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0BKMWSADV0Ct am orrmth joumul of THE SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY PCBUHHK!) VVIKV wtm T HE VATIONAL KHWTTIV CDNMITTtlt. Onrritl Otlli'ft, H f.t Fourth street. New Vurk 'ltv. Interest 'iitf unrn'MHUiili'liri HolMtt-0 from pro letar uiiK in hII parts t tli wnrM. Litters r fliilrti.c HiiHwvrh slmiiM runt iln r-tiirn po-taKo. Sl'HMKIl'TION Ratkh: One Year (pontile free) - $100 Six months " - "0 PAY A KMC IN ADVANCK. MITK K TO M ls(' II I It Kits. 'I li (lute fti r your iihiiih upim tli- hi1iiih-IhM ul tnrlil In y r ui.i'i Ih (In- 1h1m of i-Xilrntti)ii of Hulmi rliillon. 'Hum nu-liHI tin mm III I your miliKt rii tl"ii exi'lr- it with tlio etui of .Mitn-li ISIil.-hi-ml your Hiihw riitl"li money curly hiiiI Botlfv uh ol any fault In ilollvi ry or t rior on our 1'iirt. NOCI A LIST I. A II OK I'AKTV lUTl'HUL EllMTTIVr CoUH1TKK. II. J. (illKTVII, Kw.rtitary, ? Hunt Fourth street, N. Y. Bfll) Of filUKVANCHt, KltMCHT C. Kc'H INDl.Klt, henrelary, Wliover street, lloston, Mubb. Labor Nfwb Co., I'ahtt Job I'iuntckt, 25 Hunt Kourili street. New York. OiTOIiKU IS, 1H!)(). THE HALLE CONGRESS. The great Socialist Congress of Ger many was opened on the 12th hist, at Halle amid the greatest enthusiasm of the people. Over the meeting place waved an immense red flag hearing the motto "IiOiig live, the International So cial Democracy!" William Iiehknecht opened the session with an address in which he pointed to the magnitude of the delegation present, w hieh exceeded all others previously assembled. All the proceedings of the Congress, he de clared, were to he held with open doors; the party had nothing to conceal; its ohjeets stood over and above hoard, clear before the world; its deliberations were of universal significance, and l lie civil teed world looked upon it with intense interest. Not the proletarians only hut their enemies themselves were absorbed by its action, and the resolutions of the Congress would be of importance not to the proletarians of Germany only hut to those of all countries. Despite perse cution, the Social Democracy had grown to he the strongest party in (iermany, and the social qui at ion had become the central one in the political field. The ipeaker closed with three cheers for the cause, which were responded to tutiiul tuously hy the delegates and the audi ence. BEWARE OF THIS FRAUD. "When President Gompers declared that the Socialist Labor putty was not in the true sense a labor organization and therefore not eligible to the Central Labor federation, he made some ven omous and everlasting enemies in eer tain quarters. Hut he was right, just the same. Union Ivinter. The Union lYiuier is not "in the true sense" a labor paper, for it is run on hoodie principled in the interest of the Democratic party. That such a paper should sustain Mr. Gompers in his opposition to the Socialists is as natural as it is suggestive. Its praise of him on this occasion must, indeed, make him feel quite uncomfortable. To any man of clear sight and honest intentions it would act as an ominous warning to frankly acknowledge his mistake and retrace his steps while it is time. In the same issue of the aforesaid ham labor paper we read: "Nest week, in the official organ of the K. of L , Mr. 1'owderiy w ill begin to test t lie sentiment throughout the Or der for or against independent political action, which, it has leen recently as scrted in some sections, is just the step that is most desirable. Upimons differ we know, but we prediit that if the majority vote for independent political LaSCIioii, at this time, the Order will live ly survive the Presidential campaign.' There again is displayed the same Pecksniflian spirit of Interested oppo ition to independent political action The Union iVinfcr knows a well a we do that the rise of the K. of L. was in duced by a general belief among work ingmen that independent political action with a view to social emancipation was the aim of the Order, and that its deca dence was caused by iis failure to carry Out this chief object of labor organiza- tion; a failure which was largvly the work cf just such instruments of the boodle parties as the editors of the Union liinter are not ashamed to he. It is probably too late for Powderly to have the order hy at last marshalling Ids weakened and demoralized battalions in the political held; hut if it dies in the attempt to do now what it Hhould have done in its zenith, it will not he hecHUse of the attempt itself, hut because it was long ago wounded to deatli hy the politi cal traitors who misled it for their own advantage. o not veyl d to rnjistvr. The only two rnjint ration da it left ore Friday mid Saturday, the 2-lfi and 2-Vt iiixtaitt. THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. News comes from Chicago that the Atchison road hassold to Mitchell Broth ers, Michigan lumber dealers, U 10,000 acres of pine land at. Grant station, on the Atlantic and Pacific. We quote: " The amount paid is a secret, hut it is above fit) an acre, The terms of the sale provide that the Mitchell Brothers shall at once build all necessary side tracks and switches through I be tract and ship the lumber to market as soon as possible, Ot course, it will all be shipped on the Atchison as far as pos sible. The value of the consequent ton nage may lie approximated from the figures of an ollicial of the St. Paul road, w hile speaking of the value of the Mil waukee and Northern. Said he: Much of the territory tributary to the Milwau kee and Northern is timber land. It may surprise you to learn that the output I mm an acre of pine land is more profit able in tonnage than the out put of an acre of agrit ultural land for a hundred ears. that is the reason the St. Paul road is extending northward rather than across the Missouri." This tract is only a small portion of the lands originally granted to the Atchison road. Every acre of it be longed to the people in common and should forever have remained national property. 1 be pauper millionaires who own the Atchison, after pocketing this first installment of three million dollars or more, will prohahly complain of the tendency of government to interfere with their bflairs. They will declare that they want no paternalism. Neither do we. The government had no right to make itself the father of corporations and endow them with the common property of the people. It has given them, in lands alone as we can see from the product of the comparatively small transaction here referred to a wealth sufficient to keep at work and in comfort millions of men who are now idle and in misery, who had an undivid ed, indivisible and inalienable share in those lands, and who could not justly be deprived of that share, even if the government, in taking it from them, had imposed upon the corporations to which it was fraudulently given the obligation of employing them. FARM LABOR. We have frequently observed in these columns that with the increasing use of machinery in agriculture, not only are larger returns obtained by less labor from an equal extent of land, but the feudal British s)steui of "landlord, tenant, and laUirer," is rapidly super seding in this country the heretofore American one of "small, thrifty and independent farmers," on which the founders of this Republic, strongly imbued with the spirit of individualism, rested their hopes of its perpetuity. In Great B itain, where no new land is open to settlement, the economic rela tions of agricultural machinery to popu lation are more readily perceived. The "agricultural" class decreased from 2,010 000 in 1801 to 1 383.000 in 1881, whereas the "domestic' class increased from 1 307,000 to 1.803,000. But the re suits here, all things considered, are not less remarkable. In this country of so- called free land one mi lion "farmers," (or about one quarter of the whole mini ler of ptople reported as such in the census) were tenant m 1880. Since then the ratio of tenants to actual owners has largely increased, and the propor tion of farm laborers is ir creasing at a still more rapid rate. The census which has just been taken will probably nhow that tenants and laborers constitute three quartern of our agricultural popu lation. We need not observe that this ten dency is the more dangerous to the or ganized labor of cities and towns, and the more obstructive to any effort, poll tical or economic, that the latter may make for social improvement, as there is no organization whatever among the agricultural laborers. In the first place, if we consider the subject economically, we find that, as this feudal system expands, enlarging the proportion of wage-slaves and vest ing in a privileged class all the right, title and interest in the natural wealth of the country and in the benefits of modern invention, the rate of wages is steadily decreasing-- 1 the Eastern States this rate has fallen from over $32 per month in lHtii) to less than f 20 in Corresponding reductions have taken place in other sections, and on the Pacific coast the fall in the rate of farm wages during the past twenty years has been fully 50 per cent. In the second place, if we consider the matter politically, the mere statement that the number of male agricultural laborers is about 5,000,000, three fifths of whom are voters, is sufficiently sug gestive of the direction our organizing efforts: should take if the labor problem is to be aolved, or rather pushed to Up front, by political action. PROSPERITY. In 1850 the wages paid to mechanics and operatives in manufacturing indus tries represented 23 per cent, of the value of the finished products of those industries. Since then the share of labor in that product has steadily decreased. It was 20 per cent, in 1800; 18 per cent in 1870, and 17 per cent, in 1880. The Census of 1890, however dishonest, will unquestionably show a further decline. And people wonder at the general dia satisfaction and restlessness of kihor while the country is bo prosperous! Well, if by the word "country" is meant the capitalist class, we grant that the prosperity of the United States ia stupendous; for, in spite of waste in good living and luxury of every sort that claws is accumulating wealth at the rate of three thousand million dollars a year, or nine million dollars per day nut, it this collective expression "country", is intended to embrace the men, women, and even children, who. by their hard labor, create those three thousand million dollars of accumulated wealth, besides producing all that ia consumed or wasted, and yet live in wretchedness, then we eay: speak not to us of prosperity. It is plain, however, that the so called partnership of capital and labor cannot long endure on its present basis of dis trihution. The time has come for the toilers also to be prosperous. Light ia spreading among them. Thought ia moving them to union. Suffering ia stirring them to action. NOTES. A great acheme is on foot, which, if carried out, will practically consolidate under one management a numtier of the most important railroads as a first step to the similar consolidation of the whole railway system of the country. Mr. Wal ker, president of the Trunk Line Asso ciation, has called a meeting of the presidents of the roads comprising that Association, to consider the necessity of conferring upon a "Small General Rate Committee" the power to "lix rates' and "to do the work of all present Eas tern agencies in receiving and forward ing freight." He even goes so far aa to suggest that "a singleindividual could lie designated to act for all," and rightly urges in favor of his plan that this would save an enormous expense to which the companies are now subjected. He might have added that this would enable them to so "hx rates" as to produce enormous dividends on their watered stocks. The only obstacle that we can see to the im mediate a (option of this plan is that it would actually dejnwe the railroad pre sident, and some of these high-salaried ohVials may not be quite ready to abdi cate But in the course of time nay in a very short time, under the growing pressure of financiai interests, there can be no question that nuch a consolidation will be elTected. Every Socialist voter should register this week, Every unnaturalized citizen should get out his papers. Every Sec tion and organization represented in the Socialibt Conference should see to this. We always had a very high opinion of Mr. Archibald's talents and predicted ong ago that he would become a pro minent figure among the politicians of this city. With characteristic modesty Mr. Archibald resented our prediction and insisted upon remaining purely and simply a "labor leader''. But although our forecast cost us Mr. Archibald's good will it nevertheless proved true. For tune, Bmiling upon the bashful youth in his retirement, drove him to the front of the old party hacks; and last Tuesday it was "his privilege" to call to order the anti Tammany meeting of Republi cans, County Democrats and "Citizens", We do not despair of seeing him some day the boss of Tammany, In the mean- time it appears that D. A. 210 K. of L. has the bad taste of demanding financial accounts from its exploded M, W. After giving millions away to banks and railroads, our government, last week, gave away another million of our money to importers and Custom House brokers. What does it mean? In its October number, under the heading, "The Na tionalist Bookcase", the Nationalist magazine not only advertises but actu ally "recommends" such books and pamphlets as these: "Sophisms of Pro tection", hy F. Bastiat; "Free Land and Free Trade", by S S Cox; "The Free Trade Movement in England", by August Mongredien; "History of Protec tion", by Prof. Sumner; "Margin of Profits" and other like writings, by Edward Atkinson; "Work and Wages", by Sir Thomas Braesey; "Practical Econ omics", by David A. Wells, etc., etc. lias the Kationalint turned itself into an agency of free trade and capitalistic literature? If so, what a fall! "If a hoy earns his living in his twelfth year, that concerns him and his family, not the State." N. Y. Sun. We claim that child-labor con rerns the State. The campaign initiated by the New York American Section against political scabbery in the labor movement is prized at its true value by our friends, the genuine Nationalists of California. Their accredited organ, the Weekly Nationalist, quotes in full the utterances of Lucien Sanial and Hugo Vogt at the C. L. F., to the effect that the 'official' representation of organized Socialists in the parliament of Organized Labor meant that the 'unofficial' representa tion therein of the boodle parties w ould no longer he tolerated; and in connec tion therewith it uses the following sig nificant language: "A careful study of the quotations we nave given will show clearly the position taken m what is the center in this coun try of the world wide agitation for the abolition of the wage system, the only- agitation at this advanced stage of the lador question worth spending time and energy upon, and one to which the Nationalist movement, by every sen tence in "Looking Backward," and by every clause in the Boston Declaration of Principles, stands committed uncom promisingly. There was introduced in the House of Representatives during the session just closed 12,402 bills and joint resolutions, and in the Senate 4,750, a total of 17,972, i, e. 2,414 in excess of the last session, which in its turn excelled all other records up to the time. The bills which became law run up to nearly 1,400 as against 1,790 for the whole of the previ ous session. Thus legislation increases with the increasing complications of the social system, and is reducing to an absurdity the claims made in liehalf of the latter by the philosophy of Individu alism. The Dependent Pension law is threat ening to defeat its own purples. Dur ing the three months from the approval of the law to September 30, the number of claims received under the act amounted to 400,282. The mail division of the Pension Office, which is now- worked at high pressure, handles 10,000 ch.ims a day, while a steady stream, averaging 32,000 pieces of mail, keeps on pouring in daily. The corps of em ployes hitherto engaged in the various departments ia inadequate to the mag nitude of the work thrown upon them and must I increased. Hence the rx penditures under the new law will much exceed the estimates upon which the appropriations, already sufficiently gen erous, have been made. An interest ing problem is there brewing for the next session of Congress, Will it call a halt, or will it proceed down the slope legislating, like the Roman Senate of old, ianem t t circensen for the mob? It appears that we were misinformed as to the facts concerning John Most in Newark, and that the reason why he did not attempt to speak there was simply that no hall could be found whose pro prietor would risk to have his license withdrawn. While we hold that John Most's doctrine and tacticsare pernicious to the cause of labor, we would not wil fully misrepresent him; for we hold also, and above all other principles, that the cause of truth can best be served by truth Itself. And let this serve as a les son to Most, whose misrepresentations of Socialism and Socialists in the Frei hit are deliberate, wilful and persis tent, The 4 per cent bonds of the United States, redeemable at par in 1007, are pioted at a premium of 22 per cent. In other words, if the Government hat; a surplus in its treasury and desires to apply ic to the reduction of its debt by purchasing its own bonds, it must pay the bondholders a bonus of 22 per cuit. for the privilege of paying them seven teen years in advance of the time when they will have the right to demand their money. The same Windoni who, as Secretary of the Treawury, is now pay ing that bonus, was Secretary of the Treasury when the time for the payment of the debt was extended. If he did not know that a great loss to the govern ment would necessarily result from such an extension, he was a very ignorant financier; if he knew it, he was a knavish instrument of the bondholders; in either case he was unfit to be Secre tary of the Treasury and that is precise ly the reason why he is now occupying again the same exalted position. The bourgeois press has latterly been very full of despatches from pain touch ing cabinet intrigues, crises changes, and the condition of the baby King, his cooings and drivelings; yet not a line did they contain on the recent Socialist Convention at Bilbao, where the awakening sense of manhood among the Iberian proletarians gathered to a head and gave expression to their purposes. Nor is it to be wondered at but by those who still entertain the delusion that the press rellects the people's doings, theii wants and aspirations. In fact it is the mirror of the bourgeois in which the latter's pewlings, misdeeds, and imbe cility are reflected, more or less accu rately, according as the venalty of the capitalist editor is more or less ap peased. The South is rapidly taking the lead in railway construction. For the first nine months of the current year the nine States which may be classed as Southern show the greatest activity, having com pleted 1,443 miles on 95 lines, while the six Northwestern States and the seven in the Southwest aggregated 1,282 miles on 59 lines, All the tobacco houses of Louisville and Cincinnati are to he consolidated under one management, through the agency of a powerful firm of this city, which contemplates further consolida dations in the same trade as soon as thia first and most important one shall have been accomplished. At the same time that the German Socialists met at Haile, those of France convened at Lille and adopted a pro gramme for deliberation as follows: 1 Definitive attitude with regard to the labor celebrations on May 1st. 2 Re ports from th5 Socialist sections of France touching the international Social ist Congress of 1891. 3 The liabi ity of eni loyers for accidents to eniplojes 4 The control of factories; and a large number of other topics of equal impor tance with these. II. O, WTilshire, the Nationalist candi date for Congress in the 6th Distrii t of California, has challenged his Dem ocratic rival to a debate. If the Cali fornia boodlers are anything like our New York ones, the challenge w ill not be accepted. The plutociacy know its strength lies not in arguments, but in corruption; it strikes, not above, but be low the lelt. If the committee appointed by the C. L. F. to draw up resolutions conetrn ing a'l the candidates w ho, like Judge Gorman, are antagonistic to organized labor, undertakes the job it will have its hands full. There is not one candidate in the field, outside of those on the licket of the Socialist Labor J -arty, that should not be condemned with emphasis. COMMUNICATIONS. Socialism In Oriiiiiii)'. Either out of ignorance or malevolence and difficult it is to determine which, considering the character of the pluto cratic press your esteemed contempo rary the New York Sun published on the 9th instant an article headed, "Pro gramme of the German Socialists", that is typical in its falseness. Of the Social ist pla'form it guotes and analyzes only the least important planks, planks which were adopted twenty odd years ag;o, at the inception of the party, and which, owing to the repressive laws against the Socialists, there had been no opportun ity to drop or amend, as they now assuredly will be. As to the main por tion of that platform, its radical and revolutionary and, therefore, its all hut Utopian portion, the Sun is silent as though that portion never had existed, whereas in fact it has bt-en the rock on which the German Socialist party has been raised, anil contains the inspiring principles that urge on the social revo lution in Uermany. That the socialist party, now the uppermost party in the German Empire, should lose sight of its real aims and sink to the level of patch-work, has been the wish, felt and often expressed, of its foes across the water. The article to which we refer in the Sun chimes in suspiciously with those of the 'reptile' press ot Uermany. in connection with one and the other the following passage from an article by Liebknecht in the party s official paper, the Uerlin Volks- blatt, will prove of interest. He 6ays: "JNeedless it is for us to HBsert that the 'Social Democracy' is still essentially the same. We are what we were and will be what we are. There is but one 'Social Democracy' one and indivisible, which aims at the removal of the causes cf the existing wrongs, and stands up, as a matter ot course, against all other parties, seeing that the aim of these is to perpetuate those very causes in pur suance of their own private interests. The 20th of February has demonstrated that our party, thanks to its tactics and to its programme, has come to be the strongest in Germany Increase of power throws upon us increase of re sponsibility; of this we are fully con scious. Accordingly the first of October w ill verify neither the hopes nor the fears of our enemies. Henceforth, as heretofore, will we march with firmness and directness upon our goal, and we will show to the world that, while the Social Democracy of Germany has learnt much in the school of the Anti Socialist laws, it nevertheless has for gotten nothing." X. Anarchism at Nationalist Club No. 3. Last Sunday afternoon Mr. Timothy P. Quinn delivered before Nationalist Club No. 3 an address entitled "National ism as I understand it." The lecturer claimed that Nationalism was a rehash of Lassallean Socialism; that the one and the other would establish tyranny; that the ideal system was Anarchy; but that, nevertheless, he was a Nationalist to-day because he recognized that the road to Anarchy lay via Nationalism. Mr. E. R. Thomas led off the debase, joining issue with the lecturer as to the beauties of Anarchy and illustrating its workings to-day. James J. Daly, the candidate for Civil Justice on the Social ist Labor ticket, followed Mr. Thomas and illustrated with numerous quota tiona the inconsistencies of present Anarchists. Daniel DeLeon, who next took the floor, said that with the ideal Anarchy pictured hy Mr. Quinn, he could have no quarrel. The question, as presented, was simply hypothetical and useless to discuss, and he found quar lei with Anarchists only when by their action they belied their theory, and instead of acting with the Nationalists 10 day, so as to hasten the advent of their Anarchist ideal, they went hob nobbing w ith single taxnrs and indivi dualisis who oppose Nationalism at all points. With one feature of such Anarchists, however, the speaker had a decided quarrel; and this was in relation to their Anarchy of terminology. To call Nationalism Lassallean Socialism was an illustration in point. Nationalism, whose aim is to nationalize industries, and Lassalleanism, whose aim, now alundoned by the German Socialists themselves, w aa to have the government supply bodies of work ingmen withfunds to establish co operative industries, are no more the same than the child is the same as the fully developed man. To call Nationalism Lassalleanism was rank Anarchism in terminology, a fault i hat all earnest workers in the ranks of the social movement should carefully avoid. B. A storm is brewing in Wall street. The fall in values continues, stock is gener ally affected, and the character of th. market is becoming demoralized. The millions recently flung into the maw of the speculators by Secretary Windom have proved but a tub to the whale. The unfavorable influences, checked for a while, have regained their ascendency and aro beginning to affect the profes sional element, even the class technically called 'Strong holders." Shall the city beg the railroad harpies, to whom we have given our struts, to please carry its school children at half price? And will ihey do it?