Forty Races--100 Languages
The Russian empire has a population
of 130,000,000, embracing forty distinct
races, speaking more than 100 languages
The main divisions of the people may
he grouped as follows:
Slavonic—The people of Russia prop
er and the Poles. There are five terri
torial divisions among the Russian peo
ple (including the Cossacks) and two
grouped with the Poles, the latter Ser
vians and Bulgarians.
Lithuanians and Lettonians.
Wallacliians (of the Latin race).
Pour groups of Iranian peoples, name
ly, Armenians, Kurds, Persians and Os
Indo - European peoples, namely,
Creeks, gypsies. Swedes, Germans.
Caucasians, namely, Georgians, Les
ghi. Kistis and Tcherkess.
Finnish peoples, seventeen divisions.
Tartar peoples, nine divisions.
Mongols, ten divisions, including the
Ainus or “Hairy Kuriles,” and all other
people of Oriental blood in Siberia and
in the Pacific provinces.
Based on the last general census of the
empire, the present estimated numerical
strength of the principal divisions of
population is as follows:
Slavonic people, including the Poles,
Servians and Bulgarians, 90,000,000:
Tartars, including the TTsbegs and eight
other divisions, 10.000,000: Caucasian
races, 7,000,000; Turkestan and Trans-
Caspian people, 5,000,000: Jews, 4.500,-
000: Roumanians, including the Kara
kalpak and Serbs, 4.000,000: Lesghi,
Georgians and Ossentinians, 3,500,000;
Armenians and other Iranian races, 2.-
100,000: Germans, 1.300.000; Mongo
lians. including the Ainus, or “Hairy
Kuriles,” and all other people of Ori
ental blood. 1.000,000: Swedes, 300,000:
Gypsies. Persians, Kurds and Sarts,
270.000 : Samovedes, 30,000; all other
races, about 1.000,000.
Tn 1899. before Russia, had advanced
to occupy Mongolia and Manchuria, Vla
dimir Tlolstrom, of the St. Petersburg
Yiedomosti. wrote the following for the
New York Independent:
“The great czar of Moscow, Ivan the
Terrible, who nearly 150 years before
Peter the Great had sketched out for
that Rusian reformer his plan of action,
fought Sweden and Poland in the West,
and subdued the Tartar kingdoms of
Kazan and Astrakhan in the East. The
name of Russia rang throughout the
whole of Asia, and her chief princes and
the khan of Siberia voluntarily acknowl
edged the supremacy of Rusia, sending
ambassadors to Moscow and paying trib
ute' to the czar.
kingdom of Kazan, in 1552, the suprem
“After the conquest of the Tartar
THE JEWISH OUTLOOK
acy of Russia was acknowledged by the
numerous tribes of Bashkirs dwelling
eastward of the Volga and forming a
link with the tribes toward the Aral sea.
Russia’s possession of western Siberia
was assured to her in less than half a
century. In the same wonderful way
Russia’s progress across Siberia to the
very shores of the Pacific was accom
plished in little more than fifty years.
“About 1604 Russia entered into a
mutually binding agreement with a pow
erful Mongolian khan of southern Sibe
ria to keep open access to China. Soon
afterward, in 1619. the emperor of China
sent his first embassy to Russia. In 1628
tea was first introduced into Europe (in
this matter Russia was before England).
During the next twenty years all the re
gions to the north and northwest of Si
beria. all its northern river system and
the Arctic coast were explored.
“A Cossack expedition, 730 strong,
dispatched from Yakutsk, reached the
River Amur, and, following its course,
discovered, in 1643. the straits of Tar
tary and the Sea of Okhotsk. Now the
whole of Siberia was in Russia’s hands;
cver\ where, in the principal rivers, up
to the Arctic circle and beyond it, and
the natives acknowledged Russian su
premacy and paid tribute.
“An adventurous trader from Ya
kutsk conceived the idea of opening for
Russia the region about the Amur and
the Shilka rivers, and, gathering to
gether a following of 150 men, with two
cannons, accomplished in some two years
the task. This took place in 1654. The
strengthening of the southern boundary
of Siberia, the taking of Irkutsk, the
building of Nertchinsk and attempts at
establishing direct communication be
tween central Siberia and the Par East
byway of the Amur and the Shilka soon
“The work of subduing the Russian
Kirghiz in central Asia, the Kalmuck
and the Mongol tribes until the end of
the sixteenth century, and although the
once powerful kingdoms and empires of
the Asiatic continent were completely
broken up, yet constant strife with va
rious tribes of the steppes continued
through the seventeenth, eighteenth and
well on inlo the nineteenth century, the
Kazaks giving most trouble. These Ka
zaks arc of Turkic (not Osmanli) origin,
and are nearly related to the Cossacks,
on the one hand, and the Russian Kir
ghiz tribes on the ether.
“Their power was finally broken when
in the second half of the present century
the Russians subdued Turkestan, con
quered the khanate of Khiza, took Tash
kent and Samarkland and brought un
der their sway the khanates of Bokhara
and Kokan, thereby rounding out their
possessions in central Asia.
“The ultimate goal in the Far East
was attained, thanks to the far-sighted
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