Poes Capital Punisliment
- - By Thomaa Spebd Moaby.
IHE death penalty, as a feature of the penai cone, is uuu6 -
process of evolution which, judging from existing u
.-those which have characterized the world's jurisprudence dur
ing' the past fifty years must result in its complete extinction.
. It now exists in forty States of the American Union. -
In the investigation o$,this subject, the writer caused I
. ,,... A :wn,. tronoraia nf these forty DtatCSs.
to do aciaressea iu uiw an-uiuw t."" rar
sking their opinion as to whether capital punishment tended to dimimsn cay
Eighteen of the forty declined to express an opinion. Only them--attorney-generals
of States which inflict the death .penalty are . ft
selves as clearly of the opinion that capital punishment, does tend to ai
capital crime. Two of the forty were positive in their conviction that "-Jat
penalty does not tend to diminish capital crimes, and fetateafe3 Qualified
the death penalty should be abolished, while four of the forty gave u
In five States of Kansas,' Maine, Michigan, Rhode Island and Wisconsin,
inhere capital punishment does not exist, the attorney-generals aura noted no
Increase in capital crime since the abolition of .the death penalty, and ener"
ly express themselves as satisfied with the conditions existing in their Jspec
tive States. In Michigan, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island capital punishment
ras abolished over fifty years ago, and has not since beau re-enacted. ino"a
nominally prescribed ' by law in Kansas, the death penalty can be executed in
that State only upon the Governor's warrant, and the Kansas Governors-nave
Sersistently declined to issue a death warrant, the condemned Person; ea'
-while, -remaining in prison. In five other States where the death penalty ex
ists the trial juries have power to commute it to life imprisonment.
The right of the State to take the life of a citizen has always been and
doubtless must remain an academic question, although, conceding 'he sound
ness of the doctrine of "consent of the governed' as the ultimate basis of
sovernanental authority, it must be admitted that one cannot be morally held
to a contract whereby he consents that another may take his life. In cur
eivil jurisprudence no man can give another the right to do him bodily injury.
Such contracts are always void as against public policy. But the case against
capital punishment is made when it is shown simply that it Is unnecessary. It
Is coming to be understood that the majority of human beings do not refrain
from- the commission of capital crimes merely through fear of being hanged.
Every jerson who commits a capital crime knows that, ia. States maintaining
capital punishment; the death penalty is affixrf to that crime. From a per
sonal study of more than two thousand cases I am convinced that most crimes
are committed by persons who either (1) expect to escape all punishment, or
2) who, upon the spur of the moment, ara regardless of all punishment, or
(3) who are governed by cosmic, social or individual factors which render the
fa-aspect of punishment inoperative as a deterrent agency at the rime of the
commission of the crime Harper's Weekly.
3 ? 1
Why Socialism Fails
1 By Tom Watson.
O matter how much there may be in the Tomorrow of Socialism,
in its Today, when it shall be inaugurate! as a system, all things
must be owned collectively, and that means that the high and
low come to a common level; the good and the bad start even;
the idle and the industrious share and share alike; the illiterate
and the leareed, the capable and the incompetent, tne Tool and
thf xcisp man tho virsrin :in.l the troll, the neacro and the White,
all come to the Universal Brotherhood pot, and ladle out an equal porring
erful of pottage. , . . ,
In the name of Heaven! What a sordid, sickening dead-level! What an
enforced equalizing of all men and all women, in a world where God never made
two grains of sand, two leaves of the forest, two birds of the air, two fish of
the sea, two beasts cf, the field, exactly equal.
Only in apolitical sense can any one even dream of two men being equal,
for oar eyes, our common-sense tell us that sii2h a thing as equality in
strength, capacity, character, or in the elements and achievements of manhood
ias no existence among men.
Socialism proceeds upon the idea that equality is there, or can be put
there; and the effort to prove that the idea is correct has been made time and
again and again. It was not only among the Ancients, but it has been tried in
.modern times, and it was tried by the etflonists who first settled in North
Failure, dismal failure, "has been the result of every experiment. Why?
Because Human Nature is radically, eternally different from what the Socialist
assumes it to be.
If all were equal, and all were good, Socialism would be unnecessary, even
from the standpoint of the Socialist.
Give -as absolute equality and universal goodness, ,md we don't need any
thing but a little time to reach an equal distribution of wealth and an era of
JPeace ou Earth and Good Will to Men. Watson'3 Magazine.
Strength in Sorrow.
. By Lillie Hamilton FYencli.
B woull not have to strive
"thicks were mere evenly distributed among us, for no one s
lot would then seem to him an evil one. If we were all hump
backed, or lame, or blind; if every husband were unfaithful and
every child a cross; if we were all poor and no man had more
than : another; if nobody's son died in his earlv strength -and
nobody was loved while we sat neglected then who of us would
know what sorrows .and afflictions were? We would take each of them for
granted, as a Chinaman takes his yellow skin and an Indian his red one.
It is because we see our estate differing from that cf our fellows that we
are tempted to comparisons, and it is in the making of these comparisons that
a sense of our sorrows, like the knowledge of on:- afflictions, is first born
How would we have known that we were poor, unless we had seen some on
else who was richer? .or that our son was unsuccessful unless the son of some
body else were making a great mark in the world? Would our little children
be unhappy with only one dress, had they not seen other children vith two?
It comes to this: When we begin to make comparisons wp hezl- tn s-if.
fer. This may seem to be a hard saying, but it ia a true one. Harper's Ba-
"Ask the Missus."
John Burns, the English radical
and reformer and a prominent mem--ber
of King Edward's Cabinet, was,
during an cli ct;on meeting, interrogat
ed by a sturdy . voter who wanted to
loiow just what John Burns, the
Cabinet Minister, at, high pay did with
:he enormous increase of wages over
Ihej. workman's modest wage. The
jnew Cabinet officer was equal to the
.occasion.;. : '
: t "How -do you spend it, John?" roar
ed the elector.
"Ask the missus," said the honest,
self-reliant John, and the crowd roar
ed, out its applause. No room there
ior - the microbe of divorce to get
loot hold; no focus for the stegmlya
"of distrust and incompatibility.
'"Ask the missus" is a whole li
brary of martial wisdom. If a man's
"wife knows where his money goes,
it is, in one thousand, minus one
ase, spent for the best interests of
the household. The man that can
lojk his iv.-ot.icr squarely in the face
.aad say, "A.sk the missus," is no
' jspesidrift, mo iDOgus high-roller, no
gambler, no cheat. "Ask the missus,"
and. her happy, hopeful, trustful,
contented tace will be answer enough
of the faith she holds in the mau
-who trusts ancf loves her.
"Ask the missus" would put di-
f Torce lawyers cut of business. "Ask
the missus," would wipe divorce-giving
South Dakota off the map. "Ask
the missus" would keep the - worth
less foreign nobleman eff the Ameri
can grass. "Ask the missus" would
Imild homes such only as the foucd-
ers o the nation knew.
so for courage if what we vaguely call
Men of America, take the cue from
John Burns. Make it possible to say
to every" inquirer as to where the
-money goes, "Ask the missus."
Origin Of "Blackmail."
An authority on the derivation of
words says that ''blackmail?, as used
by Coke and Blackstone had an inno
cent significance meaning simply rent
paid in labor or produce instead cf
in money, rent paid in "white money"
(silver) being known as ."white mail."
The word "mail," meaning rent, comes
from the Anglo Saxon "mael," a par-'
tion or possibly from the old French
"maille," a halfpenny. In the days
before England and Scotland were
united the freebooters used to make
frequent .raids on the farmers living
along the border and the money paid
to secure immunity from tCiese raids
came to be known as "blackmail.'
Once established in that sense it is
easy to see how the world came to be
used to designate money paid to se
cure Immunity from a .raid on one's
fputticn. The Suburbanite.
No Need for Nerve Medicine.
"A country 'doctor after writing a
prescription f:r a patient told him
the druggist would probably charge
him sixty cents for filling it. The
patient asked the physiean to lend
him the money. The latter scratched
cut part of the prescription and hand
ed it backwith ten cents, remarking:
"You can have that filled for a,
dime. What I have scratched cut
was lor ycur acrm" Washington
Star. ' '
Taft and Bacon Go to Point of
PROTECT AMERICAN- INTERESTS
Qnesada Forwards President 's ' 4 Sol
emn W-rhing" tor Executive, at
HavanarWhole Island Expected
to bePnt Under U. S. Tlag . Unless
' Hostilities Cease.
Mr. Quesada, the Cuban : Minister
to Washing-ton, on Saturday forward
ed to President Palma Mr. Roosevelt's
letter to him, in which he made sol
emn warning that intervention would
follow unless there was permanent
peace and a discontinuance of the
destruction of American property on
the island. , 1
Dispatches from Washington; and
Cuba and information from official
sources all make plain the fact that
the veiled threat will prove an immen
se sensation in the field of armed
activity. Already it is known that
American property has been devas
tated, American liberties threatened,
and unless there is an immediate
change, mariues will be landed from
the cruisers now in Cuban waters
and the whole island will be put un
der the American flag.
Mr. Taft and assistant Secretary
Bacon started Sunday for Cuba to
an investigation of the . n;litt. On
their report the matter of intervention
will swing, foi by it Pm V.nt Roose
velt will be guided.
Mr. Roosevelt ?s letter to Mr. Que
sada, written Friday night following
an all-day conference on board the.
Mayflower at Oyster Bay, is as fol
The Presidnt's Letter.
Oyster Bay, Sept. 14, 190G.
My Dear Senor Quesada:
In this crisis in the affairs of the
Republic of Cuba 1 write you not
merely because you are Minister of
Cuba accredited to this country, but
because yon and I were frepuently
drawn- together at the time when the
United States itnervened in the af
fairs of Cuba with the result of mak
ing her an independent nation. You
know that I never have done and
never shall do anything in reference
to Cuba save with sineerest rcirard
for her welfare. - :
You also known the pride I felt
when it came to me as President of
the United States to withdraw the
American troops from the Island of
Cuba and to officially proclaim her
independence and wish her godspeed
in her carreer as a free republic.
I desire now, through you, to say
a word of solum warning to your peo
ple, whose earnest welhvisher I am.
For seven years. Cuba has been in
a condition of profound peace and of
steady growing prosperity. For four
years this peace aud prosperity have
obtained under her own independent
government. Her peace, prosperity
and independency are now menaced,
for of all possible evils that can be
fall Cuba the worst is the evil of an
archy, in which civil war and revo
lutionary disturbances will assured
ly throw her.
Whoever is responsible for armed
revolution and outrage whoever is re
sponsible in any way for the con
dition of tlfe affairs that now obtain-,
is ,an enemy to Cuba, and
doubly) heavy is the responsibility
of the man who, affecting to be the
friends of the country's inde
pendence, takes any step which will
jeopardize that independence. .
For there is just oneVay in -which
Cuban independence can be secured,
and that is for the Cuban people to
show their inability to continue in
their path of graceful and orderly
This nation asks nothing of Cuba
save that it shall continue to develop
as it has developed during the past
seven years, that it shall know and
practice the orderly liberty which will"
assuredly bring an ever-increasing
measure of peace and prosperity to
the beautiful Queen of the 'Antilles.
Our intervention in Cuban affairs
will only come if Cuba herself shows
that she has fallen into-the insurrec
tionary habit, that she lacks the self-
restraint necessary to peaceful self
government and that her contendiu"-
iactions have plunged the country
T crlamiK. n -1 . . 'li y- i
.- """'.r aujme au iunan pa
triots to band together, to sink all
that they ean preserve the indepen
-v cuiciii ijp-i 1 11 h r 1 no nniv
"J- i K'punne is to prevent
iue necessity ot outside interference
My 1 cluing u iroin me anarchy of
me civil war. I earnestly hope that
.. Yvwiu ui a uj ura 1 ion 01 mine
given in the name 'of the American
people, the stanchest friends and well
wishers of Cuba that there are in nil
the world, will be taken as it is mvinf
will be seriously 'considerl and will
be acted upon, rid if so acted upon
Cuba's permanent independence, her
permanent success as a 'republic 'are'
Under the treaty with your gov
ernment, I as President of .the United
States, have a duty, in this mattei
which I cannot shirk.- The third ar-J
tide of that treaty explicitly .conU
"' " fuu tut uuiicu. oiiiies rne ngnr
,to interfere fothe toaintenance in
Cuba of a goyernmentv adequate ior
the' protection! qi life, property and
individual liberty. .v v's
The treaty femng'ihis nght- is
the supreme law.pf the land" and
furnishes me- with-the-right and the
means pf fulfilling t the obligation that
I am under to protect; American in
terests. -XTh&i information' ;'at i hand '' shows
that -the social bonds throughout the
island have been so relaxed that life,
property, and individual liberty are no
longer safe. ,1 have received authen
tic information of injury to and des
truction of "American property. It is,
vn my judgment, imperative for the
sake of Cuba." that there shall be an
immediate cessation of hositilities and
some arrangement which will secure
the permanent pacification of the is
land. , v M" . . ... . .
am sendmg to Havana the Secre
tary oX' War, Mr.' Taft, and the As
sistairi t' Secretary' of State, Mr. Ba--.6r.f
as the special representatives of
tins' ' Goverrime'iit who 'will render
such aid' as' is possible toward these
Mids.n' I had hoped that Mr. Root,
the "Secretary of State, could have
stopped in Havana on his return from
South America, but the seeming im
r.iiiK'iice o the crisis forbids further
delay.,-.: ' . ,
Tii rough you I desire in this way to
communicate, with the Cuban Govern
rae.nt.tiiid with, the Cuban people, and
icftordingly I am sending you a copy
of this letter, to be presented, to Pres
ident Palma. and have also directed
its immediate p'ublieation.
"'""-' Sincerely " yours
' THEODORE ROOSEVELT,
Senor Don Gonzalo de Queseda
" the Cuban " Minister.
Money and"-Treops Given: to Palmav
Havana, Special. President Palma
ias been granted by an extreme meas
ure of Congress tiie jx)wer to triple
the force of i rural guards, to double
the force of artillery, and the right
to appropriate all public funds for
the vigorous prosecution of the trar.
The critical situation' by which the
Ufe of the Cuban Republic is' (hreat
encd has not been modified by the
events of the past tventy-four hours.
Persistent 1 rumors are still afloat that
President Palma' wishes to resign his
office, and is only restrained by the
pleadings of Government heads in the
Cabinet and Congress.
It is asserted that President Palma
wpt when he saw American marines
trom the Denver land mllavana on
Friday, for in that demonstration he
read the handwriting on the wall by
which the fate of the republic is
sealed. There is no effort to conceal
the fact that Palma himself asked
the American Government for . aid,
nor that the Government would rath-
oi nrrpnJpr in tli TTnitp1 Stilt PS
than to the insurgents.
President Palma 's wife, whose fa
ther, the late President Guardiola, of
Honduras, was murdered by revolu
tionists, 'is said to be urging his re
tirement: In the event of his resigna
tion Vife-President Capote will as
sume the 'Presidency.' This would not
relieve the situation "in" the slightest
degree, as Capote" is as unpopulai
with the -Liberals as is Palma.
Will Yield Only to V. S.
In ijie action of Senator Zavas and
General Lovnas, -who is rebel com mis
sioned boarded ; the Denver on Fri
day and conferred with Comandei
Colwell, supporters of the Govern
ment see only a determination on the
part of the revolutionists to surren
der to no one but American otlicers;
that is, to continue the war until it is
stopped. : by. American intervention.
The vebel commissioners asked i'01
protect ion( through Havana, for en--oysj
wlio wished to confer with him.
The toinmander explained tliat as a
foreigner he could not interfere with
authority. 'vLater, when he returned
to the palace and told the nature oi
the lebels' requests, he was informed
that the Government would not au
thorize, such, a visit.
It would be hard to imagine a more
critical condition than that .in. which
the Government now . finds itslef a
country whieh is not military total 'y
unprepared for war, " almost at the
mercy of armed bands of revolution
ists, which are growing in number.
' In 'his" message to Congress Presi
dent Priima declared that he had
known of ' the ' plot to oveiihrow the
Government and murder the executive
and the members of his cabinet oiV2
before the outbreak of, the revolution.
but that he had deemed it wise tc
wait until tlie plotters had put them
selves 1 iu to the position of open viola
tion of the law.
He''kiiew;"he' declared, that the con
spirators were all ot the political
pa I'ty which is opposed to him. It was
not, he ;said, ' 'until one of the
plotters came tout - in open rebellion
that he. had ordered, the arrest of sev
eral- of , the head . conspirators.
Minneapolis Heady to Sail Tor Cuba
, Philadelpiiia, Special. The crew oj
tbe cruiser .Minneapolis, lying at th
League- Island Navy Yard, was' busih
engaged; in, .loading stores and provis-
1 .1 ' 1; . . n -
ions iiuoaru, 111 preparation ior sail
ing, probably, for Cuba. Inadditioi!
to the vessel's regular complement ol
men, UU marines are also to bo taken
It is reported here that the Tennes
see,' which was put into commissior
only recently, will-also be dispatchec
J. P. Hickman, President
Bank of Hendsdhville
A STRONG BANK
Four per cent paid on time deposits
We extend to our customers every courtesy con- &
J ....., j t i.: r
W. J. DAVIS. President Geo. I- White, Vice-Pres K. G. MORRIS, Cashier
. .-.. .
be Commercial IBank
HENDERSON V1LLE, N. C.
.. - . -
v O Nfe D O L L AR
Starts a Savings Account with this bank
TRANSACTING A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS
The Claude Brown Company
CASH or CREDIT
' - ( 0
VVe Buy and Sell Horses and Hiiles, Wagons.
BuggiesHarness. Feedstuff of All Kinds
' . " . '
We will trade anything we have for anything you ye got
Come and see us. We're open for business.
RAWS HORN BLASTS
I ME servers art
Hfcaven is the
inte rpreter ot
A lire meeting
needs little - lead
ing. , Best criticism
of the Bible would
be to give us a
It is never hard to hold the people
if you are really helping them.
Some men -will not believe they are
aved from drowning until they feel
You cannot -warm your heart on the
Bible and refuse its light on your
It's no use a man's praying for a
clean heart ifMie will not vash his
They who love God for His gifts
never know how much His love can
You cannot warm your hands at
the devil's fire without warping your
We need never measure our love
until it surpasses the immeasurable
love . ,
There is a -ood deal of difference
between belief in Satan and trust in
Tbev who love like their Lord do
not need to worry over the logic of
The robe of righteousness cannot
be won by giving away an old vest
now and then.
FEMIXIXE NEWS NOTES.
Free Russia, when it comes, will
owe much to'the Russian women.
Mrs. Williani Astor, who had been
threatened with pneumonia, was re
The number of women students at
the universities of Germany this
semester is 1485. -
Mrs. Clarence H. Mackay won her
point to have corporal punishment
restricted in the Roslyn (L. I.)
Miss -Mary Philbrook, of Newark,
N. J., the first woman lawyer to prac
tice in Virginia, has won c case in
tha United States Court.
Governor Vardeman, of Mississip
pi, has appointed Miss Henrietta
Mitchell, of Jackson, to be his aide-de-camp
on his military staff, with
the rank of colonel.
Dr. Harriet S. French, for more
than fifty years president of the Phil
adelphia Branch of the Women's
Christian Temperance Union, died of
paralysis. She was eighty-two years
More than 'one hundred girls of
high prominent families in Korea
have just been taken to the Korean
imperial palace to select from among
them a consort for the Crown Prince
Three out of every fifteen shops in
the 'West End of London are owned
by men or women, in society, who
either keep - them under assumed
names or have a large financial in
terest in them. . ..-
Mrs. Florine A. -Albright, now of
New York City, whose family lived'
in Louisiana, .was awarded a claim
for property destroyed in the Civil
War. She expects to sue the-Govern--ment
for the value of 200 slaves
If "there Is any basis, for the re
ports from" 'Ecuador, suggests ; the
Pittsburg Pcspatclv that there . was1 at
one time a, possibility of the United
States beins a3ked to buy the Gala
pagos Islands for $5,000,000 and that
the overthrow of President Garcia
clcsed the incident there will be a
general feeling that here it least was
one revolution that did good."
J. A. Maddrey, Cashier
Gans is the greatest fighter, big or
little, that ever put on boxing gloves.
The Corinthian "socker" football
team defeated Newark by a score of
7 to 1.
Lieutenant Dillon with a score of
313- won the national individual rifle
match at Sea Girt.
The Vim, an American yacht, wou
the Roosevelt Cup in .international
contest with Germany.
L. L. Whitman's six cylinder car
made a record of fifty-seven hours
from Chicago to New; York.
Messrs. Reginald C. and Alfred G..
Vanderbilt's horses won champion
honors at the Newport show.
Cochato won the $13,500 Hartford.
Futurity for three-jrear-old . trotters -at
the Grand Circuit meeting.
The infantry team of the United
States army won the national team,
trophy on ranges at Sea Girt, N. J.
"Battling" Nelson had to be beaten,
or prizefighting would have degener
ated to brute force and goatlike b ut
Audubon Boy paced a mile in 1m.
59 s. without the aid of a wind
shield at the New York State Fair at
Syracuse. ' The . principals' committee on high
school athletics In Chicago voted
without a dissenting voice against
offering a football championship pen
nant this fall.
Fling Axworthy (2.15) is the
fastest four-year-old colt of the sea
son. He is Wilkes-Electioneer
product and a descendant of the fa
mous Beautiful Bells (2.29 family
on his dam's side.
Beals C. Wright, of New York, won
the Tri-State open tennis champion
ship in Cincinnati, and in so doing
carried off the far famed . Governor's
bowl. He has won the championship
three times in succession.
TIIE NATIONAL GAME.
.Overall and Walsh are the only,
oachelors on Chicago's payroll now.
It is announced that Patsy Dono
van will again manage Brooklyn next
Jake Weimer wants to be the best
batting - pitcher in the National
After winning fifteen straight
games the New York Americans were
defeated by Boston. ,.t.
The Lynn, New England .League
Club, has released outfielder Dono
van, lae of Oswego.
The Toronto Club has signed nut
fielders Medensaul and George Ban
non, late of Montreal.
A lot of Walter Clarkson's. del col
lege friends think that he is good
enough for any league.
The Chicago National League n'
by defeating Pittsburg, won its one
hundredth victory of the season.
Jimmy Collins is practicing with
his Boston American team-, but a
limp still keeps him out of the game.
The work of the pitcher. Mortlecai
Browne, of the Chicago Nationals,
will stand out in the history of l!!,;-
When Flynn, of the Holy Cross
College, joins the Boston team tlvr.
will be five college 'players on t--5
A triple play unassisted was -complished
by" First Baseman Mv.r
of the Manchester Club of the Nff
England League, in a game wiui
Jack KiKqyie and Charles. Sowers
owners of the Cleveland Easebju'
Club, announce that they will P''e
sent $500'.) to theii players if they
win the pennant.
.When catcher Kling's work for the
Chicago Nationals is considered from
all points of view.it will be seen to
approximate-in brilliancy and effecc
lveness that done by noted, pjr form
ers ;o two decades ago. -- I
; The newspaper is. the watch
the.:', pommunitv- ever on
against every form'; of " evil and
ger; and it should be.tli 7 PJPerJ!',11,
of every newspaper man; admen.-'
the Kansas City Journal that h U 'J.
sustain the high responsibilities he
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