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WOllKiMEN'S ADVOOATIC. XT stance with two species of swallows in tli( United States, with two species of missel thrushes in parts of Scotland, of rata under the most different climates, of cockroaches in Russia, of bees in Australia, etc. The reseetive species do m.it carry on a direct strife against each other, hut their active struggle for life in procuring the means of kuIi ttistence and in defending themselves against the powers of inorganic nature and the attacks of organic heings im plies a mere indirect and passive com petition hetween them of the same kind as it is taking place among the members belonging to one species. When one goes into a virgin forest or a prairie, lie will nearly all over tind the inoHt distinct species, genera, families, orders and classes of organic heings mingled in motley groups; since such a state is the necessary consequence of the fact that they depend upon each other for their existence, Hut even w ith the social animals living there as for in stance the immense Hocks of wild pigeons or the large herds of bnllaloes an active strife or competition of the individuals among themselves is not seen. It will often occur that at certain times or in certain regions organic heings suf fer from want of food. When, for ex am de, in summer a long lasting lack of rain has caused drought and hairenness, plants of all kinds decline and perish. Then, only those individuals will survive who have taken the largest and deepest roots and are the most densely covered with moisture imhihing hairs, or whose hahitat is at shady anil low spots, near a well 01 hrook. Under such circumstan ces one correctly may speak of a Rtrug gle between organic beings and inor ganic nature, hut not of active competi tion or strife going on between memoers of the same species. Likewise, in a severe winter, when land and water are snow and ice bound during many weeks, one hardly ever sees sparrows lighting each other about a crumb of bread or hares about the hark of a tree. In this case also, only those animals will save themselves, whose bodies are vigorous and strong enough to withstand the harmful in fluence of unsuitable and deficient food until the bad time has passed, All others must succumb to the cold, or, being from debility incapacitated to defend them selves or escape, fall an easy victim to their natural enemies, the beasts and birds of prey. From the facts stated hfre and from the conclusions which can safely be based upon them, it is evident: 1 -That the struggle for existence is not an active strife or competition be tween the individual members of one variety, species, genus etc. , about the means of subsistence; 2 That the real and only struggle for existence which all organic heings ne cessarily have to carry on, consists in a three-fold activity, namely in their struggle to obtain food; their struggle against the powers of inorganic nature, as soil, "lime, light, temperature, weather etc, and their struggle against hostile species ; II That the three forms of this acti vity are not independent of, but inti mately connected with each other; and 4 That they represent in the vegetable and animal world what among mankind is generally called labor, or more defini tely, bodily and mental labor. NATIONALIZATION OF LABOR. (Continued.) It is well known that the wealthy can purchase their produce and provisions at wholesale, or directly from the produ cer, at the most available seasons of the year, and store them up for futuae use. Hut the poor, having to purchase day by day in small quantities, are subject ed, more especially during the winter, when the facilities of transportation are impaired, to the evil of paying almost famine prices to those who in advance have stored it up for the occasion. Food destined for tbe poor passes through several hands, each taking its profit before it even reaches the small retailer, so that it may safely be estimated that most articles of food cost the poor from titty to one hundred per cent, more than it costs the rich. In 157, during the suspension of specie payments and the prostration af business in New York, Mayor Wood proposed to the City Coun cil to issue scrip for the purchase of provisions in the WTest, to be sold to the working people at cost. The opposition of hankers, speculators and traders defeated the adoption of this just pro position. After the capture cf New Orleans, Gen. Butler sold Government rations to the citizens at cost, to protect them against the extortions of sutlers, and at Baton Rouge Gen. Banks supplied the people with bread from the govern ment bakery when the hakrs were charging exorbitant profits, thereby compiling the bakers to limit their pri ces to a fixed rate. After the war, our Government, through its Conmiissarv Department, distributed food at cost to the Southern poor, thus saving thousands from star vation. Were the nation the sujrvisor of industiy and trade it could transport its ow-n provisions, coal, and manufac tured wares ujxn its own rauroaus ana canals, and in a similar manner distri bute in large or small quantities to con sumers at cost of production ana trans lunation. This would be less than the wealthy now pay to individual producers, for national farms, mines, and factories could he conducted more economically than private enterprises of the kind. The nation, or the people which consti tute the nation, would labor as a whole for the good of each and every indivi dual, making it the duty of society to see that no want existed within its limits, and no crime and suffering re sulted from poverty. The great burden of rent which now crushes the poor would be lifted when the nation be came landlord and required only sulli eieut rent to keep buildings in good re pair. We see at the present time our rail roads becoming vast monopolies. In stead of competing with each other, that the public may derive the benefit of cheaper travel, they find it to their interest to consolidate, leaving the people at their mercy. While it was expected that the roads would be built and conducted for the interest of socie ty, th6y are made to exact inordinate tribute, and become instruments of oppression. Actuated by mercenary motives, their owners disregard the public convenience and safety. Rival companies block the trains and detain the passengers, while the daily records of fatal accidents for which no one is responsible attest the insecurity of life. By the union of the mining and railroad interests, millions of people depend for their supply of coal upon the option of a few soulless corporations, who by banding together have the power to defraud the consumers, by creating artilicial scarcities and charg ing exorbitant rates. A few railroad kings grasp the public lands, buy our legislatures, and rule the nation. Were the railroads, telegraphs, canals, expresses, gas works, etc., to become the property of the people, and under their supervision, they would he con ducted as the post-ollice is (except by direct employment instead of by con tract), for their mutual interests. The fares collected would only he sufficient to keep the institutions in good running order. Man will not be a lixture in the one locality, as he now necessarily is by virtue of possessing a homestead or a business which is the growth of years of steady nursing, and which he cannot abandon even temporarily, perhaps, without pecuniary detriment; but he can round out his being by travel, always sure of employment w herever lie goes. In considering the many evils of the present competitive system of trade we cannot blind ourselves to the enormous frauds to which society is at present exposed, and which yearly increase as science and skill are developed. Hardly an article or rood, drink, medicine, or wear, hut what is fraught with deleteri ous adulterations, often injurious to the health of consumers, that their vendors may either be able to undersell their rival competitors, or increase their al ready excessive prolits. From poisoned liquids, alonf we can hardly compute the extent of disease and crime resulting from their pernicious elfects. Armies in all countries suiter from the interior quality of food and clothing furnished by contractors. Not alone are the people defrauded by adulterated foods, hut of ten by scant weights and measures. Coal dealers buy 2,210 pounds of coal for a ton, and sell (nominally) 2,000 pounds for a ton. Under the present system there can be no remedy, but these evils will con tinue to increase, Gas companies will continue to furnish inferior gas at exor bitant rates, ill there not be a culmi nation some time that will necessitate a different commercial system? Were com petitive labor to cease there would be no incentive to adulteration. The people would produce and manufacture for themselves so that everything made and sold would be good and substantial. (To be continued.) SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY. Proceedings of the National Executive (dm in itlee. At the last meeting Comrade Henry Kuhn acted as Chairman. All members were present. The financial reports showed receipts to the amount of $70 for dues. The expenses were $19.20, includ ing the salary (if the Secretary. As there were many complaints in regard to the irregular publication of the party or gans, a resolution was adopted, recom mending to the managing-committee to give peremptory instructions to the foreman of the printingofiiee. A charter was then granted to a Jewish Section, organized in Chicago. Section Milwau kee reported in regard to the contem plated agitation trip through the West and pledged its aid to the "National Fair" for the Workmen's Advocate. A communication from Rinhainton, N, Y., the domain of the cigar-manufacturing tyrants and law breakers, was ordered "to he published in both party organs. It was also resolved to send an agitator to that city for the purpose of organizing an American Section of the S. L. P. A charter was granted to a new American Section, organized dur ing the last election campaign in the western district of Brooklyn. Section Connellsvi';e, Pa., which was recently organized, is making good headway and has already 2!) citizens on its roll of memlership. The committee then dis cussed a scheme for the distribution of the W. A. among trade and labor or ganizations. It was. howevar. left with the managing committee to take imme diate stejw in this regard. G. S. The evening entertainment given by the Karl Jlarx Liedertafel at the ew Haven Labor Lyceum, was a great suc cess. Over 400 people were present, and many could not get into the hal lat all. SOCIAL REFORM. The 'oice, organ of the Prohibition ists, published in this city by Funk and Wagnalls, had in its last tw-o numbers an interesting symposium on tbe social question. Prominent single laxers, anarchists, woman sutTragists, protec tionists; free traders, trade unionists, Knights of Labor, altruists and social ists were called upon to slate, in short articles, why they believed as they did. On the side of Socialism appeared Lau rence Givnhind and Burnetto G. Has kell. We quote from the lirst: WHY, I, AS A SOCIALIST, CANNOT ACCEIT ANAltMIISM. I am a Socialist, because I am an evo lutionist. Socialists are convinced that they see the drift of our country's deve lopment towards National centralization and social co-operation, and deem it their duty to make the march of this evolution easy by removing the obstacles. As a Socialist, 1 believe it is not merely useless to rebel against evolution, hut that it is our great privilege to conform to it and to help it along. Conversely, I am opposed to every form of Anarch ism Ix cause (admittedly, 1 think I may say) all Anarchists insist thai our present civilization is in the wrong direction, and therefore want to reverse the wheels of present progress, or at least to turn our development in another and unnatural direction. This really is un exhaustive reason, and one based on a proposition to w hich I think no Anarch ist will put in a disclaimer. But 1 am ready to go further. 1 say, then, I am a Socialist because I insist on tinier and System, and, next, because I want Freedom, which Saxon word in my mouth means true Liberty. 1 am diametrically opposed to Anatchisin, first, because in spite of the disclaimer of its advocates, it will, necessarily, lead us into confusion (Tucker's scheme more than Most's), and, secondly, be cause it will surely throttle freedom (Most's more than Tucker's), though Anarchists, undoubtedly, are perfectly honest in considering themselves parti sans of "Liberty'', par excellence. Under Most's scheme there will be less confusion, but undeniably also less Freedom. He proposes a "confedera tion of autonomous communes." If this means anything, it means, virtually, a federation of innumerable small slates, which, if experience counts for anything, will, without fail, be far more oppres sive than National organizations. We quote from the second : WHY t, AS A SOCIALIST, CANNOT ACCEPT COMMUNISM. The Communist proclaims: "From each according' to his will, to each ac cording to his needs." The shibboleth is, of one, "Liberty," of the other, "Jus tice." The Communist is a Utopian; the Socialist an apostle of Realism; and yet, under the Utopian rule the Ideal would die; and above the Roots of Reality and Facts as they are (I'idclicct: Truth), Romance would bloom and blossom again in this world as in the fabled Heroic Age. In the South Sea Islands, where con ditions combine to make life unlahori ous, where sun and sky and fruitful soil join in an unbounded harvest, where labor is needless and law is unknown, Communism flourishes as it has always done in primeval tropical tribes where foul-getting was easy. Here in these islands the natives have a dish called "poi." A huge calabash is filled with the tart paste and each of the tribe when hungry sticks Ins own dirty linger into the common bowl, whirls it around rapidly, a ithdraws it from the mixture and strips it oil' cleanly in bis mouth, returning it then to the dish for more. A truly communistic meal. A Socialist would preter a spoon and a separate dish, believing that all men can be brothers without crossing lingers in the same kettle of ')ioi." Socialism is no cut and dried plan lor regenerating society; Communism is. Socialism, based upon historical evolu tion, simply says that the next stage of society will be that of collective effort; that all men will join together lo regulate, economize and utilize all of the natural resources and tools of produc tion, giving to each his exact due no more, no less. Communism urges So ciety to remodel human nature and human affairs at one fell blow. One is simply a prophecy of Nature's inevit able tendency; the other is the apothe osis of Ignorance attempting an impos sibility. All Nature (including the human so cietary organism) progresses toward complexity of structure and detail of function. A Communist orchard, each tree having seven branches, each branch having seven twigs, each twig having seven apples, is as impossible as a Com munistic society and not a bit more lu dicrous. The devotion of its apostles to their astonishing conception is only explainable by recalling our own idiocy, when as children we puzzled over how many really were going to St. Ives when on the journey thither one met the man with the seven wives, kits, cats and sacks. And indeed, that Communism is a childish concept, a Htudy of primitive society, where it alone flourished, will show conclusively. We are now on the verge of the Twen tieth Century; our tails have dropped olT; our ears have shortened; we stand erect, facing a glorious future, an im mortal and a splendid destiny. Let us put away the toys of childhood, the con fused dreams of primeval savagery, and brace ourselves for a new contest with Nature upon the magnificent plains of manhood which lie broad-stretched and rlovver bespangled before our very face. The receipt of a sample copy of this papr is an invitation to subst-ril CENTRAL LABOR UNION. Th Tolli'i iiiK I-wluli- Si-i-Hlitf rri Out--1 ' I e nl ru oik Cltv mill lloniit ini; lo KhIhi- tilt" I'iiiiI Iteer Hojtott. John II. OVonnell, of the Progressive Labor Club of Cigarmnkers, presided at last Sunday's meeting of the New York Central Labor Union, while John Con nolly of the Waiters was elected Vice chairman. The application of the Staten Island District Council of the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners caused a discus sion as to whether organizations outside of New York could be admitted. The matter was finally referred to the Build ing Trades Section, The Aurora Association of Waiters complained that there aro many unions meeting in scab halls. Some of the delegates belonging to such organiza tions asserted that there was no list of union halls in existence, although it is a fact that such a list was prepared last spring. The Miscellaneous Section was requested to furnish a list. A resolution was then introduced by the delegates of the Ale and Porter Brewers, asking that all halls where union waiters and bartenders are em ployed and union cigars are sold, be considered as union places. When the question was raised why union beer had been left out of tbe resolution the reply was that this was a retaliatory measure against the Central Labor Federation for allow ing Ale V Porter Union No. I to organize Tracy iV. Russell's "scabs", anil raising the bojeott from that firm's ale. Tbe resolution, if adopted, would virtually mean that the boycott against pool beer, winch has never been strictly enforced by the C. L. U.. nor con scientiously observed by the members of the organizations now represented there in, was at last officially withdraw n by that body. '1 he resolution, however, was not adopted, but referred back to the Miscellaneous Section, from which it hod emanated. The Gotham Association af Shirt Cut ters reported that its men are on strike against a non-union cutter at L. Stern & Co's shop, 101 Franklin street, and Hint the firm was advertising for more scabs. Trade is very good in this branch and as all cutters are employed the strike will, if continued, throw about 500 women out of employment. The House-smiths reported a strike on the new Hide and Leather Exchange at Gold and Ferry streets, where contrac tor Thatcher had made life miserable to a union nigineer who refused to work be low the union scale. The project to make Berlin a sea port continues to he agitated in Germany, The most practical plan as yet suggested is the digging of a canal (U meters (about 21 feel) deep from Berlin to Stet tin, a distance of 1(10 kilometers. The estimated cost will Ic20." 000,000 marks. lliKKtTOKV OK A ! K Kl C,l N SUCTIONS IIiih'iiin. Max I'liblti; Hirltattim meetings al (i. A. Jt. Hull, (ill! Wnshlncton street, every Sun ility evening at 7 111 oVIoek. Free tn hII. ltusiness meet lints, tirM Mciinliiy evi-nlniis In each incmlli, Hi s Nassau st. orcaui.nr, I". F. O'Nuil, Vi Kverell struct, Clntrlestown. Kec. Secret my, K. K. Miller. 1 Adams streut, Catnliriilui) liitniiKi.VN American Seettiiti No. 1 meets every Tuesday evening at I lie Labor Lyceum. OrirHii1.er, Julm llanhrii'ti, Ha l.oriinur st IShohkltn -American swllim .Ni. 'i- W. Hist.., meets every week. Organizer, C. II. Matelr ett, l(i smith st. Chicaho liii-inesn mectim,' every Sunday af ternoon, :.' o'clock, at (ire.f's Hull. M Lake street. Public au'ltatlon meetliurs every Sunday at ,J unit's Hall. 1 i Kandolph street. Oriwiiizer. ncrnharil licrlyn, ww; (Jreen si., hiitflewoinl. Cook 'o . III. M in NKA coi. is. Scandinavian Section. Agitation Meetings, every second and fourth Mon days In each month. Business MeotleKK, every lirst. and third Monday- Organizer, 1. l'edersen, I' O. iim 1US4. Nr w Yoiik American section: Agitation meet ings every Monday evening at Kast fourth street. Organizer, August Delabar, ! Kast fourth sret. Nr.w IUvfn, Conn Meetings at, the New Hall, second house from corner State and Chapel sts. Knlraiiee from State st. M- Huther, M Itroad t ., Organizer. rHii.AiKi.i'iiu, Pa. Agitation meetings every Tuesday evening at Mornlnn Star Hall, northeast corner of Ninth and Cailowhill streets. Secretary, Jul. Necker, 411 Vine street, organizer, W. II. lll.-ho., 9 Sar tain street. Phd.adki.I'HIa, Pa flemish Section meets flrts Sunday in each month, at the Labor Lyceum, 411 N. Mh st. De liruyn, lMt'i Warnock st. Pnu.AUKL.rHU, Pa French Brain I) meets every second Sunday at il-.HI a, in. at. Asehba' her's Hall, corn, orlana and Somerset sts. Isldor Cliockaert, Sec 'jr., :HUS 4th st Providkntc It 1 . Meeting first Sunday of each month, '! o'cloi-k . m , slade's Building, Koom W. Organizer, Franklin Burton, Sampson av. Tiros a. Wash Meetings every week at Jeffer son lloiie, '.' O'.i Jefferson avenue. ( I.ailts Hrees, Organizer, K street. Wai.tham, Mass. Public meeting eiery week. X. K. Varney, Organizer. -Jt) High st. Mrs. Marv Gunning. Itee Sec y, ai Lils-rty St. W'Ksr si PKKma, W ise Meetings every week, organizer, P () Hax i!.'(. Y'inkkiss. N- V Meeting- on first and third Tuesdays if each month, at s p. m. In Koch's Hall, cor - Hliist A So. Broad vvay. F.dmund Mueller, 1J4 Waverly Place, Or ganizer. Library Ani ul: Fred, Bennetts. :iS Warburtoii Ave. The Directory of seventy German American Sections will he found lri I)brS.,iiaut. sTKCIAI. At.KNTS Hilt THE WOKK MEVS AlVOCATK. Amuht li Nitclike. i'-. S Pearl st Hi.Tmonr. . Itoeriiid. Ill N Castle st. Hoston II W Drown, in Harrison ave. liaisiKi.T Alb. Orieslies-k. 115 Johnson ave. I!crru. N. Y W. Moser, vji (Oant t. (jeo. HnrVhardt. am Miennan st. CHirAtfo b. Berlyn. 131 State st CirvrLi O. Jansen. ssr Lorian ft. Dxtrhit K Stover, 1M llrumly avenue. Kiuk, Pa Hub Ileln, ltltt Sassafrass B(. Kvansvii.1.8, iNp.-chr. Schaad. llll.'s Fulton av. IIaih roKD- Fred, til unlnger, im Asylum st. Holvokk, Mass. -11 Backofeii, S-JS Park st. London. Ksiiland II W. Lee. 1 HI Oneon Vie I tori a ttvet, Blackfrlar's Bridge, K. C. i.vnn, mass -Fred K. Oelclier, Id Jewett st. Minkkaimi.is. Minn Then. Jost, .HiM.'i fort avu. Xkwauk C. Scheer, lilii Sprlngtielil ave. Nkw Yohk l 'iT-T-ll. Adler, !i.Mt (i and st. and " Kssen Market. W. Itaetke, till. U li'ith st. A. Falke, .,;tl K. 101 si st. K. Friedmann, m Canal st. S. Coldschtnldt, MM K Mil st. John lleinrlchs. 11(1 Avenue A, near Tth st. K. llelnlcke. .'Kl K. lt.'-th st. A. Frank, Wl Broadway International News Co', SVI -s,'. Dunne st. A. Iloehne. .'W lv 41 ti st. J. Lam, 10:il 1st ave Julius Llebrv, .-! W. ,'V.itl- st. II. Methe. Il'.i K. ittrd st. 11 Muudt, 107 -.'lid st , II floor. II Orliiinsky, !Ki K. Houston st Fr. 1'Moht, .110 W. list st. II. Sebastian, lClSst. ave. K, Sohr, W-.' IMh st , :lnl floor. W. Springer, :M K 10th st V. Sclilegel, 1.VIT A venue A. S. Woimann, 1 til NorfolV st. YVYInoehl, is? Orchard st. Nkw1 Havkn, Conn. limil (Juris, )) Oentor St., Koom II. Nkw Out, kans C. Boensch, P. O Box Wj llil -J Lesseps st. rovoiiKiKpsiK, N. V. 11. Szimmath, IM N, Ham ilton street. Phoviiikni ic John Brand, 30 Snow street. Koch kstkk. L. Waldorf, SIM North av. Sackamknto, cat J. Plouer, 0th and Lsts. San f UANt'isco J. C. Blass, Oils 1 ',' Naloma st. St. Paci., Minn C. Oaefk.-. S4 Dakota ave. SYKAcrsK. N. Y.-OttoKoellliig, oi; Highland st. Tacoma, Wash ( lis- Drees, tut K st Toi.kho. Claus Sass. '.'11 Whmhoii si. Tkt, N. V.-H. Vltallus, till l 3rd avenue, Wost Troy. Wii.minuton. Dm..--Fritz Klscr, 1(i I.amottes!. YoNKKKs, N Y M. Ilafeinann, W Washing ton st rtucvtlscmcntB. Just Out! Just Out! MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY. BY Carl Marx and Fred jrick EngeL Authorized Knijtisli Translation, Kdild and Annotated by Frederick Kniels. "The Manifesto has become a historical document which we have no longer any right lo alter." rnici'7, - - - to t is.. iff' By purchasing a quantity over lo copies we allow i r. per cent, commission. 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