State, to the Members of the Legislature, to all those in fact w hose duty it was to inquire into the matter, with suggestions as to what should be done arid a request that they would slate what they proposed to do. Not one of them replied. But one month later, in the face of that document and of the general outcry that the disclo sures therein made had provoked, the Mayor voted away a large amount of school money for the purchase of a piece of land on which it was proposed to erect a palatial building for the Board of Education; and in reply to the severe denunciation of his act hy the Central Labor Union he "explained to the press'' that the Hoard of Education had ''ex. plained to him" that there would he ample room for all the children of Ne York at the next reopening of the schools. The fact was, however, that the piece of land for the purchase of which he had voted away a part of the school funds belonged to his friend and money-lender a wealthy politician and real estate speculator. Now, election is at hand, but the con dition of I he schools is worse than it ever was. The Mayor casts the responsibility of his willful "ignorance" upon the Hoard of Education, which is an ap pointed body; the Board casts the respon sibility of its criminal neglect upon the School Trustees, who are not either elected by the people, and the Trustees are too busy with the political heelers of their respective Wards to cast ajjy responsibility upon anybody. A farce it is, we say, but the people may not laugh at it. The despicable hist Hons who are acting It may yet be swept away thiH fall from the political singe which they disgrace by their antics. Upon this school question atone the socialist speakers may be able to create a public sentiment strong enough to unite the millions against the million aires and their political hirelings. TRAIN WRECKERS AND OTHER CRIMINALS. The capitalist press, with its usual hypocrisy, is endeavoring to fasten ujion the K. of L., as an organization, the odium and responsibility of the acts committed by train-wreckers on the New York Central during the late strike. We Socialists can afford to speak boldly and independently upon this sub ject. In the first place we cannot be suspected of partiality to the K. of L. Again, there never were among us any train-wreckers, murderers or incen diaries. We have patiently suffered at the hands of corporation wreckers, mur derous speculators and other cnpitalislic criminals, advocating f imply the use of the ballot for the abolition of a system that is necessarily productive of fiendish plots and hellish deeds. And now we say to those capitalistic sheets: Beware! for if the chain of events is traced to its first link, not the K. of L. organization but your own New York Central plu tocracy is primarily responsible for the acta of men, heretofore honest and re spected, that injustice and desperation have converted into criminals of the most dangerous character. And we say fur thermore: Beware! for if justice can be prompt and swift in punishing these men with all the rigor of the law, why should it not le equally prompt and swift in punishing the railroad kings who, by their criminal avarice, are causing annually the death of thou sands of people? Is it more dastardly to wreck a train than to crush men iqjo shapeless corpses in order to avoid the expense of automatic couplers? Are not the many faithful workers who drop dead or maimed for life from slippery cars to the road lied as much entitled to the protection of the law as the wealth iest traveler? Let us by all means have justice all around; but while ignorunt, poor train wreckers and educated, weal, thy murderers should be punished alike, let us abolish the system which turns men into such monsters. NOTES. A firm of well-known brokers of this city say they are apprehending finan cial trouble in London in consequence of the enormous conveisions of private into corporate properties and the scat tering of the shares among speculative holders. Other reasons are also given, among which the drain of money to South America and South Africa, and the pressure on the London money mar ket attending higher values. It may seem remarkable to the uninitiated that financial troubles always follow great business activity and plutocratic pros perity. From advance sheets of the annual re port of the Illinois Central for the year ending June 30, 181)0. it appears that the cost of the lines under its control amounts to one hundred and ten million dollars. We commend to the attention of our readers the following extract from that report: "The growth of the country served has been phenomenal. As the country is developed better service and accom modations are required. To render the service required by modern conditions it became necessary to improve the former standards and in the past year the max imum weight of locomotives has been increased from 49 tons to 61 tons; the weight of rail from 60 pounds to 75 pounds per yard; the capacity of freight cars from 20 to 30 tons, and an increased amount of ballast and a larger numlier of ties have been placed under the rails. In addition to this, better facilities have been provided in pat sing tracks and the double track has been extended. Large additions to the motive power and rolling stock have been made, and yet, with all these improvements, your Directors are confronted with the fact that the traffic offered is in excess of the capacity of the agencies now at their disposal." Is not this a sufficient argument in favor of the platform adopted by the New York County Conference of the S. L. P., which demands the construc tion and operation, by the National Government, of interstate railroads, telegraphs, canals, etc., in direct com petition with similar agencies of trans portation and communication now owned and operated by corporations? Columbia College has given Gunton the use of a room for lectures to "intelli gent" workingmen on the benefits of capitalism. This huinbugologist Gunton was brought into prominence by Samuel Gompers, who published under the seal of the American Federation of Labor his pamphlet on the eight hours ques tion, in which the shortening of the work day is advocated on the ground that it will benefit the capitalists. It must be observed that in its call for a Conference the Committee of Twenty five ignored the Nationalists, apparently presuming that Nationalism had been killed by the Commonwealth party. The money power has resolved t starve into submission the various S'ates whose legislatures are not sufficiently subservient. The city of Austin, for in stance, is notified by a leading, organ of Wall street bankers that she need not apply to them for a loan if the present Attorney General of TrT, who took proceedings for revoking the charter of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway Company, is elected Governor, and if the new Legislature is elected on a plat form "hostile to corporate interests." But why should not the city of Austin, and for that matter every city that needs money for public improvements, issue i'.s own bonds in denominations of one dollar, receivable, in payment of taxes, gas, water and any service rend ered by the municipality Such bonds, paid out to labor, would, under proper management, circulate freely as current)- If necessary, leagues of cities might be formed, through which these bonds could obtain a State or Inter state circulation. The electric light plant owned by Mar quette City, Michigan, nets $4 000 profit per year. If New York Ciiy owned one she might pay off her debt. The government radroads in the Era pire of Russia made seventy-seven mil lions of our dollars profit, in 1889. If New York State owned here, how rich she would be ! COMMUNICATIONS. In Aid of the Bln!iamton Strikers. Editor Workmen's Advocate: In consequence of the appeal from Bing hainton printed in your paper of the 13th inst. I take pleasure to slate that a sub scription list has just been started by a few Wasbingtonians who are earnest and know how urgent it is that a strike must win on which depends the solid or ganization of the workers of a city. Hor rors if they loose, who knows how long it will be before the oppressed workers can again gain foothold so as to attempt to lift themselves from the terrible bur dens which the factory fiends in case of failure will bring to bear upon them. However, I hope the worst will not come. By way of suggestion I would say if all readers of the Advocate or rather all who feel the importance of the suc cess of this strike would give what they could spare, the strikers must and will come out triumphant In the name of the suffering Cigarrnakers of Bingham ton I ask again, all wao feel the neces sity of the strikers' success do not put off hut send whatever can be spared no matter how small the sum, many small items make a large sum heuce every nickel helps. I hardly know what sum can be col lected here, nevertheless I think 120.00 can be reckoned upon. We will hasten to fill the list and send it with the money to you, probably on Saturday the 20th inst. Anxiously waiting to bear of victory through your columns I am Respectfully Pauline Hansen. Washington, D. C, Sept. 15. I send enclosed money order to Editor Workmen's Advocate. Twenty dollars is the amount collected so far for the Binghamton strikers. Will sand list of subscribers later; we mean to circulate it further. Respectfully Pauline Hansen. Washington. D. C, Sept. 20. On the Right Side. Editor Workmen's Advocate: 1 want to express my respect for your intelligent labor in the cause of social ism. You are on the right side. The policy of the socialists is the only one there is any sense in. The other parties don't fceem to comprehend their times. They are playing with the people and trvinir to mnktt fmilu nf thnm Tlinir an modern histrions in the garments of the past. Anarchism is no better. Its doc trine of human urnirresH ia nnui.lo rlnvi-n It is only through eqnality and justice mat i rue noerty can ne secured. L. Glen dive Station, Northern Pacific, Sept. 13. Touch Elbows ! Forward, March ! Now let the Nationalists wheel into line and do their part in the coming campaign. So far they have been wast ing their time. The idea of this attempt ing to amalgamate with a set of old po litical ringsters, some of whom are now feeding at the public "crib" for party services, was a practical absurdity from the start. The farce is happily over by this time. Now let them form a solid phalanx and maintain their own and working men's principle. Let there be no fusion, no compro mise of principles, no change of name, When two regiments go into battle to gether, neither loses its identity. They may form a singly compact body, or the one may become the supporting column of the other; but each regiment retains its flag, its name and its officers. Thus, they meet a common foe and a common danger. The Socialist Labor party has from its start Bhown an absence of petty differ ences and paltry disputes which should be taken as an example by all other an'i-hoodle parties. Now let the Nationalists put them selves in lighting trim, and with the So cialist party meet the common enemy, boodleism, plutocracy, and the whole wae system. Do not stop to ask whether we shall succeed at this election, or the next, or the next. Only fie sure we are right; then move forward, and never stop to question the consequences. Right must ultimately win. There can be no reason able douht of ultimate success. While we are working for ourselves both of the old parties are working for us also. A toper once said he and his brother Jack were both temperance advocates; and. when asked to explain, he said "Jack talks from the pulpit: and I get drunk and preach from the ditch. I make more converts than he does." Both the Democratic and Republican parties are filling the ditches and prisons and alms and tenement houses; and their victims are being driven to us by their own miseries. Indeed, we have the numbers now, if we only knew it. What we most need is discipline, organization, education. Get your friends together; drill them teach them; then get them into line and give the word "louch Llbow. ror ward, March V Now, convinced, reader, that you and 1 are ot one mind by this time, 1 ven ture another piece of advice; and that is aa follows: agitate, educate, instruct Show the sensible workingmen how much of his earnings is being stolen from him, and stored away In the pock ets of a lew. He knows a man is worth just what he can earn, and no more. If a man gets more it must lie by gut or robbery. Ask him how much any one man can earn in one year; and, when he has replied, tell him if a man had rieen a companion of Adam anil Lve in the Garden of Eden 0,000 years ago, and had from that day until now received 25,0OO a j ear, and had never spent or lost a penny, he would to-day have $150,000,000. Tell him, also, that w;hen Vanderhilt died the inventory of his estate was over 1201,000,000; then ask him to tell you how much of it was earned, how much of it was a gift, and how much of it was robhery. One other piece of advice, viz: Je good natured. Argument tells more and better than hard names. Keep your, hearers good natured When you can, give them some music. Brass hands and Irums and fifes are good, but the human voice is belter. It will win more. More than one President has been sung into the White House. Many can sing better than they can talk. Let the young iieople form glee clubs, and siner at all our political meetings. Sometimes I think we scold too much. Agathon. New York, Sept. 19. The (Question of Species. In response to my first question, Dr. Stiebeling says: "Genera and species are blended together by continuous im perceptible gradations only with the lower organic beings." (See Workmen's Advocate of Sept 13.) Glad to hear this admission; I must remind him, how ever, that this undermines his theory, which, distinguishing between an extra and intra-specific struggle, declares this latter to be unnatural and existing with in mankind only as a morbid outgrowth. For, since the lower organisms (the asexual) are inseparable by any boun daries, they constitute one large species, wherein but perfect peace had to pre vail, while in reality the struggle is as severe there as anywhere else; this being quite natural, for otherwise how could the higher organisms evolve from these lower ones by natural selection, which operates only through the medium of the natural struggle for existence? Further the Dr. says: "While with the higher ones, in which the separation of sexes has taken place, genera and species are distinguished by marked boundaries. The most important char acter in this regard is the fact that the sexual connection of two individualfr procreates a fertile or a barren offspring or no offspring a't all." In order to show the groundlessness of this assertion and the absence in it of anything like an answer to my question, I must ask the editor to allow me some space for the following remarks on this subject: When I have asked Dr. Stiebeling whether there are marked boundaries separating species or not, I was, as it could be understood, well aware of the fact that according to some naturalists, mostly past, such boundaries exist If we follow Linnaeus and use his test for specific distinction, the external forms of the various individuals have to be our chief guide; while if we choose to utilize Cuvier's standard, it is the comparison of the internal structures (comparative anatomy) that we must employ in this line of scientific research But in either case we would gravely err, since system atic affinity has become an established fact, approved by all naturalists, petri- " fying and placing the theories of Lin nteus and Cuvier among the numerous fossils abiding the strata of the scientific past, the very same place to which the cataclysms of the last named scientist have tieen forced by Syell's 'geological succession.' It is easy for every one who bestows some consideration upon this subject, to discover the motive by which the desire for a distinction of species has been prompted, namely, the unconquerable wish to justify the biblic al narrative of creation. It has been thus done by Linnaeus in sincere bilief of the "Genesis", and by Cuvier in op position to Lamark's announcement of the theory of descent, the embryo of Darwinism, in which name it is now in cluded." This wish, to reconcile the mythical bible with science (un unfortu nate intercross, since in this case it is most decidedly sterile), has been once more awakened after the days of Cuvier, this time with redoubled vigor, and found its expression in the elaborate works of Agassi z, Gartner, Kolreuter and others. These latter have tried to demonstrate, by experiments chiefly upon members of the vegetable kingdom, that there is a safe criterion for the dis tinction of species, since they . :e en dowed with the property of lieing ren dered sterile when intercrossing is -tempted, this being manifest eithr the very start (at the first intercross) or in their bastard offsprings (hybrids). But even this seemingly well constituted hypothesis was not destined for long evity, and withered away before the just criticism and other "experimental conclusions directed against it by Dar win, Haeckel and others. Dar in says: "It is certain on the oue hand that the sterility of various species when crossed is so different in degree and graduates away so insensibly, and on the other hand, that the fertility cf pure species is so easily affected by various circum stances, that for all practical purposes