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NEARLY 1000 FEET HIG&
The Great Eiffel Tower at the Paris Exposition. How the Colossal Structure, Just Completed, was Erected. The great Eiffel tower at the Paris Exhi bition has just been completed, and a de scription of the colossal structure, with an account of the way it was built, and a sketch of its constructor, will bo appropriate at this time. It is scarcely necessary to say that the U mm ! Cologne Cathedral, 511 ft. The Eiffel Tower, 9S4 ft. The Great Pyramid, 480 ft. Eiffel tower is by far the highest structure in the world. It presents a decidedly unique ap pearance, too in general outline not unlike a stack of four gigantic muskets with their butts well and solidly spread and their bay onets joining at their tips. The Eiffel tower stands in the Champ de Mars, almost on the left bank of the river Seine, just in the rear of the Quai d'Orsay, and in fact a part of its foundation is sunk through an old arm of the river, which lias been filled in these many years. Its base covers a plot of ground 328 feet square, or nearly two and a half acres in extent. GUSTAVF. EIFFEL. . . It Ls really at the base a group of four tow ers, each nearly fifty feet square, placed at the corners of the plot of ground, and in clining toward each other as they rise at an angle of fifty-four degrees. Each tower con sists of four columns, bound together by trusswork, and each column rests on a masonry pier which is so built that the weight of the column rests upon it squarely and not at an ancle. As the tower is 0S4 feet high. . it will be seen that the matter of providing a solid foundation was one of great importance. There was a lot of boring and digging befon the spot upon which the tower stands was finally selected. The foundation rests upon a thick stratum of sand and gravel. It may be well to say. for the benefit of those who think sand is a rather treacherous sort f ground, that a bed of sand and gravel, away under ground, is pretty solid stuff. One of the towers of the Brooklyn Bridge rests on that sort of base. The foundations of the two piers of the Eiffel tower farthest from the Seine rest on sand and gravel about twenty-five feet below the surface of the ground. These foundations were laid in open excavations, and consist first of great solid platforms of beton, six feet thick, and next of four stone piers which rise to the surface to receive the iron col umns. The foundations for the two piers nearest the river were not so easily laid. It was necessary to go thirty-five feet below the surface of the ground, end this was sixteen feet under water. So caissons had to be used, as they were in building the Brooklyn Bridge piers. A caisson is in effect simply an enormous iron box, without any cover, turned upside down. The method of using it is to dig the earth out from under it and allow it to gradually settle as the excavation pro gresses, meanwhile building the pier on top. When the required depth is reached the cais a .n itself is filled up with the beton, and it forms the bottom layer of it a foundation. A shaft is left running through the pier auove for entrance and exit as the work goes on, and the air in the caisson and shaft is compressed to whatever is necessary to keep the water out of the bottom. It is the prin ciple of the diving bell modified. Work on the foundations was begun on January 28, 1887, and at the end of June they were completed. Then began the labor of setting up the innumerable pieces of iron of which the tower is composed, and it went on at a vapid rate, for each individual piece came from the works of M. Eiffel, at Leval-lois-Pere cut to its exact dimensions, fitted and drilled, so that no modification was neces sary at the place of operations. Up to a height of about fifty feet the workmen re quired no scaffolding to work upon, as each pier supported itself, although each leaned toward the others. Then an artificial support had to le provided, as above that height, un til the first platform was reached, the center of gravity of each pier would fall outside of the base. And so piece by piece the towers grew, and at length reached a height of 140 feet. Then four enormous horizontal trusses were put in place to connect the four piers. These were nearly 140 feet long and weighed a good many tons, and hi order to place them in position it was necessary to erect an ex tensive false work, or scaffolding. "When these trusses were in position, and the con necting beams to form a flooring were in place, the workmen ha1 a great solid plat form, nearly 15U feet above the ground and upward of 1 oJ feet square, to work upon. These four inclined piers and the four big connecting trusses form the solid groundwork of the tower. There is nothing particularly unique in the detail of construction. The work is simply a system of trusses and braces, in which the material is so placwd as to make a strong and light structure. The four great arches which rise between the piers, imme diately under the great horizontal trusses, are largely ornamental in character. They serve to round off what would otherwise be an angular outline, but do not support any of the weight of the structure. Above the lower platform two four-corner piers incline toward each other at a sharper angle. The iron columns are lighter and the spaces in the system of bracing are larger. High above the first platform, nearly 400 feet from the ground, a second series of horizontal trusses binds the four piers to gether and forms the basis for a second land ing. These two platforms are glorious places St. Peter's, 433 ft. Rouen Cathedral, 470 ft. Statue of Wash- Column Liberty, ington Vendome, 301 ft. Monument, 148 ft. 500 ft. from which to view the city of Paris. They are so large that even very timid persons standing on them will lose all fear. The lower one is nearly half an acre in extent while the upper one is about one-third that size. From the platform a view of the coun try for forty miles around may be obtained. Above the second platform the four corner piers gradually approach each other and at length unite in one pier, at the top of which, nearty a fifth of a mile from the ground, there is a covered observatory, and above this rises a slender mast. Doubtless many thousand people will see Paris and ever so many square miles of surrounding country from the observatory during the summer. They will not have to walk up, for a gigantic elevator runs up through one of the piers to the very top. This elevator is of peculiar construction, for the carriage or truck, travels upward on a spiral track, while the car itself rises vertically, or rather as nearly vertically as the angle of the pier will allow. While the Eiffel tower was a stupendous conception, and will stand as completed the marvel of modern engineering, no new principles are involved in its construction. In fact, to an engineer, the most wonderful thing about the tower is its simplicity. The way for the Eiffel tower, both in conception and execution, was paved, after a fashion, by the work on the Garobit viaduct and the Taraes bridge, both of which were built by Eiffel. In fact, the construction of bridges and viaducts, without the use of scaffolding or false work, by making the several parts balance themselves as the work progresses, owes much to this French engineer. Gustavo Eiffel is a master of construction. It is said of him that he combines within himself the practical knowledge of the Eng lish engineer, the audacity of the American and the science and theories of the French man. He was born at Dijon, France, in 1S32, and was educated at the Central School of Sciences and Arts. He it was who first made practical use of compressed ah in cassions in the building of bridge foundations, in the erection of the great bridge at Bordeaux. TOP OF THE TOWER. M. Eiffel has been a busy man, indeed, these many years, but he found time, when the statue of Liberty Enlightening the World was to be set up in New ork Harbor, to design the skeleton framework which support the gigantic figure and at the same time firmly holds it to the granite pier on which it stands. A glance at the illustration will show to what extent the Eiffel tower overshadows all the famous tall structures of the world. In comparison with its 984 feet Cheops is dwarfed at 40. The Washington Monument is little less than 500 feet high, and the point of .he flame of Liberty's torch in New- York Harbor rises barely 300 feet in the air. The fees for ascending the Eiffel tower are five francs (1) to the cop, three francs (sixty cents) to the second platform an 1 two francs (forty cents) t. the first. The three platforms will hold 10,900 people. THE SAMOAN DISASTER. Particulars About the Wreck ins of Our Ships at Apia. Survivors Bring the Story of the Great Calamity. The steamer Alameda arrived in San FrancLsco bringing advices f n m Apia Samoa up to March 30. The steamer stopped at tin.' Sam oan capital and took off many of the shipvrecked sailors. Among those who camo upon the Alameda were Chief Cadet Robert Stocker and Cadets Hibbs. Decker. Wells. Qoketj Saekland, Le jure. Wik-y and Logan, and Dr. Corders, all of the Vandalia. Lieutenant Ripley came on the Alameda, with thirty men. but stopped off at Honolulu. The hurricane which cost so many fives at Samoa began about 2 o'clock on Saturday morning, March 10. and lasted until Sunday at a little after 5 o'clock in the morning. The Eber, the German vessel, was the first to be wrecked. She broke up hi pieces in a few minutes, only one officer aud four men being saved. Her guns, which were of great weight, probably assisted in smashing her so quickly. Shortly afterward the Adler (German) also drifted on the same reef a little further westward. She was lifted high and dry, and is now lying on her port side high and dry, only a few feet of her side being under water at high tide. In all twenty men were lost from the Adler. The United States steamer Nipsic was the next on the list of casualties. It was observable from the shore that she would not be able to hold out. She was drifting toward the reef, and at about nine o'clock she headed for the shore and just touched the points of the reef with her rudder, which was carried away, together with her stern post, but. by the skillful management of the captain and of ficers they succeeded in beaching her on the sand. Great credit is due for the manner in which the Nipsic was handle 1. for if she had gone on the reef a larger number of lives would undoubtedly have been lost. As it is seven men were drowned, but all would have been saved if they had stuck to the ship. Early in the morning the Olga collided with the Nipsic, doing the latter considerable damage, carrying away her smokestack, steam launch, whaleboat and part of her bulwarks. On account of the smokestack being broken off the furnaces would not draw to keep a full head of steam on. Excepting for this ac cident the Nipsic, which had powerful en gines, might have rode out the gale in safety. On Thursday morning the Nipsic was suc cessfully floated out to her old anchorage. Her propeller is too much injured to be re paired in Samoa, and her rudder is gone. The Vandalia was the most unfortunate vessel of the United States Squadron. Sho drifted, about U o'clock, near to the Calliopo and the Olga came into collision with botii. The Calliope struck her with great force on the port, doing considerable damage. The Van dalia still continued drifting almost in com pany with the Calliope, but the latter vessel, having lost nearly all her anchors, put full steam on and went steadily out to sea. The captain of the Vandalia, seeing no hope of saving bis ship, headed her for the shore, and in endeavoring to reach the sandy beach unfortunately struck the reef, and filled and sank before she could beach, within about fifty yards from the stern of the Nipsic. The captain, paymaster, payclerk, lieu tenant of marines and many men were washed overboard. The vessel was com pletely submerged, and all hands bad to take to the rigging, where they remained until the Trenton was driven aJ ngside about 8 o'clock in the night, when most of the officers and crew got on the Tren ton, excepting Lieutenant Ripley, who jumped into the sea just before the mast gave way, and with great difficulty swam to the shore. He then procured a whaleboat, and. with the aid of Samoans, got a line out to the wreck. The loss of life in the Vandalia were the com mander, taree officers and thirty-nine seamen and marines. The Trenton, meanwhile, was gradually coming closer to the land. She had her bridge ports broken in. winch left an open ing, and the sea came in great quantities through this opening and the hawse pipes, getting into the fires. This was unfortunately fatal to the chances of saving the Admiral's ship. The engineers were unable to keep up steam. All hands were ordered to the pumps, which were kept constantly going all day. About 3 o'clock the Trenton had drifted down toward the Olga, which vessel was then about 500 yards from the reef. Both ships tried to avoid touch ing, but a collison was inevitable. The Olga's bow struck the Trenton on the quarter, opening a large breach and doing other damage, and the Olga's bow was smashed. After the vessels cleared each other the Trenton drifted still further toward the reef, and one time held fairly well to her anchors; but at about 8 o'clock she dropped down just clear of the reef and on to the Vandalia. The Tren ton's stern was aground. She was broadside on to the sunken vessel and the poor fellowTs who had been on the V andalia's yard about twelve hours got on to the Trenton, being as sisted by the Admiral's crew with lines and other contrivances. On Sunday morning boats were busily en gaged all day in removing the men from the ship to the shore, which was accomplished without accident. All were removed before night. On Monday 350 Samoans f romMataaf a's camp and the men-of-war sailors were work ing hard all day saving property from the Trenton, and several Samoans and sailors were also engaged working on the other ships ashore. N lives were lost. The Trenton is a total wreck. One of the men was killed early in the morning of Saturday by being crushed among the timber after the collision. His name was Joseph Hewlett, a colored man. The Olga, after slipping her cables and get ting clear of the Trenton, managed to make headway against the sea for a short time, and hopes were entertained that this vessel, the last left afloat in the harbor, would be saved, but within half an hour she was run into one of the best positions for beaching in the harbor. The Nipsic is fitted up with the Vandalia's funnel. Her rudder and stern post are gone, propeller bent and twisted. The Trenton is hard and fast on the reef. Her bottom is full of holes and filled with water up to her gun deck. The crews have been working ten hours daily trying to save some of the rigging and personal effects and stores. The Vandalia is totally lost. Noth ing can le saved from her. Nearly every day since the wrecks of the German and American vessels bodies of the dr. .wned are being washed up. greatly de composed and unrecognizable. Only forty of our dead sailors' Ixxiies have been found off Apia. Some of our officers and men attended the German memorial service, but not a German was present at the American services. Admiral Eimberly shows that the Trenton could not have been saved, because the badly constructed hawse-holes allowed water to pour in and fiood the engine-room, putting out the fires. He says the Trenton had all suam oil but that her engines were not piw erful enough to sav i her. On the Tuesday following the disaster divers recovered the safe of the Yan.ialia which n tained $40,000. A rumor is current in Apia that the Ad miral and Consuls are endeavoring to ar range matters Ijetween Mataafa and Tam asese. so as to induct- them to return to their homes until after the Samoan conference. There were some disgraceful sx-r;enat Apia, it appears, after the terrible disaster in the harixr on March 10. Some of the men rescued from the Ameri can and fennan war-vowels got drunk, and there wn a good deal of ftelin against the German sailors on the part of our men. Captain Frit., the senior liennan officer, when a&ked t help to restore order, beggt! to be excused, saying he was afraid the Americans would attack the German sailors. He further requested that the American officers should take full charge This was done, and the American sailors were not allowed to approach the lower part of the town, where the Germans had tneir headquarters. The next great question was how to get the news of the disaster to Amer ica and Europe. Prank Wilson was sunt t Futuila Island, where he loarded the summer Mariposa for Auckland, from whence he tele graphed the news. The Calliope took on coal, and Thursday. March 19, after firing thirten guns as a salute to Admiral Kimberly, sailed for Sydney. Order was generally restored in Apia in a few days. A large f.ree of Samoans suc ceeded in hauling off the Nipsic. The Tren ton's sailors are temporarily quartered in tents in thp middle of the town. The Van dalia' s men are quartered near the American Consulate. The surviven of the German vessels are quartered in the German Trading Company's warehouse. Most of the merchant vessels in the harbor at the time of the storm belonged to the Ger man Trading Company. Admiral Kimberly. commanding the Amer ican fleet, was the last to have the Trenton, his flag-ship. He said 1 i considered faulty construction of the Trenton's hawse -pipes as indirectly the cause of her wreck. Within a fev days of the storm a condition of things resembling order had been brought about. The marines and Mataafa's police had been actively at work in this direction. The Germans and Americans held me morial services at different dates f r the dead. At the German service Admiral Kimberly and other American officers attended. Only about one-fourth of the bodies have been recovered. Some of these were badly mutilated. It was difficult to identify them, or even to tell the nationality, aud it was finally determined to bury all at one spot to gether. A body, thought to be that of Captain Schoonmaker, was found up the coast some miles distant from the immediate scene of the disaster. VAULTS FULL OF MONEY. Counting the Millions in the United States Sub-Treasury. Assistant Treasurer Ellis H. Roberts has begun his official duties at the United States Sub-Treasury in New York, and as required by law there is to be an official count of all the money turned over to his charge. The count of the cash in the Treasury vaults was begun by fifteen exjierts from Washington, under the direction of Assistant Cashier J. F. Meline, of the United States Treasury. The work started with the count ing of the paper money. g ld and silver certifi cates and United States Treasury notes, which aggregate about $35,000,000. Besid the paper money there are $108,000,000 of gold and $32,000,000 silver to be counted, in addition to United States bonds and other securities. The work of counting this im mense sum of money will occupy from three weeks to a month, when the Assistant Treasurer will givo his receipt for the amount in the vaults. THE FATTEST WOMAN DEAD. Death of Hannah Battcrsby, l he Freak Weighing 800 Pounds. Mrs. Hannah Battersby, said to be the largest woman in the world, died a few days ago at her home in Frankford, a suburb of Philadelphia. She had been ailing for sev eral weeks. Mrs. Battersby was born in Vermont in 1842, and was of normal size un til her twelfth year. Then she began to develop, and at seven teen years of age she weighed 500 pounds. She married Jolm Battersby, who traveled with her. exhibiting himself "as the greatest living skeleton." Mrs. Battersby, at the time of her marriage, weighed 688 pounds, and of late years her managers have claimed that she weighed 800 pounds. THE 31 ARRETS. 15 NEW YORK. Beeves - 3 95 & 5 10 Milch Cows, com. to good. . .2f Oo 45 00 Calves, common to prime... 4 00 6 30 Sheep 3 7.r. (d 6 25 Lambs 2 On 5 50 Hogs Live 5 00 ( 5 40 Dressed X(0 6 Flour City Mill Extra 4 50 (5, 4 65 Patents 5 10 6 40 Wheat No. 2 Red S5r& b8 Rye State 59 i 61 Barley Two-rowed State .. . 70 (q 74 Corn Ungraded Mixed 41 (a 44 Oats No. 1 White (q 39 Mixed Western '-'o (a 33 Hay No. 1 80 a 95 Straw Long Rye i 75 Lard City Steam (q 6 70 Butter Elgin Creamery 27j(4 28 ''airy, fair to good. 18 aj 24 West. Im. Creamery 17 (if 23 Factory 10 fa 19 Cheese State Factory 1K 11 Slums Light 8 9 Western 9 10 Eggs State and Penn U 12 BUFFALO. Steers Western 2 80 4 25 Sheep Medium to Good 3 25 (a, 4 75 Lambs Fair to Good 5 25 Ci 6 00 Hogs Good to Choice Yorks 5 15 5 20 Flour Family 5 00 (fl 5 25 Wheat No. 2 Northern ?. V; Corn No. 3. Yellow (8 38 Oats No. 2. White 30 (g 31 Barley No. 1 Canafla (a, 70 BOSTON. Flour Spring Wheat Pat's.. 6 70 r, 7 25 Corn Steamer Yellow i.i 46' Oats No. 2 White 31 40 " Rye State 65 70 WATERTOV.'X (MASS.) CATTLE MASKS. Beef Dressed weight 5 6 Sheep Live weight 4 (a, 5 Lambs 4,: -H & Hogs Northern 0 $U PHILADELPHIA. Flour Penn. familv 4 50 4 75 Wheat No. 2. Red." April. . . 91 92 Corn No. 2. Mixed. April.. 4i;V' 42 Oats Ungraded White I ' 33; Potatoes Early Rose 30 40 Butter Creamery Extra ot, 27 Cheese Part skims 6 LATER NEWS. Ge.veral Charles Kixxaird Giuhav, ofthe United Stat-s Army, died of pneu. monia, at the Laurel House, Lakewood. N. J.f ajred sixty-five. The Gmshohockcn WonM Company, of Philadelphia, has made an assignment. The coruajiv operates thre mills and the monthly pay-rofl amounted to about 135,000. Liabilities fOnO.OOO. Mrs. Rummage, of Iuul-u, Penn., ovt eorne by grief, committed suicide by jump ing into a reservoir. Her son committed soft cide year ago, and her husltand was killed by bghtning lat September. Charles F. Hatch, lYesidotf of the Wwonsin, Minnesota and Pacific Railway Company, anil P. E. Iickwood, a real -tate dealer and capitalist, formerly of New York, both committal siii--id in Minneapolis, Minn. The Governor ot South Carolina has grantei a full pard n to two colored lynchers convicted of murder, his ground being that they had simply followed the example of white men. wh. had never been punish' 1 David Lindsay, a fanner over sixty years old, living near Ann Arbor, Mich.. sh l and killed his adult son in a drunken quarrel (its Sl xdkrla.nd, a colored boy, living at Mosely, S. C, vrai left by his mother to taku care of a younger brother, and getting tired of the job, put a rope around the baby's neck and hung it to the rafter of the house. The. child was deed when found. A cyclone .swept over Montgomery, County, Ala. Two men were inst.autlv killed by lightning and several others were skocked and seriously injured. Houses were blown down and damrgi" done to young corn and cotton crops. A TXBJUBLE forest tire in Patrick Count , Va., swept everything before it. One man, six horses, a large numlier of hogs and cattle, and about 200 dwellings and tobacco barns were consumed. Many poor people are left in a destitute condition. Attorxey-Genkkai. Miller presented t the Supreme Court the resolutions of the Bar OO, the death of Justice Matthews and made an appropriate speech, to which Chief Justice Fuller replied, an 1 the res hit ions were spread uj)on the records. Rear Admiral William Rogers Ta lor, United States Navy, retired, died in Washington. He was born at Newport, R. I., November 7. 111, and entered the navy as a midshipman in 1S"2V. The Chinese Minister gave a gorgeous spread at Washington to the Cabinet and a host of high officials. A magnificent display of roses was one of the features of the banquet. President Harrison, accompanied by Mrs. Harrison and her guest, Miss Murphy, of Minneapolis, and Secretaries Blaine and AVindom, went down the Potomac for a day's ride on the lighthouse tender Holly. The little vessel steamed for a distance of about forty miles, and then returned to the wharl. which was reached about six o'clock. Before leaving the President received the Chicago and All America baseball clubs in the East Room. JofTN Albert Bright, the candidate of the Lileral Unionists, was elected to succeed his father, the late John Bright, as represen tative of Birmingham in Parliament. Mr. Bright received 5610 votes, against 2560 votes for William C Beale, the GHadstonian candi date. Gabriel Dl'mont, ttie late leader in the Riel rebellion in the Northwest Territory, has arrived again on the scene of the lb5 battles, and is addressing meetings of half-breeds, urging them to press their grievances upon the Canadian Government. At Ruatan, Jamaica, West Indies, the Rev. Henry Hobson, his wife aud her companion, a young girl, all natives of Jamaica, were murdered by Joseph Bures. Mr. Goschen, Chancellor of the British Exchequer, laid before th-- House the budget for the coming financial year. It shows a li fieit of $10,000,000. This Mr. Goschen pro poses to fill up by an increase of the death duties and a slight incroa" in the dnty on beer. Count Hkrbert Bismarck and Councilor Kranel will be German delegates to th Samoan Conference. Ex-President Cleveland lias declined the post of one of the Commissioner! of the New Hiih Bridge Park, to which he was recently appointed by a New York Judge. Dr. Samuel W. Gross, the eminent phy sician and surgeon of Philadelphia, has just died. Genekal Seioel has sent to Commissioner Tanner his resignation as Pension Agent at New York city, to take effect up n the ap pointment of his successor. Judge Wallace s order dissolving the in junction of the Western Union Company was recorded in the United States Circuit Court. On Mayor Grant's order the Bureau of In cumbrances, of New York city, tore down the wires and poles on Broadway from Four teenth street to Twentieth, and were to con tinue on until Fifty-eighth street, wu reached. James A. Sexton has been appointed Post master at Cbieago. W. H. Pettit. aged Bsrenty-two, his wife and his wn. Washington, got into a fiht at Kearney. Neb., over a loaded gun. The fight ended when the gun went oft and blew the old man's head to atom -. The schooner Bio Lupton capsized in AL. bennarie Bound, N. C. The Captam and one of the crew were drowned. Charles Funk, a cigar manufacturer, of Kankakee. 111., "-hot his fbvorced wife fatally and then killed himself. TnntTY-KiVE residences and business honssa in Muir. Mich., were burned. A wonderfully rich discovery of copper was inade at Duluth, Minn, by workmen excavating for a public building .te.