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WHEN GROWN ON LARGE SCALE
CELERY IS FAIRLY PROFITABLE U. Is Excellent Crop for Every Farmer to Grow Because It Is One of Most Delicious Vegetables Raised— Under Favorable Conditions Plants Grow Witb Great Rapidity. (By S. M. CLINTON.) Celery is a good market crop, but there are many other crops which pay better. In the famous Kalama eoo district In Michigan, where the crop la grown exclusively on hundreds of acres by experts, It Is stated that the average profit after rental of laid, growing and marketing expenses are all paid does not exceed SIOO per acre. Occasionally we hear of phe nomenal crops for a single year, but as a rule celery Is only moderately profitable. It Is a fine crop for every farmer to grow because It Is one of the most delicious vegetables produced. It Is not difficult to grow celery. It re quires exceedingly rich land, some commercial fertilizer and great care In cultivation and bleaching. In the Kalamazoo district, where very fine celery Is grown, the soli Is a very black, rich spongy sort of loam, but good celery Is grown on sandy land and on clay loam. The ground must, however, be put into thorough cultivation, and very heavily manured. In fact, It ought to bo well fertilized for at least two years before being planted to celery. The land must be well drained, be cause damp, soggy soli will not pro duce sound, firm celery. This crop should usually follow some early crop like peas. The seed should be sown In rows about four feet apart. After the ground has been thoroughly pre pared and manured It should be left Celery-Roots, Showing the Effects of T ransplanting. long enough for the weeds to get a start, when It should be thoroughly manured and then planted. The rows should be about two Inches wide and the seed should be scat tered over the entire width, then the soil should be firmed Into the soil by passing a roller over It. after which I the seed should be covered very light- : ly with a rake. To prepare the ground for celery, I row-s should he made about four feet 1 apart, and a light application of well j rotted stable manure and nitrate of potash placed In the furrows. The plants taken from the seed bed should be set about eight Inches apart In the row and great care should be observed In placing the roots In their natural position without crushing and doubling them up. The soil then must be draw r n firmly about the plants and all weeds must be kept down. Under good conditions celery plants grow very rapidly. Soon after the plants are well started, they should be given a light application of nitrate of soda and another about two weeks later; this Is all they will need until they have reached the proper growth. Celery Is bleached In several ways, but the best practice for the farm Is to place the plants In a trench about twelve inches deep and tw r elve Inches wide. The plants are taken up with a spading fork, the roots trimmed off square and all faulty stalks should be removed from the outside of the bunch. JERSEY HOLDS BUTTER RECORD A dairy of ten cows should be kept, or a Hock of sheep In place of cow's. By raising the heifer calves from the best milkers and selling off the old cows when they come fresh with their calveß in the spring, a profitable herd can be built up in a few years. If but ter and cream la to be sold buy a thor oughbred Jersey or Guernsey bull; If milk, an Ayrshire or Holstein. My preference Is for the Jerseys, says a Place the plants four In a row and pack a little damp soil around the roots. After the plants have been placed in the trench, place a twelve inch board on each side of the plants and draw the tops slightly together. A board placed on top will make a covering which will protect the plants until cold w< ather, when. If In a cold climate, litter and earth must be thrown over the trench to prevent them from freezing. The slightest touch with frost will ruin them. If celery Is to be marketed late in the winter It should be placed in a hotbed or In earth In the cellar, or In a stor age house. The big celery growers follow the same method except that after the plants are placed In the trench with the boards on either side, earth Is Bleaching by Drain Tiles. filled in on each side of the boards which are gradually withdrawn until the trench Is nearly filled, leaving the tops above the surface. Then a little straw is placed over the tops and held down by an occasional shovelful of earth and this is added to as the weather becomes colder. Some growers blanch their celery by placing over the plants a section of drain tile and covering up the top with a coarse cloth or litter. Blanching la really a very impor tant part of producing good celery: because, unless the plants are white, firm and tender, they are not only unpalatable for the farmer's family, but are of course unsalable. Ex cluding the light Induces a solid growth in the heart of the plant and this growth is very rapid. It also turns a plant from green to pure white. Persons contemplating grow ing celery for the market should not attempt to do so until they have vis ited one of the large commercial cel ery gardens and learned from observa tion exactly how the work of seeding, transplanting, cultivating and market ing is done. But the farmer who sim ply desires to grow enough celery for his family use, may if he follows in- Storage Trench for Celery. structions, grow good crops, always provided that his soil is very rich and well drained. The application of manure should be made every season, no matter how rich the soil Is, because celery will not grow well on impoverished soil. Renovate the Beds. If the strawberry plants are vigor ous, and the bed not too weedy, it may pay to renovate it for another year. Mow the plants close to the ground, rake off the foliage and burn it. Plow a furrow, cutting out all but one foot of the row, and then go through and take out the weeds and diseased plants in this row'. Fill the furrow' w’lth thoroughly rotted manure and cultivate the soil back. Keep up a thorough cultivation of the soil all the season. writer In an exchange. They consume less food and give a greater return for the food consumed, at least, that Is our experience after a trial of 20 years. Where milk and cream is sold the Jersey and Aryshire cross will give the best results. Build up a retail trade for your farm products—a gal lon of good milk retailed will bring In 32 cents; if wholesaled it will sell for 16 cents. MAKE FIELD DITCHES Commonly Done With Ordinary Plow and Crowder. Usually Made Two to Four Feet Wide on Top and Eight to Blxteen Inches Deep-Canvas Dam Used for Check. Field ditches are comomnly made In this country with the ordinary plow and some sort of crowder or with a double moldboard plow or lister. On land with considerable grade the ditches should run across the slope and all the soil thrown on the lower side. This can be done by putting additional wings on the plow to throw the soil farther out of the ditch and by running one side of the crowder flat against the upper side of the furrow and crowding all the earth In one direction. On nearly level land the excavated soli should be throw out on both sides, writes W. W. McLaughlin in the Denver Field and Farm. This la done by plowing out a dead furrow or by plowing a furrow with a double moldboard plow and clearing this out and smoothing the banks by hand with a shovel or by pushing the loose soil with a crowder. The crowder is a V-shaped drag made of two by twelve-inch planks, ten or tw’elve feet long, steel shod. Joined at one end and beveled to make a sharp cutting edge. The left sidt. Is hinged half way back so that the width of the crowder Is adjust able and the hitch Is made with a clevis in a hole half way down the nose. A lever or a pair of handles is attached to the main brace to guide the machine. Two to four furrows are plowed and then the crowder is used to push the soil out. Ditches are usually made two to four feet wide ol top and eight to sixteen inches deep. They must be partly above the natural surface check in order that the water may be run out over the surface. Dams are placed in the ditches to bold the water up and run it over the lower banks. Usually twice through a ditch with the crowder will put it in good condition and a man with a team can construct from one to one and one-half miles of such ditches in a day in sandy loam soil. Often dams for turning the water from field ditches are put in when the ditches are made. Sometimes they are made of earth scraped from the bottom of the ditch with a dammer and dumped into piles at the desired Intervals. Sometimes the earth is taken from the bottom of the ditch Immediately below’ the dams and when the dams are broken it is wash ed back Into the places from which it was taken. Manure is often used, being placed in piles in the ditch or alongside before irrigation begins. The canvas dam is, however, prob ably the most common form of check used for turning water out of field ditches. It is inexpensive, easily made, and convenient to handle. It consists simply of a rectangular piece of canvas long enough to reach from side to side with one edge fastened to a timber or pole, which is placed acioss the ditch. As a rule, there are no permanent structures in the field ditches In grain fields Irrigated by flooding. Gates are sometimes put In the supply ditches but often the water is held up in the supply ditch by tem porary dams and turned out through cuts in the lower bank. Water is run in one or more of the field laterals at a time, depending upon the size of the stream delivered to the irrigator. The usual stream run In a ditch is about one second-foot, or forty to fifty Inches. If water is delivered in a stream of two or three second-feet this stream 6hould be divided among as many laterals. If the land is in good condition, one man can look after two or three laterals and to make the best use of his time he should have as large a stream as he can handle. In flooding for grain or Irrigating a meadow water is turned Into one or more laterals and allowed to flow down to the first dam, where It Is held up and made to overflow the low er bank and flow over the field to the next lateral. When this section has received enough water the dam Is broken and the stream flows down to the next dam, and the operation is re peated until the whole field Is covered. With as large a stream as he can handle one man can water ten to twenty-five acres In a day of twenty four hours. How to Grow Rape. We have always regarded rape as an emergency crop. Our first experience with rape was in 1896, when we plowed up a clover meadow after hav ing taken off the first crop of hay. says a writer in an exchange. The rape was sown broadcast and was cov ered by harrowing We never raised finer rape than this crop. It made rank sheep pasture until December. We have had very good results from sowing in corn at last cultivation, after oats by disking and in oats at time of seeding. We utilize the crop for feeding breeding ewes and for lambs, also for hogs. Danish Ballhead. Danish Ballhead cabbage is very much the best keeper of all the late varieties. It is practically the only variety placed in the great store* age houses of New York and other states. The variety also keeps well when buried. In texture It is some what coarser than the flat cabbages. WORRIES OF THE IRRIGATOR Farmer Is Compelled to Arise at an Unearthly Hour to Ascertain If Water Is Running Right. These are the days when the farm er or his hired man, If not both, arise at three a. m. and with heavy eyelids and an Irrigating shovel saun ter across the thirsty fields to change the water, or see whether It has been changed by the neighbors while they slept. This Is the irrigation season. Unless you have ever stuck your feet Into a pair of gum boots, or gun-boats If you choose, shouldered a shovel and directed the course of water over at least an eighty-acre field you have not the remotest Idea what the Irri gation season means, writes Roy Ray In the Denver Field and Farm. The pleasure of beginning work be fore the tall end of the night arrives Is only equaled by the joys that ac company the day. The trip through the dew-laden wheat that flips Its col lection of the night Into his boots, where It slowly trickles down the shins and gives his feet the feeling that they are In cold storage, while shlverlngly wields the shovel and waits for the breakfast signal which seems ages deferred, is surpassed in sublimity only when later In the day the hot sunrays beat down so heavily that the thermometer registers 145. ’Tis then that he glances toward the snow-capped peaks and reflects upon the Irony of fate. He wishes his shovel were a fishing rod; that the ditches were mountain streams purling among the rocks, in the depths of which dart shadowy forms. Ah, Is It any wonder that he longs for the hills and their luring pleasures, to lose himself in their wilds and forget the cares of the val ley? Can you blame the hired man If he lies down under a shade tree and sub-lrrigates the while he Is dreaming away the drowsy part of the day? As the sun sinks slowly behind the rugged horizon and he bestirs himself to set the water for another night, he socks his shovel into the soft mud as his feet sink deeply Into the saturated soil. Having assured himself that he has struck bottom and will sink no fur ther he prepares himself for the mighty effort of lifting a ton of earth. In the midst of the muscular strain he then exerts, a mosquito with a fifty-horsepower drill begins opera tions on the only uncovered spot about him. Yes. this is the Irrigation season —and we know what It means, for we have been there three years In one season —and that Is enough for us. We confess that we do not blame the farmer man If he disgustedly sets the water and slinks off to bed. sore on himself and the world, but to re peat the same operation the next day and the next —until the Lord only knows when. LIVE STOCK NOTES. Keep the very good cows and the best calves. , The horn fly Is a new pest and was first noticed in this country about 1886. A few sheep will take care of them selves, but the 6heep industry Is a science. Kaffir corn fed to steers after soak ing for twelve hours Is less digestible than when fed dry. Millet makes an excellent fall feed for cows, and when cured, a good win ter forage for all stock. There must be a balancing of the ra tion. It Is as important with animal kind as It Is with humans. Sorghum makes a most excellent winter pasture for live stock, and it can be planted after it Is entirely too late to plant corn. Indigestion In young foals Is often caused by the youngsters eating litter, such as straw', horse manure, and. in fact, anything they can find. Never give drugs to a horse any more than you would to a baby unless he Is downright sick. Shutting off his feed will cure all minor 1111 s. Do not change the work horses from grain to grass too suddenly. In fact, horses on heavy w’ork every day should have very little grass. When the horses rub their tails it is sometimes a sign of worms. To effect a remedy feed equal parts of salt and wood ashes every day for a week. If English farmers can afford to use pure-bred draft horses that are worth SSOO for ordinary farming operations, why cannot our farmers afford them as well? A really good horse Is never of a bad color, but some colors, such as perfectly dappled grays, pure blacks and blue roans, command better prices than others. It Is highly Important that hogs have a mixed ration, and In feeding a balanced ration not only Is profit realized, but the hog’s health and hap piness are protected. Pure-bred draft horses are always In big demand at good prices. Many purebred stallion colts are sold at SI,OOO as three-year-olds, wh s pure bred mares bring from S3OO to SSOO. The Root System. In the study of the root system of wheat, made at the Langdon (N. D.) substation, it was found that the roots w’ent to a depth of four feet four Inches, while the grain was only 24 inches high. About 75 p%r cent, of th© roots were at a depth of over two feet. Ration for Hogs. A recommended ration for hogs Is Composed of two parts whole corn, one part shorts and one part ground corn, with about one-eighth of entlr© ration, by weight, of oil meal. To this add about half a pound of tankage dally for each hog. LAUGHTER PLEASING TO GOD Nowhere in Biblical Lore Can There Be Found Intimation of Any Other Idea. We misjudge and distort the nor mally human nature of the Saviour when we picture him going through life, as Dante did after he had writ ten his "Inferno,” with the shadows of perdition on his brow. We may gravely question when.it was that the cross began to darken our Lord’s pathway; there is no hint of such ft foreboding until we reach the mid dle of his ministry. From that on there are occasional tokens that he saw Calvary ahead of him, and was at times pressed down with a dread ful sense of the inevitable agony which awaited him at the end. But ftll this Is very far from affording any reasonable ground for the conclusion that he smiled sometimes, but never laughed. If God did not Intend us to laugh, on occasion, why did he endow us with the capacity to laugh, with a Bense of the humorous, with th© fac ulty to see and enjoy wit, fun and the absurd side of life; and, further more, why did he produce so many things and people to laugh at? — Zion’s Herald. LAWYER CURED OF ECZEMA "While attending school at Lebanon, Ohio, In 1882, I became afflicted with bolls, which lasted for about two fears, when the affliction assumed the form of an eczema on my face, the lower part of my face being inflamed most of the time. There would be water-blisters rise up and open, and vherever the water would touch it would burn, and cause another one to rise. After the blister would open, the place would scab over, and would burn and Itch so as to be almost un bearable at times. In this way the sores would spread from one place to another, back and forth over the whole of my upper lip and chin, and ftt times the whole lower part of my face would be a solid sore. This con dition continued for four or five years, without getting any better, and in fact got worse all the time, so much so that my wife became alarmed lest it prove fatal. "During all this time of bolls and eczema, I doctored with the best phy- Bicians of this part of the country, but to no avail. Finally I decided to “try Cutlcura Remedies, which I did, tak ing the Cutlcura Resolvent, applying the Cutlcura Ointment to the sores, fthd using the Cutlcura Soap for wash ing. In a very short time I began to notice improvement, and continued to use the Cutlcura Remedies until I was well again, and have not had a re currence of the trouble since, which Is over twenty years. I have recom mended Cutlcura Remedies to others ever since, and have great faith in them as remedies for skin diseases.” (Signed) A. C. Brandon, Attorney-at- Law, Greenville, 0.. Jan. 17. 1911- Although Cutlcura Soap and Oint ment are sold everywhere, a sample of each, with 32-page book, will be mailed free on application to “Cuti cura,” Dept. 3 K, Boston. Tuberculosis Among the Insane. Autopsies made in New York state hospitals for the insane and elsewhere show that tuberculosis is an active disease in about 20 per cent, of the case*, as compared with about half that percentage in the normal popula tion. LADIES CAN WEAR SHOES one nice smaller after using Allen's Foot-Base, thf Anllaeptlc powder to be shaken Into the shoes. II makes tight or new shoes feel easy. Gltss rest and comfort. Refute tubttUulet. For FRBB trial package, address Allen S. Olmsted, Le Boy, N. I Is not making others happy th© b«st happiness? There is joy in helping to renew the strength and courage of no ble minds. —Amiel. BEAUTIFUL POST CARDS FREE Send 3c stamp for five samples of my very choic est Gold Bmbossed Birthday, Flower and Motto Post Cards; beautiful oolors and loveliest designs. Art Post Card Club, 7U Jackson St., Topeka, Kansas After a girl has bumped up against a case of unrequited love she begins to dream of a career. Hommerles s4j n&J rifle / % Racy beauty of line, perfect balance. Its appearance often sells it IPthe new And —it’s as keen a rifle for its size as the most I hisMy developed military arm. Built by expert gunsmiths on the Remington 2 Me* —Solid Breech, Hammerless, Take-down. CARTRIDGES Shoot Pgfnlngton?UMC Lesmok .225. Their I accuracy enabled Arthur Hubalek to break - World’s Record in 100 consecutive shots, scoring Pff¥liltgtQiizUMC th* perfect shooting com- RflahftM Ahm-Uium Metallic Cartridge C*. 2M Broadway, Maw Tack Cky MISUNDERSTOOD HER. Mr*. Reeder (making a call)— And does your husband interest himself In books? Mrs. Neuriche —No. Hiram keeps three bookkeepers. Don’t Persecute Your Bowels Cut out cathartics and purgative*. They are brutal, harsh, unnecessary. CARTER’S LITTLE LIVER PILLS Purely vegetable. Act gently on the l> v I LKu eliminate bile, and MITTI F soothe the WJx/ro membrane of ■ I VtK bowel. I PILLS. Constipation, \\ Biliouaneaa, Sick Head* ache and Indication, as millions knew. SMALL PILL, SMALL DOSE. SMALL PRICE, Genuine must bear Signature WMemorek TF Shoe Polishes Finest In Quality. Largest In Variety) They meet every requirement for cleaning aul polishing shoes of all kinds and colors. GILT EDGE the only ladles shoe dressing that poslUvely contains OIL. Blacks and Polishes ladles* and children’s boots and shoes, shines without robbing, 25c. “French Gloss,” 10c. DANDY combination for cleaning and polishing all kinds of russet or tan shoes, 25c. “Star" size, 10a. QUICK. WHITK makes dirty canvas shoes clean and white. In liquid form so It can bs quickly and eaally applied. A sponge In every package, so always ready for use. Two sizes, 11 and 25 cents. If your dealer does not keep the kind you want, send us his address and the price In stamps a full size package. *1 WHITTEMORE BR08. St CO., 90*26 Albany St., Oambridgt. Mass. The Oldest and Largest Manufacturer* oj Shoe Polishes in the World. METALLIC# <£ifr?Tttsji Railroad Workers, Stone Workers. Miners, Fanners— ' All you men who do heavy work, the kind of work that’s hard on shoes — you can make your work shoes last twice ss long, by protecting the leather counters and heels with metallic heels. Lighter than leather. Bought ready attached to work shoes, or quickly fitted oy any cobbler. If your dealer isn’t supplied, write us. Your inquiry brings a booklet. UNITED SHOE MACHINERY CO. - BOSTON. MASS.