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Trades and Labor Assembly Regular meeting of the Denver Trades and Labor Assembly, Oct. 24th. Meeting called to order by President Alger, with a large attendance being present. The attendance seems to be * much better of late. Credentials were received from the Cement Workers and Paperhangers and the delegates were obligated. Mr. Edwin Brown, better known as the millionaire tramp, was introduced and mude a very interesting talk about Den ver securing a municipal lodging house .and asked our cooperation, after which favorable action was taken by the As sembly. Judge C. A. Irwin was introduced and In one of the finest speeches ever heard in the Assembly he held his audience spell bound for three-quarters of an hour, talking upon the subject of the employ er's liability law. showing where our laws are first made good for the protec tion of the workers, but before our Jaw makers get through legislating they have so amended the law that it serves to only one class of people for good, and that is the employers. He also urg* d the workingmen and women to support The United Labor Bulletin, stating that with out u mouthpiece of their own. they need never expect to secure the necessary Jaws for their protection. After the two speakers were through talking, a rising vote was taken, thank ing them for their fine addresses and ex tending them an invitation to be with us any time they could. Upon motion the Assembly decided not to send a delegate to the A. F. of L. con vention. which convenes in Toronto, V Nov. Bth. The organizing commit tee ana the ar Miration board made a report upon the Hillers’ and Musicians* grievances, which was received as progressive. Water committee mude a report stat ing that they were meeting with great success in collecting figures and facts about the water company. The Assembly decided to give some kind of an entertainment and appointed the following committee: Bessie Miller of the Tobacco Strippers' Union. Sadie McManus of the Garment Workers, Fntx Henning of the Bartenders'. Geo. Blaler of the Typographical Union and I*. J. Devault of the Musicians' Union. Resolutions were indorsed condemning the Spanish government In their execu tion of Mr. Ferrer. Walters' Union reported that they would give a grand ball on November €th at East Turner hall, and that they are not sparing any expense to make this their finest one they have ever held. The Cooks reported that their Interna tionai board had reconsidered the action of the last convention when an assess- WOMAN'S AUXILIARY TO GIVE A DANCE. ♦ Woman’s Auxiliary to the Typograph ical Union are having good meetings and taking In new members every meeting They have started a great campaign foi the label. *’ They will give their annual ball on No vember 10th, in the New Duncan hall, when a fine time Is guaranteed all who I attend. I♦♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ NUMBER MUST APPEAR WITH THE LABEL. ♦ In behalf of the Denver Allied Print ing Trades Council. I desire to call tho attention of every label office, and also the different chairmen, to a unnnlmouH decision of tho Joint Conference Board, formulated for the guidance and instruc tion of local councils, viz.: "Decision no. 7.—The Allied Printing Trades label shall not be plnced on work subcontracted by label offices from non label offices." This decision was caused by a practice of label offices in taking work from un fair printing establishments that solicit label work and farm out jobs (some times) in part or In whole to a label of fice, if it is not thought advisable to take Job in their own office, ft"' Besides, it is an ndvantago t.r an un fair offleo to show receipts for work * done in label offices, and claim that all their label work is thus farmed out. * when tho officers of this council are con vinced the label is often Illegally dupli t' cated by theso unfair offices that are ♦oo slippery to bo caught, and are pro tected In their criminal practices by this l sort of cooperation from label offices. Isabel holders who do this blindly and stupidly injure themselves ns well as the Council, for a little common-sense roflec UNITED Labor Bulletin Boost the Label VOL. IV. ment of one dollar was levied against all unions that did not have delegates to the convention. A communication was received from the strikers of Sweden asking for aid and upon motion a liberal amount was ordered sent to them. A communication was received from the secretary of the A. F. of L. asking our secretary to forward to that office the hours of labor per day. the hours per week, the amount paid per hour, per day and week. Secretary J. F. Bedford requested that each secretary in the city send the same to him as soon as possible as he wants , to send the answers into the A. F. of L. office before the Toronto convention, if possible. Address all communications to J. F. Bedford. Secretary. F. O. Box 1372. The following resolution is being sent . out to the various locals by Secretary . Bedford for referendum vote: ’To Affiliated Organizations: » "At the meeting of the Denver Trades I and Labor Assembly, October 10th. 1909. • an amendment to Article IV, Section I, t of the Constitution was unanimously ■ adopted and the same is submitted to I your organization for approval or rejec • tlon. To strike out the following para graph: ‘Also one delegate shall be i elected to represent this Assembly in the ■ Chamber of Commerce.' " 1 would respectfully call your attention \ to Article VI. Section IV. Constitution. which require# that this change be sub- L milted to affiliated organizations for their • approval and that the vote upon the , same must be returned within 30 days and simply state the number of votes for - and the number against the proposition j (Vote Yes or No.) > Communication from Editor Warren of "Appeal To Reason.' thanking the As • sembly for their resolution sent some t time ago in his behalf. The letter Is as i follows: "Dear Brothers: Permit us to thank • you in behalf of Editor Warren of this l paper and through you the members of r your unions for your resolutions of sym • pathy and support at a time when such i an expression from the organized work r era was worth more than gold. Mr. War . ren appreciates fully, we assure you. the spirit of Justice and fair play which ; prompted your members to put them • selves on record in such manly* terms against the tyranny of the federal court • in sentencing him to Jail for no other • cause than that he fearlessly defended r the rights of the workers and protested • against having their leaders kidnapped and threatened with death because of - the sturdy loyalty to organized labor, i Yours truly. •‘APPEAL TO REASON." tlon will prove that a refusal to subcon tract label work from a non-label shop will bring the label customer directly to the label office, the whole profit of the Job and In all probability all other work of such patron will continue in this fair shop. Another evil acompnnying these meth ods is the fact that many non-label shops thus accommodated do not have to or ganize their office to hold their patrons, but if this privilege was denied them they would immediately unionize their establishments. This subject has been called to the at tention of the council quite frequently and in future will be rigidly enforced. The label number designated by the council for each office must appear with the label when the Imprint is omitted. JAMES A. CONKLE. Secretary-Treasurer. * * * + * ELECTRICAL WORKERS’ CONVEN TION. ♦ ‘ To State Federations. Central Bodies and the Labor Press. t Greeting:—The tenth convention of • the International Brotherhood of Elec ■ trlcal Workers convened in Chicago Sep > t ember 20th, 1909, and adjourned Oct. 2nd, 1909. This convention was the most ■ important in tho history of tho organiza : tion, and one of the most, representative l evor held by tho 1. B. K. W. At this convention legislation was en acted of great benefit to tho Electrical ■ Workers of the United States and Con • ada nnd of benefit to tho general labor • movement. i Tho report of the auditors of tho I. B. E. W. and tho Certified Audit company of Springfield, Ills., shows tho financial affnlrs of the Brotherhood to be in ex cellent condition, though hampered by DENVER, COLORADO OCTOBER S&, 1909 injunctions secured against the I. B. E. ! W. by the seceders, and tne books of j the Brotherhood balance to the cent. | This report was presented and read to! the convention by the auditors and unan imously adopted and concurred .in, as was the report of the grand president, F. J. McNulty, and grand secretary, 1 Peter W. Collins. Every insinuation and misrepresenta- ‘ tion made by the seceders against the 1 officers of the Brotherhood was brought 1 before the convention in detail and dis- 1 proved by the officers, and the conven- * tion emphasized the confidence of the I. B. E. W. in these officers by re-electing 1 them without opposition. Copies of the reports and proceedings : of the convention will be forwarded to ; the state federations, central bodies and ; the labor press. At this convention provision was made giving the men misled by the secession movement, headed by J. J. Reid and oth ers, an opportunity to return to the fold of the I. B. E. W. without hardship be ing imposed upon them, they being al lowed to return upon payment of the: current month’s per capita tax. The fight which the I. B. K. W. has made against secession during the past 12 months has been made for the pres ervation of the ideals and progress of labor against the forces of disruption. In this fight the 1. B. E. \Y. has been loyal ly sustained by the American Federation ! of and affiliated organizations. As officers of the 1. B. E. W. we would, therefore, ask the continuance of that cooperation and assistance to the end that the progress of our Brotherhood may go on apace, so that all Electrical Work ers can be brought into the fold of the Brotherhood and under the banner of the American Federation of I>abor. Fraternally, PETER W. COLLINS, F. J. McNULTY. Grand Sec'y. Grand Pres. IRON WORKS' FOUR l EENTK ANNUAL CONVENTION ADJOURNS ♦ Legleitner Is Re-elected—Rochester, N. Y., Gets the Next Convention—All Old Officers Retained. The fourteenth annual convention of the International Association of Bridge & Structural Iron Workers, which just concluded its labors at Minneapolis. I Minn., after a two weeks' sesion was un-1 doubtedlj the most important and suc cessful gathering of bridgemen in the history of the organization. The convention was expected to out- j line the future policy of the association * as regards its protracted fight with the American Bridge Co., and right nobly did it arise to the occasion. The fight, which was not of its own seeking, but rather was precipitated by the Bridge Co., will be fought to the bitter end. and no matter how long it may take. There will be no surrender of principles held most sacred by every true bridgeman en listed in the cause, and. judged by the spirit shown by those in attendance at the convention, the cause of unionism has no truer exponents than the mem bers of the Bridgemen’s Union. Just one symptom of weakness developed during the session in the shape of a resolution introduced by a Brooklyn delegate, in effect that in specific instances a local union should be allowed to permit its members to work for the American Bridge Co. simply for the purpose of do ing missionary work with the end in view of winning the nonunionists over to the union. What the delegates thought of this proposition is made perfectly clear by the overwhelming vote against its adoption. Many constitutional amendments were adopted and will be submitted to the membership for ratification, and a large volume of other important matters were referred to the incoming executive board for consideration. The report of Secre tary-Treasurer McNamara showed that, despite the heavy drain on the treasury of the organization resulting from the long struggles against nonunion condi tions which the American Bridge Co. en deavors to introduce, this department is stronger now than at the inception of the struggle. The membership is just as large and generally employed under union conditions, in many instances, un der sub-contractors for the American Bridge Co. The following officers were chosen for the ensuing term: President, Frank Hyan of Chicago; first vice-president, E. A. Clancy of San Francisco: second vice president, J. T. Butler of Niagara Falls; executive board. Charles Beum of Minne apolis, H. W. Legleitner of Pittsburg. H. S. Hockin of Detroit and M. J. Young of Louisville. J. J. McNamara of Indianapolis was re-elected secrotary-troasurer and editor of tho Brtdgemnn’s Magazine. Rochester. N. Y., was the unanimous of the delegates for the next con vention. THE JAPANESE QUESTION. By C. D. Shields Before Los Angeles Labor Council. The subject that ha* >een assigned to me for this evening’s is that of local Japanese conditions, as they now exist within our great s'.ate of California. I know of no greater subject that is be fore the people of our state, or in fact the Pacific coast today than the Japan ese question. Going back no furth* r than 1893 and following the immigration of Japanese into our country up to the present the figures from the repor of the commis sioner of immigration of the United States are very strikin during the year. In 1893 there came 1 80; 1894. 1.931; 1895, 1,150; 1896, 1.110 IJ>97. 1,526: 1898, 2,230; 1899. 2,844; 190' 12,635; 1901, 5,- 269; 1902. 14,270; 1903 19,968; 1904. 14,- 264; 1905, 10,331; 190< 13,835; 1907. 30,- 226; 1908 16,000. Remarkable as are t figures bearing upon the immigration (Of Japanese to our country, I do not thiui that they repre sent the true increase as thousands of Japanese have doubtless come to our country of whose entrance no record has been made. They have come from Can ada and Mexico. It pas been estimated that the number who have entered in this manner for man> years equals the I number who were admitted through the custom house. Upon this question the commissioner general of immigration of the United States says in his report for the fiscal year ending June 30. 1907: . Japanese laborers in large numbers are and have been for months flocking to . both Canada and Mexico. That in the vast majority of cases their intention t usually formed, it is be lieved before embarkir-L for the voyage over) is to enter the United States, the bureau is convinced. In other words, these laborers merely use foreign con tiguous territory as a place of temporary I sojourn wJhile portefe/ng plans for pro- I ceeding to points in this country. Re .! j>orts received from immigration officials located in Canada and along the Mexi j can border show beyond question that i such is the case, while California leads f the list in the great* st number of these I I Oriental subjects. The relative proportion of this Orien • tal population when .compared with the • population of our own state, is compara ■ lively small, yet in spite of this, resent ment is felt towards 'hem very generally by certain sections of this state, that • have any considerable numbers of these i Asiatic people. This resentment is deep f rooted and is not the passing sentiment ' of a restless day. The Japanese coming . here, look upon this country a> a place t which will furnish men w*ith immediate ■ work at good wages, and probably with I some remote, or uncertain idea of mak ’ ing this their home The immigrant from l the Orient has livet 1 in a conutry where ■ he has received something like 10 or 15 ‘ cents per day for K- labor. He is will : ing to work long i 'Urs. and is willing 1 to accept for his ibor less than the • minimum wages paid to the white la > borer. Certain hand aps that exist com : pel him to do this. He does not know 1 our language. He > not as skillful at 1 first as our own laborers. He is not sup- I plied with a large amount of money, and i is compelled to earn the means for his i subsistence. The r< ult is apparent. He establishes a scale of wages that ho can with difficulty raise ifter he does know ’ our language, and a:ter he has become proficient as a workman. He labors for a rate far lower than the wages paid to white laborers for doing the same work. The office of the Asiatic Exclusion League, from estimates based upon the wages received by thousands of laborers in the city of San Francisco, does not hesitate to say that the wages which the Japanese receive ar« from 40 to 50 per cent, lower than the wages received by the white laborers d> ing the same char acter of work. This is not the only way the presence of the Oriental labor r is detrimental to the interests of the "hlte workman. For years the American laborer has been struggling for a shorter workday. He has desired more time away from daily routine for himself or for his family. Ho has so far succeeded that the eight-hour day is becoming more and more univer sally recognized. Kom statistics care fully prepared by the Asiatic Exclusion league of San Fram isco covering thou sands of Japanese workmen, it is shown that the Japanese laborer works from 10 to 14 hours per dnv. where the white la borer works about nine hours. No one can successfully maintain that such com petition as this does not tend to lower the condition of the white laborer. The white laborer is not accustomed to liv ing as the Japanese laborer lives. He demands better food and better homes. A single room will furnish all there Is of home for from six to ten Japanese, and this poor accommodation would not be considered as worthy by the most mod est American workman. Living in such quarters, working longer hours for lower wages, the Japanese laborer is a menace to- the great body of American working men, and a great menace to the best in terest of our entire people. It has been said that the Japanese laborer does the < work that the American laborer will not 1 do. Yet such is not the case. The bright ' Japanese has entered the lists against ' workmen in almost every line of labor. There are tailors and there are printers, there are engineers and machinists; there are miners, clerks, shoemakers, barbers, jewelers, office boys, hotel and restaurant keepers, photograpbers, sec tion hands, carpenters, painters, brick layers,* paperhangers, plasterers, garden ers and farmers, and scores and scores of other workmen who are Japanese and they are in our own state of California competing with our own American labor er. and in some instances have succeed ed in driving the white laborer away j from certain sections of this land, espe cially in the fruit districts. So they are j finally coming to monopolize first one i line of business, then another, and buy- j ing land and homes and eventually pos-j sessing the country. Already in some! parts of this state this process is well i advanced. In several places the Japan- j ese not only do nearly all the work, but j they own or lease- a majority of the farms ! and homes. The Asiatic can live so cheaply that no white laborer can hope to compete with him in the cost of living, and most right thinking men agree that it is not best that the white laborer should be forced or expected to compete with him in this regard. Besides the Asiatic has j usually no family to support and no chil dren to educate. As a result of these conditions, whenever Asiatic laborers in vade any field they soon come to monop olize the farm and other common labor, and so the white man is driven out en tirely. This is the case in the fruit or chards of Vacaville, largely in the raisin vineyards of Fresno, and wholly so in the berry fields and apple orchards of Santa Cruz county and also the seed farms of Santa Clara county. So disas trous to the white laborer of California has this Asiatic competition become, that just in the past year soup houses were opened in San Francisco. Oakland. Los i Angeles and other cities of California, j to feed the unemployed white laborer. On the other hand, it is claimed by i some employers of labor that Oriental labor is absolutely necessary to the de velopment. even to the existence of their industries on the Pacific coast, and that only with this labor can they resist the unreasonable demands of the labor unions None of this is true. Farm and common labor has never been excessive ly high on the Pacific coast, and as yet the Japanese laborer here has not en tered the mechanical trades to any great extent. It is in these occupations that the higher wages are paid, but that says nothing for the future. If it were true that our Pacific coast industries cannot be developed without Oriental labor. I think it were better that they never be developed at all. than that our white la borers should be degraded or driven out by contact with these Orientals. It is the stock argument of the selfish who wish to add to their profits by bringing in cheap labor that unless they can get it they cannot keep on with their busi ness. The Americau slave buyer of the last century satisfied his conscience and an swered the objections ot the opponents of the traffic in human fiesh by the same kind of arguments. He loudly proclaim ed that without the slave trade he could not procure his house servants and cul tivate his cotton fields. \Ve still have the race problem which his selfishness imported, the ultimate so lution of which no man can see. And we shall import into the Pacific coast an other and a worse race problem than the South had to solve unless the result is prevented by wise and patriotic legis lation. But it is not true that Oriental labor is necessary for the development of the Pacific coast. Of course if the Oriental is allowed to go there freely, the white laborer, knowing that he cannot com pete with him. will not go there. It would be foolish to expect him to do so. But if you keep out the Oriental there is no possible reason why the white la borer should not go there and receive a better wage than paid the Orientals. It has been said that people of different color and widely separated racial ten dencies do not live side by side under the same flag in peace and harmony. The conditions of a few to whom wealth has been granted bears little re lation to the welfare of any nation. Our nation cannot be higher than the gen eral conditions of the masses of our peo ple. If the masses of our people are prosperous, our country Is prosperous. If (Continued on page 3.) DO IT NOW No. 12 EMPLOYER’S LIABILITY By C. A. Irwin. In the year 1890 a fireman on the Den ver & Rio Grande railroad was working on an engine which was attached to a passenger train. Ahead of the passenger train was a freight train which took the sidetrack to allow the passenger train to go by. The brakeman on the front end of the freight train had opened the lwitch. It was the duty of the rear brake man to close it, but he was asleep in the caboose, and the switch was left open. The red light which signified danger had been left at a station for repairs several days before, hence the approaching pas senger train received no signal to stop. The rules of the company provide: "Conductors will be held responsible for the proper adjustment of switches used by them and their trainmen except where switch tenders are stationed." The conductor on the freight train hav j ing been overworked was also nearly i asleep and forgot the open switch. The I passenger engine was derailed by the ! open switch, the locomotive demolished : and the fireman killed. The widow brought an action for dam ; ages against the railroad company in j the District court of Denver and recov ! ered a verdict. The case was appealed, j Finally, after six long, weary years, and after paying out large sums of money, which she could ill afford, for exorbitant docket fees and costs, the Supreme court of Colorado decided that the case should be reversed and dismissed because the sleeping brakeman and the half-sleeping j conductor were "fellow servants" with the deceased fireman. What a travesty on justice: The fel low servant law is a disgrace to the clv - ilization of the age. The railroad com , panv was a corporation and must, there fore, act through agents and employes. - It cannot act otherwise. It has no per i sonality. It has neither body nor soul, i If it operates its road at all it must be [ done through the agency of human em [ ployes. It was the employes in charge -of the freight train whose negligence l killed the plaintiff's husband. If they : did not represent the company, the train • they were running was being operated ; j without any responsible agent of the . j company in charge. Such a doctrine is I monstrous. Those employes were rendered unfit to 1 carefully discharge their duties because of the long continued service required of ■ them. That they should sometimes fall ; asleep was to be expected. The officers > of the company knew of these things; • the fireman did not. Without fault or I blame, he lost his life. Although entire ■ ly to blame the company lost nothing. : Another fireman was hired and the busi ness of the railroad went on as though ; nothing had happened. Human life is so cheap and property ; is so dear! In the business of operating « railroads, if a locomotive is destroyed, i the company must buy another. Loco [ motives are expensive, men car be had > for the asking. If a man is destroyed - they get another for nothing, and eon : sider it rank impertinence that they s should be asked to pay anything toward ) the support of the widow and orphan. What think you. became of the widow ; and children? Lawmakers and courts - pay little attention to the ultimate re sults in such cases. It seems to be taken ; for granted that they should be left to • take the downward course to poverty, i vice and degradation. ■ Society. through corporation-made - laws, takes the bread from out the 1 mouths of children and the clothes from ■ off their backs, and when one of the number driven to desperation by cold i and hunger, violates the law of the land that he and those he loves may live, the [ well-fed and well-clothed members of so ciety who have never felt the pinch ot' i cold and the gnawing of hunger, are hor rified that the children of the poor are so depraved. Let us shift the scene to the criminal courts a few years after the incidents above described. It is a cold winter day. A small boy has stolen a lump of coal from the railroad yards to build a fire in the miserable hovel where his in valid mother is slowly dying. The com pany spies arrest him and he is brought before the same court to which his mother had. years before, vainly appeal , ed for redress for the slaughter of her husband. To the usual question. “Are i you guilty or not guilty?” the boy an . swers in tremulous tones: "Yes. jedge, • l took It." He then bursts into tears and cries as if his little heart would i break, murmuring audibly, as so often . happens with grief-stricken children who • think and feel aloud, ‘‘But ma was so . cold." The bailiff pompously orders him . to keep quiet and listen to the court. He . tries to listen, but realizes little of what f Is going on. The Judge severely lectures him on the scriptural commandment “Thou shalt not steal," but he does not Incorporating the Denver Label League Bulletin IMOUIJJ rr.,n it: \ J S3 Owned anu published by the Denver Label League No. 1, in the interest of Organized Labor. hear. His mind is afar off The sen tence he does not unders and. The un feeling bailiff seizes him and brutally drags him back to jail to serve his sen tence. He is now a convict, with all of the consequences of that terrible experi ence. Henceforth he will be an outcast, with the finger of suspicion always pointed at him. So long as he shall live, he will be hunted down by the author!- . ties, like a wild beast, with little oppor tunity to live uprightly, little opportu [ nity for honest employment. Such is [ the lot of those who have been convicted . of a public offense. They may leave the jail behind, but not the record. Kind reader, what do you think of the - sequel? Who was the real criminal? I Was it the unfortunate child, or was it • those who placed him in the circum stances that made it necessary for him . to steal? Would not any one of us have • stolen a lump of coal or a loaf of bread ? under like circumstances? Put yourself » in the boy's place and answer the ques 1 tion to your own conscience. Was it not quite as culpable for the . railroad company to take from that little i family its means for support as for the . child of that blighted home to take a lump of coal from the corporation that 1 killed his father? The corporation killed the father because it was cheaper than i to protect him. The child was prompted t to take the joal by that impulse of filial i tenderness which is the purest and holi ? est impulse of the human heart If the ; boy should be punished, what should be j done with the railroad company? Is the life of a man and the welfare of his fam . ily worth as much as a lump of coal? . That depends. It depends whether the - man happens to be a laborer slaughtered at his post of duty by an employing cor i. poration and whether the coal happens •. to be taken from a railroad company by a friendless child. ? “Plate sin with gold And the strong lance of justice, hurt p less, breaks; s Arm it in rags, a pigmy's straw doth y pierce it.” i The few decisions related are fair ex 1 amples of the thousands that are occur ? ring every year. They are not exagger s ated, but, on the contrary, have been se lected almost at random from the re o ported cases. They have been cited to s illustrate our system of legislating for f property and not for men. Our lawmak 1 ers have assumed that the value of a s man depends upon his commercial rating ; instead of upon his character. We turn r out with brass brands if a Rockefeller >- comes to town, but if Jesus w’ere to re :. turn to earth prosperous citizens would i- refuse to be seen in His company, h Emerson said; “The true test of civ ilization is the kind of men the country y turns out.” The current notion is that g the true test of civilization is the size of l, the fortunes that can be turned out. The e real business of organized government j ought to be to make it as easy as possi d ble for men generally to enjoy life, lib i- erty and happiness, and as hard as pos y sible for the ill-disposed to destroy life, i liberty and happiness. Our lawmakers seem to have assumed that it was their v business to enable the prosperous few s to ride rough-shod over the less favored t- many. j The question of obtaining just laws j for the protection of laborers against in . juries in the service is closely linked with the larger question of free govern e ment. We boast that this is a govern e ment in which all men are free and a equal. No greater delusion ever pos ? sessed the minds of men. The working 1 class. In this country, have attained a 1 certain bastard freedom. They are In i' dividually free. and. within limits, polit - ically free. They are not free socially f ror industrially. The question of a Jus’ - employer's liability is but one phase of 3 t'ie greater question of placing iudustr' turdens on the shoulders of those Who 1 are justly entitled to bear them, and of i distributing the rewards of labor equit r ably among those who do the work. ♦ + ♦ ♦ ♦ i WHAT A UNION CAN DO. ♦ L Robert Glocking. president Of the ? Brotherhood of Bookbinders, sayn “It - is now seventeen years since the Inter r national Brotherhood of Bookbinders ? started business. What have we accotn • pllshed during those seventeen years? , We have advanced the price of our labor • from # 11 to $17.50 for males and from $4 l to $7 for females per week. We have re l duced our hours of toll from sixty to > forty-eight per week. To summarize; > We have advanced the wages of our l craft, male. $260 per year; female, $159 5 per year, a reduction in hours of one t fifth, or 312 per year, equal in value to a » further Increase in wages of one-flftb, or t a total advantage of $312 for male and t $187 for female "