OCR Interpretation


United labor bulletin. (Denver, Colo.) 19??-1915, November 05, 1909, Image 1

Image and text provided by History Colorado

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn91052295/1909-11-05/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for

Justice as We View It.
The Appelate Court of the District of
Columbia In an opinion rendered by two
of the three judges, on the 2nd. Inst.,
confirmed the decision of the trial court
in sentencing to jail. Samuel Gompers.
President of the American Federation
of Dabor. John Mitchell, Vice-president,
and Frank Morrison. Secretary.
This decision Is a surprise to organ
ized labor. It confirms a direct attack
upon personal liberty and freedom of
speech. Judge Van Orsdell In rendering
the opinion said "Individual interest has
dwindled Into insignificance when com
pared to the higher principles involved
in this cause." That is the only part of
the majority opinion with which we con
cur. That sentence Is an excellent P rl “'
elide, by Which Courts may well be guid
ed. The rest of the opinion, however. In
dicates that the sentence quoted was in
troduced Into the opinion to justify the
final decision to the consciences of right
thinking and high minded men.
The Federal Constitution provides that
Congress shall make no law abridging
the freedom of speech or of the prcßS.
A century ago. John Marshall, who Is
conceded by all to have been the wisest
and greatest Judge who ever prc.ided
over a Court In the United States, de-
Glared, that without free speech and the
freedom of the press, personal liberty
could not long endure.
In the Buck Stove and Range Com
pany case. Judge Wright sentenced
Messrs Gompers. Mitchell and Morrison
to jail for contempt for violating an In
junction prohibiting the boycotting o
the Stove Company. The case against
all three defendants was in our opinion
a plain Invasion of the fundamental prln
riplos of personal liberty.
The ras.* agalnet Mitchell Illustrate*
lh e extremities to which some Courts
will go against organised labor. Judge
Wright said that Mitchell was In con
tempt because a. Vice-president of the
American Federation of Labor. be had
made no effort to prevent the publishing
of the Buck Stove t Range Company as
“unfair."
In other words, the decision of that
Court Is that a person may be In con
tempt because he does nothing just as
effectually as though he does a great
deal against the high prerogatives of cor
porn to capital
If thin dcrlalon la the law. the conntl
tutlon In this country has reached the
condition of the proverbial Irishman who
says. "You will be damned If you do and
you will he damned If you don't."
The evidence Introduced against Mitch
ell would indicate that he bad done his
level best to quietly conceal the profound
contempt which he felt for the decision
of the Court. Judge Wright concluded
that because he did nothing, he must
have a great secret contempt and there
fore ought to go to jail to preserve the
dignity of the Court.
Wo are reminded of the stern rather,
who seeing his young son silently look
ing Into the glowing fire upon ihe hearth
stone. commenced to beat the bo) un
mercifully. The boy Inquired what he
was being whipped for. The father n
formed him that he was whipping him
for swearing "But. father." said the
boy. "I did not sw ear. I did not say any
thing." The father whipped him all tho
harder, saying, "you thought damn, and
I am whipping you for that."
This was the principle. If principle It
may be called, which underlies the de
cision of Judgo Wright and the two Ap
pelate Judges who affirmed the decision
declaring that they did It to preserve the
dignity Of the Court. The wisest and
profmindost thinker which the English
parliament over produced, Bdmound
Burke, said under almllar circumstances,
"dignity which has to be preserved Is
never worth the preservation."
True dignity consists of Intellectual
worth and moral grandeur. It never
needs to be looked artcr. It docs not
need to bo preserved. The dignity of llio
Court proceedings In queation. waa im
personated In the three great and good
men who have been sentenced to Jnll be
cause they had tho courage and the can
dor to Htand for tho rights of men against
tho prerogatives of capital, and because
ns tho repreaentatl res of two million
honest, laboring men nnd women, they
refuse to be terriorlr.od by the threaten
ing language and tones of the little man
whom tho wheel of fortune dropped Into
the trial court as presiding Judge thereof
In tho District of Columbia.
It la worthy of note that Chief Justice
Shepard of the Appelnto Court of the
District of Columbia dissented from tho
opinion, and that he Justified Gompers In
tho declaration, "with nil duo rospect to
UNITED
Labor Bulletin
Boost the Label
VOL.. IV.
I the majority of the Court I cannot sur- 1
> render constitutionally granted rights
, because the Judge will issue an injunc
: tion invading and denying those rights.” j
, And Chief Justice Shepard declared in
i no uncertain tones, that the injunction
. order originally issued, was absolutely
null and void because it was directly op
• posed to the constitutional provision con
: cerning the freedom of speech and free- ‘
l dom of the press. In his dissenting opln-
; ion, he said: “I concede that the Court
» had jurisdiction of the subject matter of
- the controversy and of the parties, but
l I cannot agree that the decree was ren-
r dered in accordance with the power of
• the Court, a power limited by express
- provision of the constitution.” Those
- ringing words from the pen of Chief Jus
tice Shepard are some compensation to
• organized labor for the outrage of the
■ majority opinion.
L The dissenting opinion of Chief Justice
Shepard should be read before even' (
c Union in America. It is a declaration of
’ the fundamental principles of free gov-
eminent. It recognizes the right of la
! boring men to organize and to declare ‘
L their principles and to express their pref- (
• erences In even* honorable and lawful (
manner and by all lawful and honorable
means. t
It is in accordance with the oft repeat- (
ed declarations of President Taft In his (
recent tour. Over and over again in ex- t
• tracts from the several speeches that our 1
1 President has recently made, we have ,
read the advice to laboring men to organ- ,
ize for their own material, social and ,
1 moral improvement. He has repeatedly ,
1 declared that organization is necessary
for the preservation of their rights and
the improvement of their condition.
It will be u happy day for organized
| labor and for the people generally, when ]
the different courts of this country shall
be presided over by men as broad-mind- i
j ed and high spirited, and as intelligent «
and Independent as Chief Justice Shep- ;
• ard and President Taft have expressed <
themselves in their recent utterances. It :
|ntay be that they have not always recog- i
nixed, to its fullest extent, the rights of .
man. but it is a matter for congratulation i
' that they have been willing to live and
learn and try to get right.
Organized labor should not let the de- i
cislon of November second quietly die
| out of public memory. Public meetings :
[ should be called for the purpose of ex- I
, pressing not only sympathy for the prin- «
clples which have condemned the leaders i
of the Am«»ican Federation to imprison- I
mont and humiliation for their noble self i
1 sacrifice, but such meetings should be 1
1 clear in their expression of indignation :
1 at the Inhumanity and injustice of the *
decision which makes martyrs of such
heroic men. It was said of old “the blood
of the martyrs is - seed of the church. *
' This Is largely true. The humiliation
and punishment. If It must finally come.
• of those noble men who have offered ]
themselves sacrifices upon the altar of '
human rights, will yet bear fruit In i
' arousing indlgnntlon which, by and by. 1
! will result In making this country a real i
home of the free. J
1 I>et this decision be a warning and a <
' lesson to laboring men generally, that if
they would preserve their rights they
! must organize, and they must support or
[ gjinlxed labor in every Just endeavor to ]
preserve personal liberty, freedom of i
speech and the freedom of the press.
In union there Is always strength. If l
■ we pull together we cannot fail to win ]
the battle now being waged the world i
over for struggling humanity, in the fight t
for the supremacy of men over capital. \
annual Reception and Ball
■■ OIVEN BY—
THE DENVER TRADES AND LABOR ASSEMBLY
THE EVENT OF THE SEASON
FRIDAY EVENING, NOV. 10,’09
Cadwell Hall
TICKF.TS
Gents 50 Cents - - - Ladies 25 Cents
DENVER, COLORADO, NOVEMBER 5, 1909
LOCALS
BAKER'S UNION. <
* I
The Bakers’ union is on the increase, |
they having several more shops on the <
way of adopting the label. They have j
increased their dues in order to have i
more money to carry on a label agita- ]
tion. They, like other progressive
unions, have found out that low duet
are a menace to the success of organ
ized labor, as they stated on the floor
that they only wished their members j ;
were making large enough wages to i
double their dues.
Their business agent states that wit I j
a continual demand by the union people,
that the time is not far distant when all
the bakeries will be forced to adopt
their label or And no market for their
goods.
They will give a grand ball November
6th at West Turner hall, and a good
time is looked for.
At the last meeting 17 new uiemoers
j were initiated.
+ ♦ 4 4 *
BUILDING TRADES.
4
Now that the Building Trades Coun
cil’s convention is over we hope that all
the various laws they passed will be
abided by. We can see no reason why
the working men can not get together
and work for the betterment of all. If we
ever expect to have our efforts bear;
fruit we must share in each other’s bur
deus. When we are all working to ad-!
vance our wages, secure better sanitary ;
conditions, better laws and shorter work
days. Then we can not afford to waste
our time and money fighting one an-1
other. Of course we realize that often
times some very aggravating things pre
sent themselves, but with all that we
must never lose track of our duty to our
fellow man or woman, and let us solve
our difference in a business-like manner,
in our own family circle. Organized j
labor has been responsible for all our;
gains, and we have each one depended
upon the assistance of the other organ-*
izations for us to be able to secure what
we have. We have none of us secured
these things working individually, but
collectively. That’s what we found out 1
years ago. and with a full knowledge of
our past mistakes. Then why should vee
not profit by what we know? Our effort j
to advance for humanity’s sake has
caused much suffering, many trials and
tribulations and many reverses, but step
by step we have been climbing the lad
der until now we are the most power
ful people on earth, and with that full
knowledge It is a duty we owe to our
families, to society and to ourselves. We
have the most powerful combination on
earth to combat, that is the money or
ganized against us. and we the power of
production. So with the power we have,
if wc will but use it proper we can soon
have everything working harmoniously.
So let us get together nnd work in our
own circle. Instead of outside of iL
♦ ♦♦♦♦
RETAIL CLERKS.

Retail clerks held their regular meet
ing Monday night and had quite a
lengthy meeting. Their new contract
was up for consideration and consumed
much time. The clerks are going to put
forth greater efforts this time to organ
ize Denver thoroughly, so that you can
pot go into any store without a union
clerk waiting on you.
♦ + ♦♦♦
WAITERS’ UNION

Held their regular meeting Monday night
with a very large attendance.
The committee in charge of the ball
for Saturday night. November 6. at
Bast Turner hall, reports everything in
readiness for the largest ever given by
them. The souvenir program will sur
pass any before.
Waiters’ Union is increasing in mem
bership very rapidly took in eight new
members. They arc endeavoring to se
cure some of the larg r hotels and every
thing looks very fatorable. In the near
future there will be ne of the national
organizers here for i the purpose of stay
ing on the until everything in
the Waiters’, Bartenders' and Cooks'
line is thoroughly organized.
♦ 4 4 4 4
DIFFERENCES SETTLED.
4
The following has
! been received, which will prove of bene
| fit to the unions and also gratifying to
all, that the Dougle Shoe Co. will re
| sume work at Brocl on and once again
'use the union stamp
‘‘Boston. M.-. -s . Oct. 26. 3S*U9.
To Organized Labo~ Greeting:
"We beg to advis- you that the con
troversy between the Boot ana snoe
Workers' Union and the W. L. Douglas
Shoe Co., of Brockton. Mass., has been
settled to our mutual satisfaction. All
of the Douglas shoe factories are to
operate under the union stamp arbitra
tion contract. The factories of the
, Douglas Co. in Brockton, Mass., are to
| resume operations at once.
"We extend our thanks to organized
■ labor for past favors and we will en
deavor in the futur. to merit your ap
! proval of our course Fraternally yours.
“JOHN F. TOBIN,
“General President.
"C. L. MAINE,
"General Secret i ry-Treasurer.”
4 4 4 4 4
THE STRIKE IN SWEDEN.
4
Washington, D. C.. Oct. 26. 1909.
To All Organized Labor:
From time to time you have of course
read the newspaper reports of the great
| struggle in which th- wage workers of
i Sweden * have been and are now engag
ed. Sweden, like other civilized coun
tries, has passed through an industrial
| crisis which has for. ed a great number
i of workers out of • ruploymenL leaving
them, their wives _>nd children, desti-
J tute. Advantage has been taken of tnis
I situation by the employing classes to try
and force the workers to accept such
! conditions as woul I eventually lead to
1 the dismembennor.- of the organized
labor movement, Swedish conflict
could not be avoided. Eighty thousand
i workmen were locked out and the re
mainder threatenci with a lockout to j
force the workers into an impossible j
I»osition. The workers took the other
alternative and declared for and went
; out on strike.
These matters nave been officially
been brought to th* attention of the Ex
ecutive Council and a request made that
all labor, its friends and sympathizers,
should come to the financial assistance
of the Swedish workmen, who are suf
fering and strugp: lg.
Contributions should bo sent direct to
Herman Lindquis* “Lxmdssekretariat,’’
Stockholm. Sweden, or to the Swedish
Strike Relief Committee, with headquar
ters in Chicago The financial secre
tary of this committee is John Dawn.
40-11 North Sacrair nto avenue. Chicago.
in.
While thus placing particularly before
you the need of the striking wage work
ers of Sweden, the Executive Council
at the same time lesires also that you
should not be unmindful of the need of
the Iron. Steel and Tin Workers of our
own country, who have been for the past
months engaged in a groat struggle for
the maintenance of their rights and in
terests.
The above is submitted to you. and
through you to your organization, for
whatever assistane you may be able to
render.
By order of the Executive Council.
SAMUEL GOMPERS..
Attest: President A. F. of L. i
FRANK MORRISON.
Secretary A. F. of I*.
♦ ♦♦♦♦
TRADE UNION LEAGUE.

What is the M 'men’s Trade Union
league?
This question i asked of me daily, j
nnd. I think, my ( .ends, that I can an
swer it best by asking you some ques
tions in turn:
Do you know that the average wage
of the women workers of our country is
less than $270.00 a year? Do you know
that one-half of th- six million working
women In the Ur ed States are under
twenty-one years - f ago. and that the
conditions of work In many of the
trades into which women have entered
put such a strain upon the physical or
ganization that a brief service precludes
motherhood?
We have tried to tell you very simply
In the following pages what some of
those conditions are; and we believe
that the more you study these condition*
the more convinced you will become
that they are destructive, not only of all
physical strength, but also of all mental
and spiritual development — destructive
alike of all expression of ideals in the
life of the individual and in the nation.
What is to be done?
Many things; but it will be readily un
derstood that the most Important factor
in the industrial problem is the worker
herself, and that the most signiheant
fact about the woman worker is ner
youth.
We are forcing young girls of four
teen and sixteen years of age into the
industrial struggle, and are demanalng
of them the knowledge and wisdom ot
trained maturity. If in her need for
work whereby to earn her daily bread,
and in her ignorance of the cost, a girl
of fourteen underbids her fellow-worker,
how is she to know that in so doing she
is competing against her own home;
and that, in the years to come., as wife
and mother she must bear the heaviest
burden of the lesser wage? How is sne
to know that the division and sub-divis
ion of labor demands of her the joyless
task of tending a machine; not only for
to-day. but for to-morrow as well, and
for all the succeeding to-morrows? Can
you see her standing alone In the midst
of her fellow-workers, alone and afraid,
because she has discovered that even as
she became the underbidder, so all may
become "underbidders” or pace-makers?
Where can she learn that “two are bet
ter than one, for if they fall the one will
lift up his fellow?" Where can she find
this fellowship.
Where, but in the great school of the
Working People, the Trade Union,
which is open to all and within the reach
of all. In this school the members are
taught that “An injury to one is the con
cern of all,” and thus they enter into
fellowship with one another, for they
have found the way to work with each
other and not against each other. Know
- ledge of the trade in all its aspects,
judgment, decision, patience and fidelity
are here called into action, for by seek
ing to establish trade agreements with
. her fellow-workers and with her em
. plover, the duties and rights of each
must be discussed, considered, and voted
, upon; and except in those states or
. cities where the initiative and referen
t clum have been enacted into law I know
, of no training in democratic self-govern
t ment and citizenship that equals the
training received in the School of the
I Trade Union. As the personal needs
become increasingly protected by col
, lective action, thoughts are turned into
, new channels, energies are directed
.! towards other tasks, and with a wider
, I horizon educational and social issues
{ command attention. The child has
. j grown into the intelligent, capable,
clear-sighted leader and citizen, and un
, dor her direction social progress is writ
ten the laws of our country. This op
, port unity for learning, for development,
for character-building, has been given
to her in the Trade Union School —the
open sesame to fellowship and service.
* Do you begin to see the purpose of the
league? Can you understand our great
1 i desire to bring the young girl workers
' | into the Trade Union School? And oo
' you see. my friends, that it has happily
’ , fallen to our lot to have special charge
’ and supervision of its Kindergarten De
j partment?
' : The child does not grow into a woman
over night, and the kindergarten with
1 ; its music and merry-making belongs.
1 with daisies and buttercups, to the fes
f tival of life. Joy more certainly than
sorrow, calls the child into the larger
' life of social relationship where an
unite in a common purpose, to the end
that justice may be done to all. and a
permanent foundation be laid for the
1 expression of the finer spiritual issues
‘ in our lives, with power to work out
' every gift of nature, and to live out
every resource of body, mind and heart.
Have I answered your question, my
j friends; and will you find In the Wo
men's Trade Union League your oppor
| tunity for service?
MARGARET DRE1ER ROBINS.
, President National Women’s Trade
! Union League.
4 4 4 4 4
STREET RAILWAY MEN.

Bits of News About Boys of Controller
and Register.
The annual convention of the Amal- (
gamated Association of Street and
Electric Railway Employes at Toronto
recently was the largest convention in
the history of the association. It will
be good news for the men to hear that
the 1910 convention will be held at St
Joseph. Mo., on the first Monday in Sep- j
tember.
William D. Mahon was re-elected
president without opposition, and in
recognition of his splendid services
in the past his salary was increased
to $5,000 a year. The salaries of the
members of the executive board were
Increased from $6 to $7 a day. President
Mahon and Organizers Pratt and Com
mons were elected to represent the as
sociation at the Toronto convention of
the American Federation of Labor.
DO IT NOW
No. 13
GOMPERS RETURN
Our Hero receives one of the greatest recep
tions ever accorded one of our rank.
One of the most enthusiastic demon
strations ever given to a labor leader
was that accorded Samuel Gompers,
president of the American Federation of
Labor, on his return to his home city,
Washington, D. C., after his tour or Eu
rope studying the industrial conditions
existing on the other side of the pond.
The welcome that was accorded Mr.
Gompers will long be remembered by
the trade unionists participating in the
affair, as well as the entire country. A
monster parade, that was participated in
by fully 20.000 tollers, paraded the
principal streets of the Capital City
on Tuesday night. October 12, in ms
honor. President Gompers, accompanied
by other prominent officials, reviewed
the parade, and as the sturdy marchers
passed by the sight of so many men ex
pressing their confidence and loyalty to
him the grand old man’s eyes were dim
med with tears.
After the parade a reception was held
in his honor and speeches were made by
many prominent men in not only the
trade union field, but the business world
as well.
Mr. Gompers’ Speech.
When Mr. Gompers arose to make his
address he was tendered an ovation fit
for a king. In part, he said:
“Fellow-workingmen and women and
friends: I want you to believe me when
I say that in so far as this demonstra
tion is concerned or carried any per
sonal aspect, I can find no words to ade
quately express my feeling of apprecia
tion and gratitude to the men and women
who participated in this demonstration,
or who have sympathy with our cause.
Mv gratitude is given without stint or
reservation. But 1 believe this demon
stration is not for a man. but for the
principles for which we stand.
“I have seen much abroad, much of
it vitally interesting. I was charged with
making a vacation of it. However, no one
who knows me believes I had much fun
since I left Washington. I believed i
was intrusted with a very serious mis
sion.
“It is difficult for us to understand the
woeful misconception of the American
labor movement abroad, and it is not
due to any lack of desire to know, but
it is due to the willful misrepresentation
of our movement. I am glad to say this
one thing, however.
No matter what else may have been
accomplished or failed of accomplish
ment by my trip abroad, the men of
labor of Europe have a better under
standing of the living, vital, militant
movement of America.
"I have seen much of the art, much of
the history, legends and traditions of
Europe: seen her cultured classes and
seen her poverty and her misery. I did
not circumscribe my investigations by
any boundaries or limits. I sought the
light wherever it might be found.”
Speaking of tne force opposed to the
labor union movement, who have at
tempted to misrepresent him. he reiter
ated his previous statements that he
would not quake or quail in the presence
of any power, however mighty, when
convinced that justice and liberty are on
his side. He respects every man for the
contribution he makes for social pro
gress. he said. There is no man for
whom he would bend his knee in sub
mission; no man to whom he will look
up. unless that man possess the attrib
utes of honesty and justice, and there is
no man upon earth upon whom he would
look down.
“I found not one valuable contribu
tion of the material advance of workers
in any country that had not been pro
duced by the much-abused labor union
movement. But I cannot go into any im
portant discussion of my studies and ob
! servations for the convention of the Am
erican Federation of Labor is near, and
j it is to it that I must first make my re-
I port.
“The time is near at hand when the
: hopes and aspirations of humanity from
time immemorial for a common bond of
| brotherhood the world over will be real
| ized. An International Federation of
, I.abor is near at hand—not to oppress or
do injustice, but to establish justice for
the producers of wealth. At the mass
meeting of representative labor men
from the world over that I attended In
Paris, a solemn protest was eutered
against the armaments of the nations.
A leading British statesman is authority
ior the statement tnat it war is to ot t
abolished it will devolve upon the work
ingmen of the world to accomplish It.
“But we are at this time passing
through a critical period In our own
Incorporating the
Denver Label League
Bulletin
\JMSIH IBJniv. J??
Owned and published by
the Denver Label League
No. 1, in the interest of
Organized Labor.
country. I refer to the decision of the
court that the newspapers say is to be
expected to-morrow. I had been under
the impression that the decision would
be delivered last week. I have been told
that because of an affliction in the family
of one of the juages the court had taken
an adjournment for a week, and that
week was up to-day. A newspaper sug
gests that the decision will be rendered
to-morrow.
"All I can say with becoming dignity
and with regard to the gravity of the
situation, is that I have the greatest re
spect for the judiciary of our country.
I have confidence in their integrity, no
matter what the decision to-morrow may
be. I know that judges are men, and
human, and just as liable to err as any
other man on earth. I say this not only
of the three judges of the District Court
of Appeals, but of our judiciary gener
ally.
"But I have no hesitancy in saying
that it is my conviction that not only
did Justice W right err, but that he was
prejudiced against the men of labor.
“I don’t want to be a hero, or nearly
a hero, but with a full knowledge
of the responsibility. I will say
for myself and my fellow—I was
going to say convicts, but I won’t — that
the issue is either we have free speecn
and free press in this country or we
haven’t. The imposition of a lighter sen
tence won’t alter the case one joL The
imposing of a fine for one solitary cent
or imprisonment for one hour or one
i minute for an utterance of a man’s con
, science and principle and faith within
. him is a denial of free speech and free
: press.
Out of this attempt to seal the lips
* of labor will surely come good, and I am
confident of the ultimate triumph of the
’ people. We have progressed too far for
i any man to drive us back into slavery,
* and on the contrary we are well on the
i road of the cause of the brotherhood of
i man.”
President Gompers closed by empha
sizing the necessity of safeguarding free
. speech and a free press, as guaranteed
t by the constitution. He sa*d that after
; the fathers had completed the constitu
l tion they found that they had either
t omitted or overlooked that important
5 clause guaranteeing free soeech and a
free press and as a result the first
[ amendment to the constitution was to
cover this defect. In this connection he
j s; Id:
“We do not need any such guarantee
. to sing the praises of the president, the
king, or the czar. What we need to
have guaranteed is man's right to speak
1 the things that displease. The demands
of the people for reform have generally
1 been distasteful to those intrusted for
* the time being with the control of the
government.
“If we utter a statement that is libel
ous. try us for what we have said, but
we deny the right to attempt to enjoin
us in advance from expressing our
views."
4 4 4 4 4
WHAT GOMPERS SAW.

| In an article In the American Federa
tionist. President Gompers tells of con
ditions as he found them in Europe.
Conditions in Germany.
The rise of trade unionism in Ger
many during the last fifteen years to its
present commanding position among
social reform forces, has been a fact of
the very first importance to the wage
workers of the entire civilized world.
This movement of German Industrial
1 workingmen, almost In a mass, from
comparative economic incohealon and
dependence to a state of excellent organ
ization. with some of the best features
of both English and American trade
unionism. Is its own evidence that the
trade union was the one needed immedi
ate agency to carry out objects essentinl
to a positive advance in the well being
of the people.
At present the number of members In
the Centrmlverbande. notwithstanding a
loss of 75,000 In the crisis yenr of 1905.
is more than 2.000,000.
The “Christian unions.” those promot
ed in Germany by the oman Catholic
church, have undergone a considerable
development In the last decade. The
Hlrsch-Dunker unions have also had
some augmentation In their numerical
strength In 1902 they had 102,851 mem
bers; In 1907, 108.889.
In recent years the need of trade union
cooperation have frequently brought to
gether the three bodies, or local unions
belonging to the three, ao that to-day for
(Continued on page 4.)

xml | txt