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ROMANES LECTURE GIVEN
BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT Event Postponed by King’s Death Attracts a k Large Audience at Oxford—Lord Curzon Introduces the Distinguished American. Oxford, England. —Before an audi «n.c<> of distinguished men and stu dents of Oxford university, Theodore Roosevelt on June 7 delivered the Romanes lecture, his subject being “Biological Analogies in History." The lecture had been scheduled for delivery on May 18, but of course was post poned on account of King Edward’s demise. It was given in the Sheldon lan theater and Lord Curzon, as chan cellor of the university, presided and Introduced the lecturer. In seeking to penetrate the causes of the mysteries that surround not only mankind but all life, both in the present and the past, said Mr. Roose velt, we see strange analogies in the phenomena of life and death, of birth growth and change, between those physical groups of animal life which we designate as species, forms, races and the highly complex and composite entities which rise before our minds when we speak of nations and civi lizations. It Is this study, he assert ed, that has given science its present day prominence, and the historian of mankind must work in the scientific spirit and use the treasure-houses of science. To illustrate, the lecturer took sev eral instances of the development of new species and the extinction of spe cies in the history' of mammalian life, showing that in some cases the causes can be traced with considerable accu racy, and in other cases we cannot so much as hazard a guess as to why a given change occurred. Analogies in Human History. Continuing, Mr. Roosevelt said in part: Now. aa to all of these phenomena In the •volution of species, there are. If not homologies, at least certain analogies, in tho history of human societies. In the history of the rise to prominence, of the development and change, of the tem porary dominance, and death or trans formation. of the groups of varying kind which form races or nations. As In biology, so in human history, a new form muy result from the specializa tion of a long-existing and hitherto very •lowly-changing generalized or non specialized form: as. for Instance, when • barbaric race from a variety of causes suddenly develops a more complex culti vation and civilization. That is what oc curred. for instance, in western Europe during the centuries of the Teutonic and later the Scandinavian ethnic overflows from the north. All the modern countries of western Europe are descended from th i • rates created by these northern Invaders. When first created they could be called “new” or "young” states In the sense that part or all of the people composing them were descended from races that hitherto had not been civilized at all, and that therefore for the first time entered on the career of civilized communities. In the southern part of western Europe the new states thus formed consisted in bulk of the inhabitants already in the land tinder the Roman empire; and it was here that the new kingdoms first took shape. Through a reflex action their Influence then extended back into the cold forests from which the invaders had come, and Germany and Scandinavia witnessed the rise of communities with essentially the same civilization as their southern neighbors; though in those communities, unlike the southern communities, there was no infusion of new blood, and in each case the new civilized nation.which gradu ally developed was composed entirely of members of the same race which In the same region had for ages lived the life of a. slowly changing barbarism. The same was true of the Slavs and the Slavonlzed Finns of eastern Europe, when an infil tration of Scandinavian leaders from the north end infiltration of Byzantine culture from the south Joined to produce th« changes which have gradually, out of the little Slav communities of the forest and the steppe, formed the mighty Russian •mplre of today. “New” and “Young” Nations. Again, the new form may represent merely a splitting off from a long-estab lished, highly developed and specialized nation. In this case the nation is usually spoken of as a "young," and is correctly spoken of as a "new,” -atlon; but the term should always be used with a clear sense of the difference between wliat is described In such case, and what Is de scribed by the same term in speaking of • civilized nation Just developed from a barbarism. Carthage and Syracuse wero new cities compared with Tyre and Cor inth; but the Greek or Phoenician race was In every sense of the word as old In the new city as in the old city. So. nowadays, IVtctoria or Manitoba is a new community compared with England or Scotland; but the ancestral type of civilization and cul ture is as old In one case as In the other. I of course do not mean for a moment that great changes are not produced by the mere fact that the old civilized race la suddenly placed In surroundings where It has again to go through the work of taming the wilderness, a work finished many centuries before In the original borne of the race; I merely mean that the ancestral history is the same In each case. We can rightly use the phrase "a new people” in speaking of Canadians or Australians, Americans or Afrikanders. But we use it In an entirely different sense from that In which we use It when speaking of such communities as those founded by the northmen and their de scendants during that period of astonish ing growth which saw the descendants of the Norse sea-thieves conquer and trans form Normandy, Sicily, and the British Islands; we use It in an entirely different sense from that In which we use it when speaking of the new'states that grew up around Warsaw, Kief, Novgorod, and Moscow, as the wild savages of the steppes and tlie marshy forests struggled haltingly and stumbllngly upward to become builders of cities and to form •table governments. The kingdoms of Charlemagne and Alfred were "new." •ompgred with the empire on the Bos phorus; they were also in every way dif ferent; their lines of ancestral descent hud nothing *n common with those of the pbfyxlot realm which paid tribute to the Caesars of Byzantium; their social prob lems and aft,ertime history were totally different. This is not true of those "new" nations which spring direct from old na tions. Brazil, the Argentine, the United States, are ail "new" nations, compared with the nations of Europe; but with whatever changes In detail, their civiliza tion la nevertheless of the general Euro pean type, ns shown in Portugal, Spain, and England. The differences between these "new" American and these "old” European nations are not ns great as those which separate the "new" nations one from another and the "old” nations one from another. There are In each case very real differences between the new and the old nation—differences both for good and for evil; but In each case there is the same ancestral history to reckon with, the same type of civilization, with Its at tendant benefits and shortcomings; and, after the pioneer stages are passed, the problems to be solved, in spite of superfi cial differences, are in their essence the same; they are those that confront all civilized peoples, not those that confront peoples struggling from barbarkm Into civilization. So, when we speak of the "death" of a tribe, a nation or a civilization, the term may bo used for either one or two totally different processes: the analogy with what occurs in biological history being complete. Certain tribes of savages, the Tasmanians, for instance, and various lit tle clans of American Indians, have within the last century or two completely died out; nil of the Individuals have perished, leaving no descendants, and the blood lias disappeared. Certain other tribes of Indians have as tribes disappeared or are now disappearing; but their blood remains, being absorbed Into the veins of the white Intruders, or of the black men introduced by these white Intruders; so that in reality they are merely being transformed into something absolutely different from what they were. A like wide diversity In fact may be covered in the statement that a civiliza tion bus "died out.” Phenomena That Puzzle. In dealing, not with groups of human beings in simple and primitive relations, but with highly complex, highly special ized, civilized, or seml-civilized societies, there is need of great caution In drawing analogies with what lias occurred in the development of the animal world. Yet even in these cases it is curious to sec how some of the phenomena in the growth and disappearance of these com plex, artificial groups of human beings resemble what has happened in myriads of instances in the history of life on this planet. Why do great artificial empires, whose citizens nre knit by a bond of speech and culture much more than by a bond of blood. show periods of extraordinary growth, and again of sudden or lingering decay? In some cases we can answer readily enough: in other cases we can not ns yet even guess what the proper answer should be. If In any such case the centrifugal forces overcome the cen tripetal, the nation will of course fly to pieces, nnd the reason for its failure to become a dominant force is patent to every one. The minute that the spirit which finds Its healthy development in local self-government, and in the antidote to the dangers of an extreme centraliza tion. develops into mere particularism, into Inability to combine effectively for achievement of a common end. then it is hopeless to expect great results. Poland and certain republics of the western hemisphere are the standard examples of failure of this kind; and the United States would have ranked vr.ih them, and Its name would have become a byword of derision, if the forces of union had not triumphed in the civil war. So the growth of soft luxury after It has reached a certain point becomes a national danger patent to all. Again, it needs but little of the vision of a seer to foretell wh.at must happen in any community if the average woman ceases to become the mother or u family of healthy children, if the average man loses the will and tlie power to work up to old age and to fight whenever the need urises. If the homely, commonplace virtues die out. If strength of character vanishes In graceful self-indulgence. If the virile qualities atrophy, then the nation has lost what no material prosperity can offset. But there are plenty of other phenom ena wholly or partially inexplicable. It is easy to see why Rome trended downward when great slave-tilled farms spread over what had once been a countryside of peasant proprietors, when greed and lux ury and sensuality ate like acids Into the fiber of the upper classes, while the mass of the citizens grew to depend, not upon their own exertions, hut upon the state, for their pleasures and their very liveli hood. But this does not explain why the forward movement stopped at different times, so far as different matters were concerned; at one time as regards litera ture, at another time as regards architec ture, at another time as regards city building. We cannot even guess why the springs of one kind of energy dried up while there was yet no cessation of an other kind. Holland as an Example. Take another and smaller instance, that of Holland. For a period covering a little more than the seventeenth century, Holland, like some of the Italian city states at an earlier period, stood on the dangerous heights of greatness beside na tions so vastly her superior In territory and population as to make It Inevitable that sooner or later she must fall from tho glorious and perilous eminence to which she hud been raised by her own indomita ble soul. Her fall came; it could not have been Indefinitely postponed; but it came far quicker than It needed to come, because of shortcomings on her part to which both Great Britain and the United States would be wise to pay heed. Her government was singularly ineffective, the decentralization being such as often to permit the separatist, the particularism spirit of the provinces to rob the central authority of all efficiency. This was bad enough”. But the fatal weakness was that so common in rich, peace-loving societies, where men hate to think of war ns possi ble. and try to Justify their own reluctance to face it either by high-sounding moral platitudes or else by a philosophy of short-sighted materialism. The Dutch were very wealthy. They grew to be lieve that they could hire others to do their fighting for them on land; and on sea. where they did their own fighting, and fought very well, they refused in time of peace to make ready fleets so ef ficient as either to Insure tho Dutch against the peace being broken or else to give them the victory when war came. To be opulent and unarmed is to secure ease In the present at the almost certain cost of disaster in the future. It is therefore easy to s«*o why Holland lost when she did her position nmong the powers; but it Is far more difficult to ex plain why at the same time there should have come at least a partial loss of posi tion In the world of urt and letters. Some spark of divine fire burned itself out in tiie national soul. As the line of great statesmen, of great warriors, by land and sea. came to an end, so tho line of the great Dutch painters ended. The loss of pre-emlnencs iu tbs schools followed the loss of pre-eminence In camp and In council chamber. In the little republic of Holland, ns In the great empire of Rome, it was not death which came, but transformation. Both Holland and Italy teach us that races that fall may rise again. Danger of Race Bu!clde. There are questions which we of the great civilised nations are ever tempted to ask of the future. Is our time of growth drawing to an end? Are we as nations soon to come under the rule of that great law of death, which is Itself Ijut part of the great law o’f life? None can tell. Forces that we can see and other forces that are hidden or that can but dimly be appre hended are at work all around us, both for good and for evil. The growth In lux ury, In love of ease. In taste for vapid and frivolous excitement. Is both evident and unhealthy. The most ominous sign is the diminution In the birth-rate, In the rate of natural Increaae, now to a larger or lesser degree shared by most of the civilized nations of central and western Europe, of America and Australia; a dim inution so great that if it continues for the next century at the rate which has ob tained for the Inst 25 years, all the more highly civilized people will be stationary or else have begun to go backward in population, while many of them will have already gone very far backward. There Is much that should give us con cern for the future. But there Is much also which should give us hope. No man is more apt to be mistaken than the prophet of evil. I believe with all my heart that a great future remains for us; but whether It does or does not, our duty is not altered. However the bat tle may go. the soldier worthy of the name will with utmost vigor do his al loted task, and bear himself ns valiant ly in defeat as In victory. Come what will, we belong to peoples who have not yielded to the craven fear of being great. In the ages that have gone by, the great nations, the nations that have ex panded and that have played a mighty part in the world, have in the end grown old and weakened and vanished; but so have the nations whose only thought was to avoid all danger, all ef fort, who would risk nothing, and who therefore gained nothing. In the end the same fate may overwhelm all alike; but the memory of the one type perishes with it while tho other lopses Its mark deep on the history of all the future of man kind. A nation that seemingly dies may be born ngatn; nnd even though In the physical sense It die utterly. It may yet hand down a history of heroic achieve ment. and for all time to come may pro foundly influence the nations that arise in its place by the impress of what it has done. Best of all is it to do our part well, and at the same time to see our blood live young and vital In men and women fit to take up the task as we lay it down; for so shall our seed inherit the earth. But if this, which is best, is denied us, then at least it Is ours to remember that If we choose we can be torch-bearers, as our fathers were before us. The torch lias been handed on from nation to nation, from civilization to civilization through out nil recorded time, from the dim years before history dawned, down to the bla zing splendor of tbis teeming century of ours. It is dropped from the hand of the coward and tlie sluggard, of the man wrapped in luxury or love of ease, the man whose soul was eaten away by self indulgence; it has been kept alight only by those who were mighty of heart and cunning of hand. What they worked at. providing it was worth doing at all. was of no less matter than how they worked, whether in the realm of the mind or the realm of the body. If their work was good, if what they achieved was of sub stance, then high success was really theirs. In the first part of this lecture I drew certain analogies between what had oc curred to forms of animal life through the procession of the ages on this planet, and what has occurred and Is occurring to the great artificial civlllzat'ons which have gradually spread over the world's surface during the thousands of years that have elapsed since cities of temples and palaces first rose beside the Nile and the Euphrates, and the harbors of Mlnoan Crete bristled with the masts of the Aegean craft. But of course the parallel is true only in the roughest and most general way. Moreover, even between the civilizations of today nnd the civilizations of undent times there arc differences so profound that we must be cautious in drawing any conclusions for the present based on what lias hap pened in. the past. . While freely admit ting all of our follies and weaknesses of today, it is yet mere perversity to refuse to realize the incredible advance that has been made In ethical standards. I do not believe that there Is the slightest nec essary connection between any weaken ing of virile force and this advance In the moral standard, this growth of the sense of obligation to one’s neighbor and of reluctance to do that neighbor wrong. We need have scant patience with that silly cynicism which insists that kindli ness of character only accompanies weakness of character. On the contrary. Just as in private life many of the men of strongest character are the very men of loftiest and most exalted morality, so I believe that In national life as the ages go by we shall find that the permanent national types will more and more tend towards those in which, while the intel lect stands high, character stands higher; in. which rugged strength and courage, rugged capacity to resist wrongful ag gression by others, will go hand in hand with a lofty scorn of doing wrong to oth ers. This Is the type of Timoleon, of Hampden, of Washington and Lincoln. These were as good men, as disinterested and unselfish men, as over served a state; and they were also as strong men as ever founded or saved a state. Surely such examples prove that there Is noth ing Utopian in our effort to combine Justice and strength In the same nation. The really high civilizations must them selves supply the antidote to the self-in dulgence and love of ease which they tend to produce. Problems of Modern Nations. Every modern civilized nation has many and terrible problems to solve within Its own borders, problems that arise not merely from Juxtaposition of poverty and riches, but especially from the self-con sciousness of both poverty and riches. Each nation must deal with these mat ters In Its own fashion, and yet the spirit in which the problem Is approached must ever be fundamentally tho same. It must be a spirit of broad humanity; of brotherly kindness; of acceptance of re sponsibility. one for each and each for all; and at the same time a spirit as re mote as the poles from every form of ! weakness and sentimentality. As In war to pardon the coward Is to do cruel wrong to the brave man whose life his cowardice Jeopardizes, so In civil affairs it Is revolting to # every principle of Justice to give to the lazy, tho vicious, or 1 even the feeble and dull-witted, a reward i which is really the robbery of what braver, wiser, abler men have earned. The only effective way to help any man Is to help Idm to help himself; and the worst lesson to teach him is that he can be permanently helped at the expense of some one else. True liberty shows Itself to best advantage In protecting the rights of others, and especially of minorities. Privilege should not be tolerated because it Is to the advantage of a mliwrity, nor yet because It Is to the advantage of a majority. No doctrinaire theories of ! vested rights or freedom of contract can stand In the way of our cutting out abuses from the body politic. Just a lit | tie can we afford to follow the doctrin aires of an Impossible—and incidentally of a highly undesirable—social revolution which. In destroying Individual rights i (including property rights) and the fam ily, would destroy the two chief agents In the advance of mankind, and the two chief reasons why either the advance or the preservation of mankind is worth while. It is an evil and a dreadful thing to be callous to sorrow and suffering, and blind to our duty to do all things possible for the betterment of social conditions. But it is an unspeakably foolish tiling to strive for this betterment by means so destructive that they would leave no so cial conditions to better. In dealing with all these social problems, with the inti mate relations of the family, with wealth In private use and business use, with la bor. with poverty,-the one prime neces sity Is to remember that, though hard ness of heart is a great evil, It Is no greater an evil than softness of head. But In addition to these problems the most intimate and important of all which to a larger or less degree affect all the modern nations somewhat alike, we of the great nations that have expanded, that are now In complicated relations with one another and with alien races, have special problems and special duties of our own. You belong to a nation which pos sesses the greatest empire upon which the sun has ever shone. I belong to a nation which Is trying, on a scale hitherto unex ampled, to work-out the problems of gov ernment for. of, and by the people, while at the same time doing the International duty of a great power. But there are certain problems which both of us have to solve, and as to which our standards should be the same. The Englishman, the man of the British Isles, in his various homes across the seas, and the Ameri can, botli at home and abroad, are brought Into contact with utterly alien peoples, some with a civilization more an cient than our own, others still in. or having but recently arisen from, the bar barism which our people left behind ages ago. The problems that arise are of well nigh Inconceivable difficulty. They cannot be solved by the foolish sentimentality of stay-at-home people, with little patent recipes, and those cut-and-drled theories of the political nursery which have such limited applicability amid the crash of elemental forces. Neither can they be solved by the raw brutality of the men who. whether at home or on the rough frontier of civilization, adopt might as the only standard of right In dealing with other men, nnd treat alien races only as subjects for exploitation. No hard and fast rule can be drawn as applying to all alien races, because they differ from one another far more wide ly than some of them differ from us. But there are one or two rules which must not be forgotten. In the long run, there can be no justification for one race man aging or controlling another unless the management and control are exercised in the Interest and for the benefit of that other race. Tills is what our peoples have in the main done, and must con tinue in the future In even greater de gree to do. In India, Egypt, and tho Phil ippines alike. In the next place, as re gards every race, everywhere, at home or abroad, we cannot afford to deviate from the great rule of righteousness which bids us treat each man on his worth as a man. He must not he senti mentally favored because he belongs to a given race; he must not be given im munity in wrong-doing, or permitted to cumber the ground, or given other privi leges which would be denied to the vicious and unfit among themselves. On the other hand, where he acts In away which, would entitle him to respect and reward if he were of our own stock, he Is Just us much entitled to that respect and reward if lie comes of another stock, even though that other stock pro duces a much smaller proportion of men of ills typo than does our own. Tills has nothing to do with social intermingling, with what is called social equality. It lias to do merely with the question of do ing to eacli man and each woman that elementary Justice which will permit him or her to gain from life the .reward which should always accompany thrift, sobriety, self-control, respect for ths rights of others, and hard and Intelli gent work to a given end. To more than such Just treatment no man is entitled, and less thun such Just treatment no man should receive. Duty of Nation to Nation. The other type of duty is the interna tional duty, the duty owed by one na tion to another. I hold that the laws of morality which should govern Individu als in their dealings one with the other arc Just as binding concerning nations in their dealings one with the other. The application of the moral law must be different in the two cases, because in one case It has. and In the other it has not. the sanction of a civil law with force behind it. Tlie individual can depend for 'his rights upon the courts, which them selves derive their force from the police power of tiie state. The nation can de pend upon nothing of the kind; and therefore, as tilings are now*, it is the highest duty of the most advanced and freest peoples'to keep themselves in such a stale of readiness as to forbid to any barbarism or despotism the hope of ar resting the progress of tiie world by stri king down tiie nations that lead in that 'progress. It would be foolish indeed to pay heed to the unwise persons who de sire disarmament to be begun by the very peoples who, of all others, should not be left helpless before any possible foe. But we must reprobate quite as strongly both the leaders and the peoples who practise, or encourage or condone, aggression and iniquity by the strong at the expense of the weak. We should tol erate lawlessness and wickedness neither by the weak nor by the strong; and both weak and strong we should In return treat with scrupulous fairness. The for eign policy of a great and self-respecting country should be conducted on exactly the same plane of honor, of Insistence upon one's own rights and of respect for the rights of others, as when a brave and honorable man is dealing with his fel lows Permit me to support this state ment out of my own experience. For nearly eight years I was the head of a great nation and charged especially with the conduct of its foreign policy; and during those years I took no action with reference to any other people on the face of the earth that I would not have felt Justified In taking as an individual in dealing with other Individuals. I believe that we of the great civilized nations of today have a right to feel that long careers of achievement lie before our several countries. To each of us is vouchsafed the honorable privilege of do ing his part, however small, in that work. Let us strive hardily for success, even If by so doing we risk failure, spurning the poorer souls of small endeavor who know neither failure nor success. Let us hope that our own blood shall continue In the Innd. that our children nnd chil dren’s children to endless generations shall nrise to take our places and play & mighty and dominant part in the world. But whether this be denied or grunted by the years we shall not see. let at least tiie satisfaction he ours that we have carried onward the lighted torch in our own day and generation. If we do this, then, ns our eyes close, and we go out Into the darkness, and other hands grasp tiie torch, at least we can say that our part has been borne well and valiantly. Charity and Prudence. The contradictions of life are many. An observant man remarked recently that he was prowling about a certain city square, when he came upon a drinking fountain which bore two con flicting inscriptions. One, the original inscription on the fountain, was from the Bible: “And whosoever will, let him take the wa ter of life freely.” Above this hung a placard: "Please do not waste the water.” —Youth's Companion. AN ACHING BACK Means Weak Kidneys. Well kidneys filter the blood of uric acid and_other impurities. When the kidneys are sick, waste matter accu mulates and backache, headache and I urinary troubles re sult. To eliminate the aches and pains you must cure the kidneys. Doan’s Kidney Pills cure sick kidneys, and cure them perma nently. J. N. Markham, Montesano, Wash., says: “Kidney trou ' ble came on me grad- ually and before long I was suffering from dropsy. My body bloated and my flesh was soft and flabby. I tired easily and suffered severely from pain In my back. 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UICORPOKATSO) Products Libby’s Cooked Corned Beef There’s a marked distinction between Libby’f Cooked Corned Beef and even the best that’s sold in bulk. Evenly and mildly cured and scientifically cooked in Libby's Gnat White Kitchen, all the nat ural flavor of the fresh, prime beef is retained. It is pure, wholesome, delicious, and it is ready to serve at meal time. Saves work and worry in summer. j Other Libby" “ Healthful” Meal-Time-Hints, all ready to serve, are: Peerless Dried Beef H Vienna Sausage, Veal Loaf Evaporated Milk Baked Beans, Cbow Chow' Mixed Picklee “ Purity goes hand tn hand with the Libby Brand.” ) Insist on Libby’s at your grocer’s. Likl,, MtHun DAISY FLY KILLER K"";i,T. k ;niS: Nent.oUnu, urnnm.n. Lasts 111 Hisses. M» loofnirial.csunoe I f A _ _ 1 1 1 spill or p over, wIU j-Ma H oolsoiloriujure any. thing. UuarantrviltS • fi-etlrr. Of all deal. « or f' i r JOa. HAROLD 150 U.Kolb *»o. Imklya, Toe* Nothing Too Good for you. That’s why we want you to take CASCARETS for liver and bowels. It’s not advertising talk — but merit —the great, wonderful, lasting merit of CASCARETS that we want you to know by trial. Then you’ll have faith—and join the mil lions who keep well by CASCA RETS alone. CASCARETS ioc a box for a week's treatment, all druggists. Biggest seller iu the world. Million boxes a month. 1 p M II ■ Send postal for §■ U K V 1 Free Package I Ik kk of Paxtine. Better and morn economical than liquid antiseptics FOB ALL TOILET USES. Gives one a sweet breath; clean, white, germ-free teeth—antiaeptically clean mouth and throat —purifies the breath after smoking—dispels ell disagreeable perspiration and body odors—much ap preciated by dainty women. A quick remedy for sore eyes and catarrh. 9 A little Paxtine powder dis solved in a glass of hot water makes a delightful antiseptic so lution, possessing extraordinary cleansing, germicidal and (msL ing power, and absolutely Jinn ies*. Try a Sample, a large box at druggifts or by mail THE^AXTOP^OILCTOOMB^TOi^MAafc niVF||TO Watsea E.Coleman, Wasb> PATENTS lya^aj^sanaa W. N. U., DENVER, NO. 24-1910.