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THE PROTOCOL. -
' MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT. Sent to Vit How of ReprttttUalivet Ftbrttary 8." To the Hons of fteprtteiitativtt ofth U. S.X In reply to the resolutions of the House of Rep . resentatives of the 5th inst, I communicate here with a report from the secretary of state," accom panied with all the documents, and correspondence relating to the treaty of peace concluded between the United States and Mexico, at Guadalupe Hi dalgo, oa the 2d of February, 1848, and to the amendments of the Senate thereto as-requested vj iwuao III UH3 WMU imAUMUllOt' &. A . 1 J ... , .will ttA fnnnA copy of the instructions given to the commissioo ers of he United Stales who took to Mexico the treaty as amended by the Senate and ratified by the President of the United States. In my Mes sage to the House of Representatives, of the 29th of July, 1848, 1 gave as my reason for declining to furnish these instructions in compliance . with a resolution of the House, that "in my opinion it would be inconsistent with the public interests to give publicity to them at the present time.' Al though it may atQi. be doubted, whether giving Xaera publicity in our own country, and, as a nec essary consequence,, in Mexico, may not. have a prejudicial influence upon our public interests, yet, as they have again been called for by the House, to the correct understanding of which they are indispensable, I have deemed it my duty to trans mit them. - . - I still entertain the, opinion, expressed in the message referred, to, "that, as a general rule, ap plicable to all our important negotiations with for eign powers, it could not fail to be prejudicial to the public interest to publish the instructions' to our Ministers, until some time had. elapsed after . the i : - r i i" wt cunciusiou wi bucb negouauoas. -. In these instructions of the 18th of March, 1848, it will be perceived "that the task was assigned to the commissioner of the United States of consum mating the treaty of peace, which was signed at Gaudalupe Hidalgo, on the second day of r ebruary last, between the United States and the Mexican Republic; and which on the 10th of March last; was ratified by the Senate with amendments." ' . They were informed "that this brief statement tul indicate to jrou clearly tha line ot your duty. . You are not sent to Mexico for the purpose of ne gotiating any new treaty, or of changing in any particular the ratified treaty which you will bear . with you.. r one of the amendments adopted by the Senate can be rejected or modified, except by the authority of our body. - Your 'whole duty will, then consist in using-every honorable effort to ob tain from the Mexican government a ratification of the treaty m the form in which it has been ratified by the Senate and this with the least practica ble delay." : "For this purpose, and most probably will, become necessary that you should explain to the Mexican minister.for foreign .affairs, or to the authorized agents of the Mexican government, the reasons whjch nave influenced the Senate in adopting these several amendments to the treaty. This duty you will perform, astnuch as possible, by personal conferences. Diplomatic notes are to be avoided, Unless in case of necessity. These might -lead to endless discussions and indefinite delay. Beside, they could not nave any prrcucal result, as your' mission is confined to procuring a ratification from the Mexican government of the treaty as it came from the Senate, and does not extend to jhe slightest modification in any of i' provisions. 1 The Commissioners were sent to Mexico to pro cure the ratification of the ' treaty as amended by the Senate. Their instructions confined them to this point It was proper that the amendments to the treaty adopted oy the United States should be explained to the Mexican Government, and expla nations were made by the secretary of state, in his letter of the 18th of March, 1848, to the Mexican . . rr: : r l j: fri.: nunuster w lureuni auiurs, uincr my uuwiMk x uu message of the' 6th of July last, communicating the treaty of peace, and published by their order. - ThU dispatch was transmitted by our commission . era from the City of Mexico to the Mexican govern ment, then at Queretaro, on the J7th of April, 1848, and its receipt acknowledged on the 19th of the . treaty, as amended, was "before the Congress of flaiUU U1VMIL1I.' AU1141l. tHC It UVMV HIUB ViJtl im Mexico, these explanations of the secretary of state, and these alone, were betore them. The President of Mexico, on these explanations, . on the Sth day of May, 18 4 8, submitted the amend ed treaty to the Mexican Congress, and on the 25th of May that Congress approved the treaty as amended witliout .modification or alteratioa- The final action of the Mexican. Congress had taken place before the commissioners of the United .... i ....;...i u t : ; authorities, or held any conference with them, or WIJT UbllV bUUlliiUUJVAUUII Itll DUUJCUb VI LUC treaty exeept to transqit the letter of the secretary ot state. . . " l ,' :: ' ' r In their dispatch transmitted to Congress with toy message of the 6th of July last, communicating the treaty of peace, dated "City of Queretaro, May 25. 1843, 9 o'clock P. M." the commissioners say: "We have the satisfaction to inform you that we reached this city this afternoon at about 5 o'clock, and that' the treaty as amended by the Senate of the United states,-passed toe Mexican senate about the hour of our arrival, by a vote of 33 to 5, It having previously passed the house of Deputies, nowmg now remains obi to exenange toe raunca tions of the Treaty. On the next day, (the 28th May,) the commission ers were for the first time presented to the Presi dent of the Kepublic and their credentials placed itt his hands. - On this occasion the commissioners delivered an address to the President of Mexico? and he replied. In their despatch of the 30th of May, the commissioners say : , "We enclose a copy ,nf our address to the President and also a copy of Ms reply. ; Several conferences afterwards took place between Messrs.. Rosa, Cuexas, Con to, and ourselves, which it is not thought necessary to re- capitulate, as we enclose a copy of the protocol which contains the substance of the conversations. .We. have now the satisfaction to announce that the exchange of ratifications was affected to-day." This dispatch was communicated with my message the 6th of July last, and published by order of - Congress..- " : Tie treatv. as amended bv the Senate of the U. States, with the "accompanying papers, and the ev idence that in that form it had been ratified by Mexico, waa received at Washington on the 4th dny of July, 1848, and immediately proclaimed as the suprrme lav of the land. On the 6th of July I communicated to Congress the ratified treaty, ' with such accompanying documents as were deem ed material to a full understanding of the subject, to '.tha end.that Congress might adopt the legislation . necessary and proper to carry (he treaty into effect Neither the address of the commissioners, nor the reply of the President of Mexico on the occasion of " their presentation, nor tne znemomnuum oi con versations embraced in the paper called a protocol, nor the correspondence now sent were communica ted, because tney were not regarded as in any way material ; and in thiB I conformed to the practice of our government It rarely, u ever happens that all the correspondence, and especially the instruc tions to our ministers, is communicated. . Copies of these papers are Dow transmitted, as being within the resolutions of the House calling for all such "correspondence as appertains to said treaty." When these papers were received at Washing ton, peace had been restored, the first instalment of three millions paid to Mexico, the blockades were raised, the city of Mexico evacuated, and our troops on their return borne. The war was at an end, and the treaty, as ratified by the U. States, was binding on both parties, and already executed in a great degree. - In this condition of things it was not competent for the Preetdent alone, or for the President and Senate, or for the President Senate and House of Representatives combined to abro gate the treaty, to annul the peace, and restore a state of war, except by a solemn declaration of war. " v ' ' . j'v .- . '. Had the protocol varied the treaty as amended by the Senate of the United States, it would have had no binding ettect . It was obvious that the commissioners of the U. States did not regard the protocol as in any degree a part of the treaty, nor as modifying or altering the treaty as amended bythe Senate. They com municated it as the substance of conversations held after the Mexican Congress had ratified the treaty and thev knew that the approval of the Mexican Congress was as essential to the validity of a treaty in all its parts as the advice and consent of the Sen ate of the United Statea They knew, too, that they had no authority w alter or modify the treaty in the form in which it had been ratified by fhe United Suites, but that if failing to procure the rat ification of the Mexican government, otherwise than with amendments, their duty by express instruc tions was to ask of Mexico to send without delay a commissioner to Washington to exchange ratifica tions here, if the'amendments of the treaty propos ed by Mexico, on being submitted, should be adopted by the Senate of the United Statea I waa eaually well satisfied that the government of Mexico had agreed to the treaty as amended by the Senate of the United States, and did not re gard the protocol as modifying, enlarging or dirain- laulljg ua terms wcuwu The President of that Republic, in submitting the amended treaty to the Mexican Congress, in his the 8th of Mav. 1848. said: "If the treaty could have been submitted to your delibera tion precisely as it came from the hands of the plen- satisfaction at seeing the war at last brought to an end would not have been les sened, as it this day is, in consequence of the mod ifications introduced into it by the senate of the U. States, and which have received the sanction of the President" At present it is sufficient tor us to say to you, that if in the opinion of the government jus tice had not been evinced on ths part of the senate and covernment of the United States, in inlroduc- ine- 'such modifications, it is presumed, on the oth er hand, that they are not of such importance that they should set aside the treaty. 1 beueve on tne contrary, that it ought to be ratified upon the same terms in which it has already received the sanction of the American government My opinion is also greatly strengthened by the fact that a new nego tiation is neither expected nor considered possible ; much less could another be brought forward upon a basis more favorable for the Republic." : The deliberations of the Mexican Congress, with no explanation before that body from the United States except the letter of the secretaay of state, resulted in the ratification of the treaty as recom mended by the President of that Republic, in the form ill which it bad been amended ana raunea Dy the United Statea The conversations embodied in the paper called a protocol took place after the ac tion of the Mexidan Congress "was complete; and there is no reason to suppose that the government of Mexico ever submitted the protocol to Uongress, or ever treated it or regarded it as in any sense a new negotiation, or as operating any modification or chanee of the amended treaty. If such had been its effect, it was a nullity until approved by the Mexican Congress; and such approval was nev er made or intimated to the United Statea In the final consummation of the ratification of the treaty by the President of Mexico, no reference is made to k On the contrary, this ratification which was de livered to the commissioners" of the United States, and is now in the state department, contains a full and explicit recognition of the amendments of the Senate just as they had been communicated to that government by the secretary of state, and been af terward approved by the Mexican Congress. It declares that, "having seen and examined the said treaty and the modifications made by the senate of the United States of America, and having given an account thereof to the general Congress, conform ably to the requirement in the 14th paragraph of the 10 th article ot the f ederal uonstitution ot these United Slates, that body has thought proper to ap prove tb"jid treaty with the modifications thereto, in all th parts;-and in consequence thereof, ex erting thefower granted to me by the Constitu tion, I accept, ratify, and confirm the said treaty with the modifications and promise, in the name of the Mexican Kepublic, to fulhl and observe it, and cause it to be fulfilled and observed. Upon an examination of this protocol, when it was received with the ratified treaty, I did not re gard it as material, or as in any way attempting to modify or change the treaty, as it had been amend ed by the senate of the United Statea The first explanation which it contains is, "that the American government, by suppressing the 9Xh article of the treaty of Guadalupe, and substituting the 3d article of the treaty of Louisiana, did not in tend to dimmish in any way, what was agreed up on by the aforesaid article (ninth) in favor of the inbnbitants of the territories ceded by Mexico Its understanding is, that all of that agreement is con tained in the third article of the treaty of Louisiana In consequence, oil the privileges and guarantees, civil, political and religious, which would have been possessed by the inhabitants of the ceded territo ries, if the ninth article of the treaty had been re tained, will be enjoyed by them without any ditter ence under the article which has been substi tuted." . The ninth article of the original treaty stimulated for the incorporation of the Mexican inhabitants of the ceded territories, and their admission into the Union, "as soon as possible, according to the pnn ciples of the federal constitution, to the enjoyment ot all the rights of citizens of the United states." It provided also, that in the mean time they should be maintained "in the enjoyment of their liberty, their property, and the civil rights now vested tn them, according to the Mexican laws." It secured to them similar political rights with the inhabitants of the other territories of the United States, and at least equal to the inhabitants of Louisiana and Flor ida, when they were in a territorial condition. It then p -oceeded to guaranty that eclesiastics and re ligious corporations should be protected in the dis charge of the offices of their ministry, and the en joyment of their property of every kind, whether individual or corporate; and, finally, that there sbouW be a free communication between the Cath olics of the ceded territories and their eclesiastical authorities, "even although such authorities should teside within the limits of the Mexican Republic, as defined by this treaty." .The ninth article of the treaty as adopted by the senate is much more comprehensive iu its terms, and explicit irt its meaning, and it clearly embraces, in comparatively few words, all the guarantees in serted in the original article. It is as follows: "Mexicans who in the territories aforesaid, shall not preserve the character of citizens of the Mexican Republic, conformably with what is stipulated in the preceding article, shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States, and be admitted, at the proper time, (to be judged of by the. Congress of the United States,) to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States, according to the principles ot the Uonstitution, ana m tne mean time shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secur ed in the free exercise of their rehgion without re striction." This article, which was substantially copied from the Louisiana treaty, provides equally with the original article for the admission of these inhabitants into the Union; ana in tne meantime, while they shall remain in a territorial state, by one sweeping provision declares that they "shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured in- the tree exercise of their religion without restriction." This guarantee embraces every kind of property, whether held by ecclesiastics or laymen, whether belonging to corporations or individuals. It secures to these inhabitants the free exercise of their reli gion without restriction,- whether they choose to place themselves under the spiritual authority of pastors resident witmntne Mexican rvepuDiic or me ceded territoriea It was, it is presumed, to place this construction beyond all question, that the senate superadded the words "without restriction" to the religious guarantee contained in the corresponding article of the Louisiana treaty. Congress itself does not possess the power, under the constitution to make any law prohibiting the free exercise of re ligion. If the ninth article of the treaty, whether in its original or amended form, had been entirely omitted in the treaty, all the rights and privileges which either of them confers would have been secured to the inhabitants of the ceded territo ries by the constitution and laws of the United Statea The protocol asserts that the"American govern ment by suppressing the tenth article of the treaty of Guadalupe, did not in any way, intend to annul the grants of land made by Mexico in the ceded ter ritories ;" that "these grants, notwithstanning the suppression of the article of the treaty, preserve the legal value which they may possess; and the grantees may cause their legitimate titles to be ac knowledghd before the American tribunals;" and then proceeds to state, "that conformably to the law of the United States, legitimate titles to every de scription of property personal and real, existing in the ceded territories, are those which were legiti mate titles? under the Mexican law in California and New Mexico, up to the 13th of May, 1846; and in Texas, up to the 2d of March, 1836." The former was the date of the declaration of war against Mex ico, and the latter that of the declaration of inde pendence by Texaa The objection to the tenth article of the original treaty was, not that it protected legitimate titles which onr laws would have equally protected with out it, but that it most unjustly attempted to resus citate grants which had become a mere nullity, by allowing the grantees the same period after the ex change of the ratifications of the treaty to which they had been originally entitled after the date of their grants for the purposs of performing the con ditions on which they had been made. In submit ting the treaty to the senate, I had recommended the rejection of this article. That portion of it in regard lo lands in Texas did not receive a single vote in the senate. -This information was communicated by the letter of the secretary of state to the minitster for foreign affairs of Mexico, and was in possession of the Mex ican government during the whole period the treaty was before the Mexican Congress, and the article itself was reprobated in that latter in the strongest terms. Beside, our commissioners to Mexico had been instructed that "neither the Br esident nor the senate of the United States can ever consent to rat ify any treaty containing the 10th article of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in favor of grantees of land in Texas or elsewhere." And again: "Should the Mexican government persist in retaining this article, then all prospect of immediate peace is end ed; and of this you may give them an absolute as surance." - On this point the language of the protocol is free from ambiguity; but if it were otherwise, is there any individual, American or Mexican, who would place such a construction upon it as to convert it into a vain attempt to revive this article which had been so often and so solemnly condemned ? Surely no p erson could for one moment suppose that either the commissioners ot the United states, or the Mex ican minister for foreign affairs, ever entertained the purpose of thus setting at nought the deliber ate decision of the President and the senate, which had been communicated to the Mexican govern ment with the assurance that their abandonment of this obnoxious article was essential to the restora tion of peace. But the meaning of the protocol is plain. It is simply that the nulification of this article was not intended to destroy valid legitimate titles to land which existed and wtre in full force independently of the provisions and without the aid of this ar ticle. Notwithstanding it has been expunged from the treaty, these grants were to " preserve the le gal value which they may possess." The refusal to revive grants which had become extinct was not to invalidate those which were in full force and vigor. - That such was the clear understanding of the senate of the United States and this in perfect ac cordance with the Protocol, is manifest from the fact, that whilst they struck from the treaty this unjust article, tbey at the same time sanctioned and ratified the last paragraph of the eighth ar ticle of the treaty, which declares that, " In the said Territorries, property of every kind, now be longing to Mexicans not established there, shall be inviolably respected. The present owners, the heirs of these, and all Mexicans who may hereafter acquire said property by contract shall enjoy wjth respect "to it guarantees equally ample as if the same belonged to citizens of the United States. Without any stipulation in the treaty to this ef fect all such valid titles under the Mexican Gov ernment would have been protected under the Constitution and laws of the United Statea The third and last 4xnlnnatinn contained in the Protocol is that " the Government nf the United States, by suppressing the concluding paragraph of prive the Mexican Republic of the free and unre strained faculty of ceding, conveying or transferrins-, at any time, fas it mar iudtre bestt the sum of $12,000,000 which the same Government of the United States is to deliver in the places desig nated by the amended article." me concluding paragraph, or rather sentence, of the original twelfth article thus, suppressed by( the senate, is in the following language : Certificates in proper form, for the said installments respect ively, in such sums as shall be desired by the Mexi can Government, and transferrable by it, shall be delivered to the said Government by that of the United States.' - - - - - From this bare statement of facts the meaning of the Protocol is obvioua Although the senate had declined to create a government stock for the twelve millions of dollars, and isuue transferrable certificates for the amount in such sums as the Mexican Government might desire: vet they could not have intended thereby to deprive that Govenr- meni oi me iacuity which every creditor possesses of ansferring for his own benefit the obligation of , - ,1. . ... . . tj nis aeptor, whatever this may be worth, according to nis win ana pleasure.' It cannot be doubted that the twelfth article of the treaty, as it now stands, contains a positive ob ligation, "iu consideration of the extension acquired oytne boundaries ot the United States, to pay the Jexican Republic $12,000,000 in four eaual annual installments of $3,000,000 each. . This ob ligation may be assigned by the Mexican govern ment to any person whatever; bnt the assismee. in such case, would stand in no better condition than that government The amendment of the senate. prohibiting the issue of a government transferrable stock for the amount, produces this effect and no more. The Protocol contains nothing from which it can be inferred that the assignee could, rightfully de mand the payment of the money in case the con sideration should fail which is stated on the face of the obligation. With this view of the whole Protocol, and con sidering that the explanations which it contained were in accordance with the lreaty, 1 did not deem it necessary to take any action upon the subject Had it varied from the terms of the Treaty as amended by the Senate, although it would even then have been a nulity in itself, yet duty might have required that I should make this fact known to the Mexican Government This not being the case, I treated it in the same manner I would have done had these explanations been made verbally by the Uommi8sioners ot the Mexican Minister for Foreign Affairs, and communicated in a Dis patch to the State Department JAMES K POLK Washington, Feb. 8, 1849. From Punch. FEW DAYS IN THE DIGGINS." Bf A. FREE AND INDEPENDENT." Landed at San Francisco, after a "tarnal tossin" of five months. This is coming the small eend of Cape Horn, I reckon, and there ought to be pretty considerable some on the other side to make up leavin' my dry goods store and family fixins in Broadway. Traded with a Down-Easter, who is makin' tracks for the settlements, with $30,000 in his carpet basr, for a spade, pick, scoup and washin' trough giy- m' $800 for the plunder, and glad to get it as In crease Nile Flint of Salem, went $750, and he is a 'tarnal old hoss at a deal. Swopped my trapa and blankets, a quarter cask f .1. i j i , -- i - . . , oi picueu pons, anu a aemijonn oi peacn Dranay, which I had laid in, for six pounds ginootie gold. Pretty considerable smart tradin'. - ' ' Toted my tools to Hiram K. Doughboy's board ing shanty, and settled with him for blankets and board, at $30 per diem. Catawampus prices here, that's a fact; but every body's got more dust than he knows what to do with. : Off to the diggins with a party; mighty small potatoes most of 'em ; all sorts and colors, and ev- erlastin' ragged Bay-statesmen, Back-woodsmen, Buckeyes from Ohio, Hosses from Eentuck, Cape Cod Whalers, San Francisco Indians, Leperos from Santa Cruz, Texan Volunteers, Philadelphir Qua kers, a Latter-day Saint, six insh sympathisers, twelve Yankees, as many Britishers, a squad of deserters, a Biacktoot vfuide, a Methodist Larson, and a Mormon Elder. Struck diggin' and sot to serious washin; par son began to ask a blessin', but seein Silas T. Forks, of Orangeburgh, N". C, helpin himself, par son cut it short on, and we went to Work like nig gers at cane hoin'.agreein to dig in companies and snare prohts. notched the Quaker sunnm him self, and takin kink out of his back with a Havan nab. Convened a meetin', cowhided Quaker, and at it again, Gold lyin, about like earth nuts, and ridin through the water like hailstones in a sherry coDier. Sounded the conch for grub, and found nobody got anything, but that cute old coon, Zerubbabel W. Peabody, of Stitan Island, who had brought a bag ot biscuit and some meat hxins . The varmint wouldn't sell a notion under an ounce of dust, and sacked the whole bihu . To work again ; trotted up again at sundown, and found we'd averaged $28 per man. Got back to shanty; but before that darned Hiram K. Doughby would let me inside his door, forced to pay down $30 for day's board and lodgin'. So wound up $2 worse than in the mornin'. Calkila- ted to camp out in future, cut Hiram, and work on my own hook, havin' realized that socialism ain't no go in gold diggin. ; Asked Hiram why he did' nt go out with his bowe-knife and washing-paiL Hiram sniggered, and said he warn't greedy, and preferred helpin folks in his shanty. . Hiram usn't to De such a consarned tool. . " Started alone having swopped the gold I sot from Down Easter yesterday, for one blanket half cask of pork, and half demijohn of brandy. Must convene that I've lost 50 per cent bargains: but a cargo of new diggers havin' just come in from Panama, great demand for such things, and forced to give what that old flint of a Down Easter chose to ask. He s made considerable some by his trade, that's a fact, and I doubt if he could have done better at the diggins. Made a great day havin' sacked 40 dollars at least Got sorerjost, and when I tracked back to the tree where I'd cached my plunder, found those tarnal J names had -absquatulated with blanket pork, and brandy. Lucky I've got my tools. fepent the night under a cotton tree: roisrbtv sharp set in the mornin', havin' eat nothing since yesterday at twelve. Struck the trail of Zerubba bel W. Peabody, and traded with him for some bread and pork doin's for which the everlastin old skinflint made me come down cruel, cleanin" me out of all I'd raised yesterday. Zerubbabel says he ain't diggin; but goin a bout with a provision and liquor store. It is ama zin' how long headed men like Zerubbabel can be such darned idiots. I've got out of the track of the settlement and into prime diggin' all to myself where the lumps of gold run as big as piggeon's eggs, and lie as thick as hail-stones in Broad wa v. after a come down in the falL But I'm darned weak for want of grub, and so rheumatic with campin' out, that it's quite a caution. Two days without seein food gold gets more abundant than ever. Eh.c Xoroer SanJmaka Stttman. J. S. Fonke, Editor and Publisher. LOWER SANDUSKY, FEB. 24,1849. ;. Upon taking control of a Newspaper, it n ex- Lected that the Editor will write what might be termed a "preface,'.' giving a brief exposition of the Principles, by which he intends to be governed, in its editorial management , j . , - In following this custom, we shall, be brief, , as long articles of this kind, like a long preface to a book, are seldom read ; besides we prefer letting the paper "speak for itself," rather than to tell what we intend to da i, ;",.? In assuming the editorial management of this paper, however, we are not unmindful of the ar duous and responsible duties we undertaker and cannot but feel distrustful of our fitness and quali fications for discharging so responsible a trust; but feeling assurred that our efforts and intentions will be rightly appreciated, by a discerning and intelli gent people, we shall throw ourself upon their gen erosity and. forbearance, and shall, so far as our facilities will admit, endeavor to make the Fekem as interesting and useful to its readers. Politically, the paper will be Whig, and it shall be our constant aim to promote and advance the interests and principles of " that party." Our fore- fathers wisely adopted those principles as the only true basis, to advance and elevate man to the high and noble position, which it -was designed by a wise Creator he should enjoy while here below.' - Recently those principles have most signally and effectually triumphed over those advocated by our opponents, and time will soon determine whether. as in the early days of the Republic, they will tend to the advancement and good of our common country. ' . ;- ' - ' '-' . !" V. - But while it is our intention to advocate , Whig principles and measures, we shall at the same time have a due regard for the opinions of our oppo nents. We believe the mass of the people, of all partiesare honest in their opinions, and are striv ing to obtain the same ends the interest and good of our glorious Union. - To the man who" honestly differs with us in opinion, we have the greatest re gard, and our bearing towards Such shall be cour teous and respectful, and shall exercise that degree of liberality which an honest difference of opinion demands. . . '::-r - -i -v. ' On the question of Slavery, as it now exists . in the several States, we, do not feel disposed to med dle with, rightfully assuming, as" we think, that the compact entered into by the: States in regard to that question, should be held inviolate. -": The question of abolishing slavery in the Stateswhere it now exists, should be left to the States immedi ately interested. But to its extension over territo ry now freewe are opposed, and believe that Con gress have the power to confine it to its present limits, and we believe the intelligence of the age will consiem to political oblivion that man, . who shall dare to favor so unnatural and infamous measure, as that of extending the blighting curse of Slavery over any territory now free. . It shall be the aim of tha editor, to publish a free and independant Journal, to be controlled by no man or set of men, besides the editor, and all articles intended for publication in the Freeman, must be submitted to his inspection. Short well- written articles, free from all personal allussions, will be thankfully received. - - .X :"' &3T Gen. Cass passed through this place on Thursday morning last, on his way to Washington. We had tha pleasure of takiug the old General by the hand, and as we gave it a hearty shake, felt a i compunctious misgiving as to its propriety, after the many hard things, though true, we said about him during the last campaign. The General ap peared to enjoy good health, and, under the "cir cumstances," we thought, looked remarkably well. We wish him a safeourney, and an honorable dis tinction, in his old calling, as United States Senator. OHIO LEGISLATURE. T The Ohio Legislature has been engaged for some time back in determing who should be the candi dates for Senator, Judges, fca, and doing very lit tle legislation of importance to the Stato, The L cofocos have, for the first time in a number of years. by chicanery and intrigue, got an accidental ma jority, and going on the principle that to the "vic tors belong the spoils," they will probably prolong the session to as late a. day as possible. - - When we commenced this article, we were going to say that the Legislature has passed the bill char tering the Lower Sandusky and Fort Ball Plank Road Company ,and authorizing it to open the books and receive stock. The bill to incorporate the Low er (Sandusky and Rome, (Seneca Co.,) Company, has not yet been passed. GEN. TAYLOR. Gen, Taylor arrived in Wheeling on the 20th inst, on his way to Washington. He was welcom ed, as has been the case all along his route, with every demonstration of joy, by the citizens. He left the next day for the Capitol, where it was ex pected he would arrive about the 23d or 24th, and it is thought that somewhere near the 5th of March he will take possession of the White House, "And old Whitey of ths While Hou.o Stable," We send the first number of our paper to a number of persons, who are not now subscribers, hoping that they will lend us their names and in fluence, in sustaining us in the publication of the Freeman.. It is desirable that the patronage of the paper should be increased, and the larger the cir culation becomes, the more interesting and useful we will be enabled to make it and the more good it will accomplish. We hope our friends through out the county, will interest themselves in obtain ing us subscribers. ' Jt&-la the hurry consequent upon issuing a ... f. j v f koln wa have , paper this wees, anu me r- - not been able to pay that attention to n. could have wished. After we get "fixed" we shall be able to pay mora attention to it, and give our readers a greater variety of matter. - i ts' We serd the Freeman to the former pat rons of the Telegraph, aad respectfully solicit their -names and patronage. Should any of them desire not to take the paper,, they can return it to us through the post-office or otherwise. . The weather, oa last Monday, was the col dest we have had for a number of years, the rner- -eury, of our Thermometers, falling as low as 24 TkoW wm. We don't think any of our "oldest inhabitants" can recollect when it has beea: much colder in. this counp;-;.' - leiegrapnic reporur iiviu that the Legislature went into the election of a United States Senator, and Judges of the Supreme , Court, on Thursdaylast ; , , V; : 1 .. - "" Mr. Chase'was 'elected Senator, Caldwell and Spalding Supreme Judges, and Bliss of Elyria, one of the President Judges. All IxwofocOa but ; Mr. . ChasR. who is a f ree Soner. ou e g.j. SPEECH OF GENERAL ; TAYLOR AT" - T OTTTVTT.T V. : - : ;"V2 New Yobs, Feb. 19, 7 P. M. . The Louisville Morning courier of tne iui . . - - .i .1 : mst, received to-day, brings me particulars oi - the magnificent banquet in honor ot the l-resiaent elect given on the eveningof the 12th inst ' The Mayor of the city presided. The regular toast was :-General Taylor, by birth a. Virginian, ; in boyhood and early manhood a Kentuckiafl his ' (rlnrmus achievements upon his country's battle' fields have made him tne property tne. nuon ills i)nm nrl virtue will render him. as the Chief Magistrate of a great Republic, the bene factor of the, world, t Uheera r Gen .Taylor replied:- I -',.--;. -.4 ; V ) I am sincerely obliged to you for the comph mentary toast which has just been received, and for the generous reception it uas met wnn in mis assembly. 1 1 have not deserved the praises lavished J UDou my past services, and the suggestion made " .. ... . . . i - . i . in relation to the future, is more nattering than any havn Km nf mvaeit enamea ioinuuic. i am iu- ueea a. virgiuian uy uirwi, um rcui5t w m -country when it was still a part of that ancient com , , i i i. i. v. . i . ........ j ... .t,.!, monwealth, vv lulst I venerate ine siaie oi ray a- tivitv. it is here I spent the days of my yonih, and all the associations of boyhood and early manhood are connectd with the scenes which surround me. .; have always disclaimed a large share of the ; merit of the achievements upon the battle field, you have so kmaiy noiicea, asjusuy -uue to uic gal . 1 J 1 t J . .1. lant soldiers volunteers ana regulars, wnom i nau . the good fortune to command. - . In regard to the new kind of duties to which L have been assigned, it may . be' allowed me who - have spent more thanh 40 years in a. different kind of service, to distrust my ability to "meet the ex- peclations OI Uie puouc. ilia tuieiiirut irecuiau . C .1 TT :.n Iaci.a it (ton 1iA iHfriiii!ilraf tnn f f yjl b41 ."' " V .w - " - -- . . public affairs . brought hearer, the pmiciples" and pi-actiues of our first Presidents. It will - be my aim to do their will. J " : 7 ' :. . Whatever errors I shall commitj hi "tscliaf ge of this high trust, will I hope be attributed to the head and not to the heart ; for I rely upon the par tiality which conferred the highest station upon earth, to construe with a spirit of forbearance, my acts while filling an office for which I had no as piration. I declined being . a candidate until a sense of duty constrained me to yield to the wishes of the people. May I riot hope that those: who conferred this great honor upon me,' v. Knout solici- tation on my pari, win ne sausnca ii i,snau servo them with an eye simply to the best interests "of ; the whole country. If 1 shall be able in any de gree to equal the expectations of my countryman, it will amply compensate for any labor I may un . d-srg . . -. ... . . '.. .: - ... . " 'I I again thank you, for this generous and enthu- . siastic demonstration, and in conclusion, allow, me to offer the following sentiment: The people iif Kentucky Uusurpassed by any' other in intelli gence, virtue and valor. 4.1.'- The General afterwards told an amusing story and took a lively part in the banquet- , f .-- Gen. Shields was present, and offered a compli mentary toast . . . ' , . . ; ,.'. . , . '. s . : PaOVlSlONAl. GoVKRNMEST IK C A LIFORVH. .. Copies of the " Star and Californian," printed at San ' Francisco, December 23, have just been re ceived. '" Among other articles, it contains the pro ceedings of "The rising of the peopleprogress of theeause and meeting in San Jose," ' for or ganizing a provisional government; also, the ac count of an "enthusiastic provisional government meeting," held at San Francisco on the 21st De cember. In reference to this the : Washington. Union' says: "And yet Congress, still slumbers over the insecure condition, the ' anarical position,' the representations received of the impunity with which outrage and violence are committed in Cali fornia!" ' ' - :- -: - I;. ' '": Tt Wb S!wva Pr Pirra A n lnyanimia '' tentlemen of Baltimore publishes a communication emonstrating' the great -conveniences that would result from the issuinc of silver seven cents each. This project is very ingenious for any one who may make a calculation, and find that such coin would entirely supercede the use of coppers, provided the payer and payee have each a snthcient quantity of small change. Thus to pay one cent, give three seven cent pieces and receive two ten cent pieces in exchange ; to pay two cents give a seven and a five cent piece and receive one dime in change, to pay three cents give ten and receive seven change. -&e.,&c. "Mr. jSpeaker, this is a mighty fine house. Them pillows cost a heap of money, I reckon. Mr Speaker! all the oxen in Mississippi couldnt haul this house off !" - " And being thus happily delivered, the- member from M took his seat amid the roars of tha House. Tradition says the subject incontinentlv dropped, and no other "bill for the removal of the Capitol" was ever reported. Lifeis shortened by indulgence in an?er. fll-wiTI. envy, grief, sorrow, and excesive care. The vital powers are wasted by excessive bodily exerrko in some cases, and want of a due portion in others. The first Postmaster General in the U. R(afo was Dr. Franklin. His salary was $1000.