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-NEW A r- V ... t .- - iiOW TO MAKE GOOD Absolute Clenaliness in Llilking, Creaming and Churning the First EssentialsSome Simple Rules Tha WiU Help Mrs. Farmer to Have the Most Popular and year : Round.; ' C . . : V ; v , ; .. vy v. ; Vs :;-' Prof. J. M. Burgess of Clemson College in-Progressive Farmer :i, ' Probably no prpduct: of the ; farm varies as much in quality as the . but-, ter. "While butter is made from the same elements, yet we find the yaria tion so ; great in some samples that they do not seem to be at all related. Now, - butter, is composed of fat, -water, salt, casein and ash. All of these elements except the salt and part of the water are in the milk from which the butter is "made ' why then, should the butter. made on one farm vary in quality : from that made on another, or why should the quality vary from day to .day when made by the same person? It is to answer this questionlhat this article is written and it is the hope of the writer; that the answer will vbe clear. -, :v - . It cannot be expected that butter as good and uniform in quality, can be made on the farm as is made at a creamery,-but there is no reason why the average quality of country butter or farm butter cannot be very much improved. There are certain princi ples which govern butter-making and these are the same on the farm as in the creamery. Butter is composed, on an average, of 83 per. cent butter fat. It makes no difference what kind of . a cow this fat comes from, but the quality of the butter made will depend largely upon the way the . fat is taken care of or handled. The essentials .to the making of good but Jr may be said to be clean milk, proper temperature of milk and cream, and proper washing and work ing of the butter. What "Clean Milk" Means. What -is clean milk? Milk that is produced by healthy cows and hand led in a clean manner. No cow that has any apparent disease should be allowed to produce mfk for dairy purposes. This cow should be as well bedded and kept as clean as the best horse or mule on the farm. The curry-comb and brush should be used frequently, so as to keep .her body , clean. Clean milk cannot be obtain ed if the cow's udder and flanks are covered with manure and dirt and the milker simply cleans the teats be fore milking.. The , entire udder should be washed and dried and the flanks moistened if clean milk is to be obtained and good butter made, , Milking and Straining The milker should niilk with dry hands and. not dip the fingers in the milk, as is too often done, to moisten them. It is just as easy to milk with dry hands and very much cleaner. The last milk given is-several "times as rich as the first and "the milker, for this reason, should milk all the. milk out of the udder If the calf is allowed to stay with its motherland not taken away at birth and fed br V hand, it. should be alowed ,to take the first milk and suck from alt the ""''teats.-The practice of letting the calf have one-iiiarter, or of leaving milk in the udder for it, Is not the best. - v'- When the cow"" has been milked the " milk should be taken at once to the house and strained. If allowed to stand around the stable, it will take ht) the odors and thus injure the flavor of the better. The usual wiregauze . strainer found in the common milk bncVet will, not do to defend upon - te milk. It should he r-" n toijg-h pt iAst. three thick Va.re of 'cheese cloth: Creaming. ' If -a cream separator is available, the milk should be separated as soon as stiained, because the separator will do its best work when the milk fs warm. If this is done, the cre&i can be put away in some cool place and the skim milk fed while warm to the calves and pigs or used in any way desired. However, as a ceram separator is not available to most farmers, the problem of getting , the cream is a very different one, as it must be given time to rise. The milk .should be strained into vessels that have been thoroughly . washed ' in hot water arl then sunned. Do not use the same dishi-cloth or wash the milk vessels in the same water in which the di?hes from the table have been washed. Very often bad flavors in the butte- aTe dve to such a practice. JMany -f te troubles that are reDOTt cf Ve, ri'lk' clabbering or; going to whev before the .cream rises are due to the milk having been strained into vessel, that while clean , to the ce. are dirtv from a dairyman's standpoint pch troubles are caused h- batf-? tbat a'-e far too small to be ?ee" vty the' naked eye and can only be seen with a high power mi- ' croscope. Clean hot water and . sun light are certain death to them. Washing Milk Vessels. Always wash milk vessels in luke warm water first to get the" milk off. Then In hot-water with good soap, or better sal-soda, or some ' cleanine better sal-soda or som77 cleanine ;L lra;Ifll?t! powder such as -Wyandotte, and then . . . J ' . " . r" rmse in ciear noi water ana place m: the sum ; to dry. It Is better . to use a stiff brush and not . Hiah Hnth vessels ' Th milk should " the butter comes too soon, much tranger could not see the depravity t?stand Ux reVesset n ?f It .-will -be left in the . buttermilk " ot eact "That's not such a griev ro.uma in ine vessels un: anA n;,0iif n. w.. ous . offense " h R!d "A-nA . wash the be allowed til atl the cream: has ha d time to" ril'-' which wUl take from 24 to 30 hours.; In winter or in umemr if, the milk has been cool enough, the cream will rise before the milk becomes sour. It may then be skimmf4 'off in . anr - convenient manner id k.nt hi if is desired to churn . Do nnt mix ,. cream of different ages, until several A nours before churning, If the cream skimmed is placed in a common iar or bowl, an uneven' souring wiU take place and much fat will be lest in the churning process. BUTTER Oil THE it : ; Xeep. Cream CooL But most of our.: farmers do ;.. not have refrigerators ' and -jnany. do rnot have ) cool I springs. . For this reason yery: often f in the hot summer the milk will 'sour.: and' clabber by time Hhe cream has .risen. The problem then of making : good butter becomes a hard bne. Extra ,f precautions, should be taken 'in the summer to see that the " vessels are ; kept clean ; for the bacteria grow best in hot weather. If no spring ;is at hand, a very good plan is to build a small milk house near the well ""and have troughs in it -In which the-milk vessels may be placedvv If the troughs are filled with fresh water several times a '-. day - it will be founda great -help In keeping the milk sweet. . V. J Souring- the Cream." But under oridinary conditions in, the sumemr the cream will have be came sour by the time It has risen. When this does occur it will be best to churn at once, even , though a very small quantity of butter be made. .The souring of. milk is due to the milk sugar being cnangea into iacuc acia by certain bacteria. The "flavor . of butter largely depends upon f the amount of acid formed and for this reason cream should not be allowed to become too sour before churning, and thus give too high a flavor. The acid bacteria work best at a tempera ture between 70 and 90 degrees, there fore the cream should be kept as cool as possible until time to ripen sor sour it for churning. This Is a very important step in the making, of good butter. Much of the poor quality of country or farm . butter is. due to the cream being soured too fast, because it has been kept too hot When enough , has been collected to churn, the cream should be well mixed and placed where the temperature will be betwen 70 "and 80 degrees. In a few hours it will be sour enough to churn. As a general, rule . churn when it has soured enough to thicken. A too common practice is "to put the cream in the churn'Xif it is a stone churn,) and put it on the stove or before the fire. . Too much cannot be said against such a practice, for when this is done the cream gets ' too hot sours too fast, and the result is. butter that is both poor in body and flavor. The cream should never be soured in, the churn. How to Warm Cream. If the cream is tq be warmed ,the vessel in which It 1s should be placed in water, the 1 temperature of which Is hot mor than 10 degrees . higher than that , to - which cream is 1 Talsed. Or a diDDer or bucket of warm water FAR mayrbe placed in the cream and JeptJ. object, of working butter is to moving until the desired temperature Is feached.VHot water should not be poured directly into'" the cream. .; - Churning. As has been stated., the butter-fa in milk or cream is In very small globules. In thick cream they are much nearer than In thin cream. The object in churning' Is to bring these globules together with enough force to make them stick together. This may be done in various ways, and must depend upon the amount of cream to be churned and, the con venience of the person who does the work. So we, find churns vary from the small stone dasher churn to the large combined churn and worker of the creamery.y' In, (fact the writer has seen good butter -made by shak ing the cream in a fruit jar or stir ring it in a bowl with a spoon. - The ' ot chvrn for the farmer who makes from 3 to 5 pounds of butter at a r.hurninsr is a small five gallon barrel or swing churn. Where less is made he cn do no better than to use the oridinary. stone - churn with a wood lasher. " ' . . v Dlfriciilt Churning. Care should ; be ; taken never to fill any churn more than half full and better, not even one-third full. If too full, not enough agitation can be given - to the cream, hence the but ter globules will take longer to stick to each other and the butter longer to come. This and trying to churn ream, that is too thin are common causes of difficult churning. Other causes of difficult churning are'try- ing tp churn cream that is too sweet oh"rning at too low or too high a temperature. Importance of Temperature " Th e relation of temperature to but- ter-making is very important but lit- tie understood. It has already been! stated what an important place tem perature has in the proper souring of the cream. It has just as impor- uoy, .eviaenuy ner son. "uo tant in churning. No definite tem-; slow there, mammy," caid'a strang perature can be given at which cream ! er "that's pretty hard beating you're should be churned,-but the following: 'giving the youngster. " "Deed it is rule; should always be followed. . boss,"; she replied, ".ef I was to .'do Churn at such a temperature, that llghi ' ri iess nacherly massacray 'the; butter will come ; in from 30 to 45 mlnntes. No definite rule can be eivATi hamueA it win v Hh f,a . I r 7 .2 ' breed, feed, individuality of the cow, . JM t - t ' t . . auu uow ou5 since me COW caivea. nd the quality of the butter injured. mucn cannot be said against all; tt are guaranteed to get e butterin from three to five, mlri- Htes- B getting ' the cream to the temperature such churning c& b done, but only .with a loss of butter, and injury to :the ouality. ;; How to rrepare the .Churn. .The preparation of the churn fnr the cream is important The churn ' should be washedrst with hot water to clean and fill up the pores of the wood, and then wit coll water mnUl" its temperature is as lo'w as the cream that is to be churned. , How Jo Color. . . -. The, cream should then be poured Into" the" churn and A the color, added, if any " artificial color is to be used. Butter color does not effect, the taste of ; the butter,- but is added because "fashion"- demands yellow butter. The . amount , of color used will de 'pend ipon the season- of the l year, "the breed of the cow and the demand of the market. If by ; mistake the color is' forgotten until the : butter comesi then it should be . mixed with the salt and worked in withthe salt.- J-r Speed of Churn. ; '-y The speed of the churn should be such as to give the greatest agitation to the cream .If a1 barrel churn is used, it should be stopped ; two ? or three times the first ten minutes and the gas which ; , has formed '. in v -.the cream5 allowed to escape. , , r " When to Stop ; Churning. ? The churning :should; continue un til the butter granules get to be the size of grains of wheat. If churned until the butter gets into large lumps or one .' big lump,' the butter cannot be properly; washed. If stopped too soon, many of the small granules, will be left in the buttermilk. As soon as the butter has "come" the buter- milk should 't be drawn ; off. Never take the butter out of the churn until after it has been, washed. : ' " ; When" the Butter Comes,, ' After all the buttermilk has been drawn off, enough cold water should be poured into the churn to float the butter. The water, if possible, should have a temperature of not over 70 degrees . ana not - Deiow ,.ou aegrees. Let the ; water stand on the butter for about one minute. At the same time shake the churn, or. give it two or three revolutions, if it is a barrel churn, so that the water may come in contact .with and wash every grain of the butter. Draw off the water and, wash again just as at first If the churning has stopped at the right stage, when' the butter granules are about-the size of grains of wheat, two washings will "be all that is necessary to wash out all of the milk. If 'the churning has continued , until the but ter t has . 'gathered" or gotten into Jarge lump, only a small portion of the butter ,;is. washed, as the water can reach only the surface of the lumps. The result of - poor washing is milky butter, for to "get the milk out of butter it must be washed t out. It cannot all be worked out. ; After the butter has been washed it should be taken out of the churn and salted and worked! Butter should be salted to suit the taste of those who are to eat it. A good rate is about one ounce to one pound of butter as it comes from the churn. Only the best grade of salt should be used.v Sprinkle the salt over the but ter while it Is still in little grains. This will give a very uniform salting with JIttle work; After putting kon the salt, take a paddle and work the butter. Never work with the hands. " work out the excess water, work In the salt and to give vody. If several pounds are to be worked at one time, it will be best to get. butter, worker, as more than one or two pounds cannot be worked satisfactorily with a pad dle. Stop the working when the but ter gets- Into a, tough waxy mass which.' when broken apart, will have a granular appearance. Packing. After . the butter has been worked it should at once be put up into one pound prints, If it is to be sold, and wrapped .in parchment paper. It Is best to use the standard print (4x 21x2 inches), but any print will do if it'is neat and attractive. It cobts -very littie to uave the name of tLe maker or tne name of the maker's faim piinted on the perchment wrapper,' and it will addvery much, If the butter is good , to' the selling quality. Tne trae will soou leatu to ask for "John " Smith," o; "Glen dale ' butter ii U.e name is pointed so that they can see where it comes from. , : ' It . may seem . to some that too many details ' have b en given t and tod much asked of the busy . house wife, but it is the attention to details that counts in butter making. AfteT a little practice much of that that has been given in this article will be h found to be' very, easy and will not take very much time. To sum up the essentials-in making good but ter are: . .Clean milk, proper temper ature of souring and churning the cream, thorough washing, which can onl.v lie d.ihc when the churning pro cess hfis been stopped when the but- I ter is .In . small granules, proper work ing, and Finally packing In a neat nackap i . - -w- Xot Coming, But Going. A colored woman was administer- InS unmerciful chastisement to a "imv waat has de done," inquired themerdfue, -to deserve p meni mem "v "Wnat has he done?" she - ;ePeatea m disgust "He jess nacher- 1 V loft ttlA Tl1r-AVt 1 v ' Tbe ous.onense" he. said. And -besides" "Tm:t T eu W1" a" .e ff- "Came -home ?creamed the . Irate worn, mi bor- ' occupation., "Come dld you say? -Dass jess de trou.Dle- . Dem chickens is never coming nome again. Deyre going coming home home! " -Wadesboro Ansonlan. x : . .. . . W JTf' , . Z7 , !S?d tn! Mr?n MJMtTJ? &lif? 1.2Serd SSlt- f . The -Dollar and the Devil ' In this world of frills and fashions.' ; Where the churches are so fine; And' the trademark of religion ; ... ! Is the classic dollar sign, . There's a rule that iiever faileth,-; : And you'll always find it true When the Dollar rules me. puiyiw .; Then the Devil . TUies ine pew- There may be a heap of singing, y I And ' an awfuL sight of prayer, v And " the sermon may - be : answered - With an "Amen ! ". Here ana mere , But as sure as Joe's a Dutchman, ' r- M 'RhvW.lr "waa a Jew. When the Dollar rules the pulpit, ; Then the Devil rules tne pew WTien the money gets to talking .' , ' . AniT the Master's voice is still, ' ,. And the preacher swaps; a sermon: -TT. o' twentv dollar bill. " That's the ; time old ..Mister Satan vGets the churches in a stew When the Dollar ules the pulpits ati hA'DAvil rules the Dew. X When religion goes a-begging. Anvl the Kible IS iOrSTOt. . And 'the- preacher preaches, nothing -nnlv Rr.fent.ific -rot - i ; Then the faithful, old believers, Thev are setting mlgnty lew When the Dollar rules the pulpit And the Devil rules tne pew. - less Politics More Farming. - Walt Mason, the Kansas, poet, ex presses ' a lot of good hard common sense in the . following: f i ' ; v.- v Ills are transient, woes are flitting, soon they'll all be with the past It's by tending to his knitting that a man wins out at last, Staatesmen kick up fuss and ! flurry, viewing daily with alarm; not a minute do-1 worry; I am busy on my farm. I am planting boil ed potatoes, boneless beans and things like those; I am sowing stewed pota toes, and I haven't time for woes. I am working, striving, daily, treating, fair my fellow man, and the old world treats me gaily, for I do the best I can.' Let the statesmen paw and thunder, ' in their ancient, foolish way, till the welkin's torn asunder I will do my chores today. If yoa think that you"; are - toting . burden that you should not bear, - you won't get relief by votr Ihg that won't lessen your despair. Read the story of the ages, written i through the grinding years, and yaull .find the staatesman's wages always wet with toilers' . tears. When have noisy statesmen aided in the drying of men's eyes? All they've ever done is faded save-their promises and lies. He who looks to legislation- for a so lace when distressed, but . invites , new aggravation." Plant potatoes that is best - , .;' ' What a Boy Will Do. v You never know- what a small boy is going to do.; A case in point: Mr. Dock Watklns and all the members of his family, except two small boys, left their home in Vance townsbip a few days ago to work', in ar field some distance from , the house. The 'boys started out. to find some young kittens they heard sin - the" barn loft They found the kittens in, a deep hole in some very dry fodder but as. it was too dark to see, the kittens well they went to the house and -got some mathces. They took, the matches up where the kittens were, struck a light and looked at the kittens and then went out to play. The thought of danger never entered their, heads. No damage was done just a narrow es cape for two boys, a lot of kittens and band. Monroe Enquirer. . Remember That Corn planted upon land that has long been in corn is likely to suffer fromthe attacks of corn root lice.' Corn planted on,-land recently in sod is likely to suffer from . atacks of white grubs, wire worms and cut worms. i ' ;; '-' " Corn must not follow corn when the corn root-worm is abundant; - Corn planted on clover sod, wheat stubble, oat stubble cowpea or. v3oy v bean land, unless too recently out of grass sod Is likely to be abso lutely free from serious v insect attack. Corn succef s , is ,1 due in great measure- to p oper variety selection. Dr. T. J. Headier.; ; , Extremes meet ,v when the kitten nlays with its tail. ' imu A SPECIAL BARGAIN .- Try one and see T how you can cook without v scorching or burning food. It 13 light in weight and looks like silver. It doasn't tarnish. No enamel' to chip off into the food. Cooks in one-fourth of the time ordinarily required, - " - v ,; ; v The genuine 44 1892 Pure Alumji: num can always be told by the Maltese Cross. Every piece guar--anteed or your money back; A ' V B sure and buy one from your dealer Edward Hdwr. Co ; A Pure Alum Embi pidery Laces and Silk rrimmifigs "7 A complete line of Men aiid boys new spring V'; . ' SUliS. A FEW SPECIALS Just Arrived Marquisettes' in delicate shades - Fancy Chiffons. Whitellace brocades. v -1 . mm I. -' The French Broad Hustler Company will pay a Terr liber. mission to agents soliciting new subscribers for Henderson c. leading weekly. 1 e; rrenci ; A campaign for 1000 new subscribers in Henderson comt Just begun The first two hundred new subscribers will be f handsome combination kitchen set, iyalued at $2;50. with a jewj antee that the set is perfect in erery respect, for the small r $1.85 Si J. it s 'Write for agents sample case- and commission v ( want a person who is not afraid f work and is Pre"" I er cross road In Henderson and Transylranla courw P. 0, BOX 254 ,HB5DEBS0M D on t l ai 1 Invest y6ur money in 'an established old ne , r panyjDaying iibenal annual dividends ana ilqucrtsri at Dr. J. G. VelHroP - v - e Just Arrive H G I Inid Husl. l r " 35cts, ------35cuj 65 cti Chan anv Jac; iSivitser, Agent HENDERSONV1LLE, N- c' . si t