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A GOOD MEDIUH THROUGH VICCII TO REACH THE PUBLIC. NEWSPAPER Eier Published In T1HC1 COUNTY. Power Print. t&Rates on Application.! m R. MANNING, Publisher. OjRox-nsr-A., C-AjR03L.nsr-A., HilE.A.'VEisr's ZBijEssnsro-s -A-TTZehstd 3EELe:r. 7? SnBSCRHTIOH $100 a Itu. VOL. VIII. HENDERSON, N. C., THURSDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1889. NO. 50. I 1 THE ANNUAL MESSAGE President Harrison's Commu nication to Congress. To the Senate and House of Representatives: There are few transactions in the admin 's ration of the government that are even lemiorarUy held in the confidence of those iharged with the conduct of the public busi ness. Every step taken is under the observa tion of an intelligent and watchful people. -Thf Ktate of the Union is known from day to lay, and suggestions as to the needed legisla tion find an earlier voice than that which Ipeaks in these annual communications of :he president to congress. Good will and cordiality have character ized our relations and correspondence with other governments, and the year just closed .eaves few international questions of impor tance remaining unadjusted. No obstacle is believed to exist that can long postpone th ? consideration and adjustment of the still .uding questions ujxm satisfactory and honorable terms. The dealings of this gov ernment with other states have been and hhould always be marked by frankness and sincerity, our purposes avowed and our methods free from intrigue. This course has born- rich fruit in the past, and it is our duty as a nation to preserve the heritage of pood rep-.it -iciiich a century of right deal ing with foreigu governments has secured to us. The ru-Atuei'lc&ii Congress. In the rour of hi remarks on the Pan American co:ifv tl.e president says: Therscota.'i rdiTi of this international conference t- m lightened statesmen will doubths h'T th. Mwiderate attention of Dougrens and its cu-iiwraiion in the removal of unnecejsary barriur to beneficial inter Murae between the nations of America. But while the commercial results which it is hoped will follow this conference are worthy Df pun ait and of the groat interest they have xciteo, it is believed that the crowning ben efit w ill tie found in the better securities hich may be devised for the maintenance f peace anions nil American nations and the settlement of ali contentions by methods that a Christian civilization can approve. While viewing with intorestour national re-kmret-s and products, tho delegates will, I tin sure, find a higher satisfaction in the evi dences of unselfish friendship which every where attend tfeeir intercourse with our peo ple. The Hank of Our "Eiivovh. The president then sjieaks of the maritime jonfVrtnco, and adds: In thiK connection it may be noted that all the nations of the western hemisphere, with Due exception, send to "Washington envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary, Ung the highest grade accredited to this govmrnuiviit The United States, on tho con trary, send envoys of lower gratfe to some of our tis-ter republics. Our representative In Paraguay r.n I Uruguay is a minister resi dent, while to Bolivia we send a minister resident aud consul geieral. In view of the (mprtanceof our relations with the states of the American system, our diplomatic tgeuts in those countries should ba of the 1 tmifrni rank of envoy extraordinary and minister, plenipotentiary. Certain missions were so elevated by the last congress with lyij.py effect, and I recommend tlu! comple tion of the reform thus begun, with tho in clusion also of Ilawaii and Hayti, in view of their relations to the American system of tales. I also recommend that timely provision be tnade for extending to Hawaii an invitation to be rpre seated in the international confer ence now sitting at this 'capital. Kvlutloun with China. Oar relations with China have the atten tive consideration which their magnitude and interest dt-mand. The failure of the treuty negotiated under the administration of my predecessor for the further and more complete restriction of Chinese labor immi gration, and, with it, the legislation of the last session of congress depeii-'.ent thereon, leave some questions oen which congress thou id now approach in that wise and just iplrit which should characterize the rela tions of two great and friendly powers. While our kupremo interests demand the ex clusion of a laboring element which expe rience has shown to be incompatible with our social life, all steps to compass this im perative need should bo accompanied with a recognition qf the claim of those strangers now lawfully among us to humane and just treatment. The accession of the young Emperor of China marks, we may hopa, au era of prog ress and prosperity for the great couutry over which he is called to rule. Samoan Affairs. The present state of affairs in respect to the Samoan island is encouraging. The conference which was held in this city in the summer of 18S7 between the representatives of tho United States, Germany and Great Britaip having been adjourned because of the persistent divergence of views which was d?v-"opud in its deliberations, the subse quent course of events in the islands gave rise to questions of a serious character. On the 4th of February last, the German min ister at this capital, in behalf of his govern ment, proposed a resumption of the confer ence at Berlin. This proposition was accept ed, as congress, in February last, was in formed. Pursuant to the understanding thus reached, commissioners were appointed by me, by and with the advice and consent of tho senate, who proceeded to Berlin, where the confer ence was renewed. The deliberations ex tended through several weeks and resulted tq the conclusion of a treaty, which will be submitted to the senate for its approval. I trust that the efforts which have been made to effect an adjustment of this question veil be productive of the permanont establish ment of law and order in Samoa, upon the basis of the maintenance of the rights and interests of the natives as well as of the treaty powers. The questions which have arisen during the past few years between Ureal .Britain and the United States are in abeyance or in Course of amicable adjustment. The Fisheries Question. Ob the part of the government of the Do minion of Canada an effort has been appar ent during the season just ended to admin ister the laws and regulations applicable to the fisheries with as little occasion for f ric- . tion as was possible, and the temperate rep resentations of this government in respect of east s of undue hardship or of harsh inter pretations have been in most cases met with measures of transitory relief. It is trusted that the attainment of our just rights under existing treat tes j.i.d in virtu of the concur rent legislation of the two Contiguous coun tries will not be long deferred, and that all existing causes of difference may be equit ably adjusted. I recommend that provision be made by an international agreement for visibly mark ing the water boundary between the United States and Cauada in the narrow channels that join the Great Lakes. The conventional line therein traced by the northwestern boundary survey, years ago, is not in all c-E's readily ascertainable for the settle ment of jurisdictional questions. A just and acceptable enlargement ot tne list of offenses for which extradition may be claimed and granted Is most desirable be tween thi? country and Great Britain. The territory of neither should become a secure harbor for the evil doers of the other throqgh any avoidable shortcoming in this tegarTL A new treaty on this subject between the two powers has been recently negotiated and will soon be laid before the senate. i Various International Questions. I The importance of the commerce of Cuba and Porto Rico with the United States, their nearest and principal market, justifies the expectation that the existing relations may be beneficially expanded. The impediments resulting from varying dues on navigation and from the vexatious treatment of vessels, on merely technical grounds of complaint, in West India porta, should be removed. (Here follows brief reference to our rela tions with Spain, France, Portugal and Nic aragua; to the Brussels international slave trade congress; to our relations with Ger : many, and to the condition of Hayti.) A mixed commission is now in session in this capital for the settlement of long btanding claims against the re public of Venezuela, and it is hoped that a satisfactory conclusion will be spsedlly reached. This government has not hesitated to express its earnest ilesire that the boundary dis- pute how pentlin between Great Britain and Ven- j ezuela may 1 adjusted amicably and in strict ac- j cordanee with the historic title of the parties. j The advancement of the empire of Japan has been evidenced by the recent promulgation of a ! new constitution, containing valuable guaranties j of liberty ami providing for a responsible ministry to conduct the government. " j It is earnestly recommended that our judicial j rights and processes in Corea be established on ; a firm basis, by providing the 'machinery neces- j sary to cany out treaty stipulotions in that re- j Kard. The friendliness of the Persian government con tinues to be shown by its generous treatment of Americans eugaged in missionary labors, and by j the cordial disposition of the shah to encourage the enterprise of our citizens in the development of Persian resources. A discission is in progress touching the juris dictional treaty rights of the United States in Turkey. An earnest effort will be made to define those rights to the satisfaction of both govern ments. Naturalized Citizens. Questions continue to arise in our relations with several countries in respect to the rights of nat uralized citizens. Especially is this the case with France, Italy, Russia and Turkey, and to a less extent with Switzerland. From time to time earnest efforts have been made, to regulate this subject by conventions with those countries. An improper use of naturalization should not be per mitted, but it is most important that those who have lee:i duly naturalized should everywhere be accord. hI recognition of the rights pertaining to the citizenship of the couutry of their adoption. The appropriateness of special conventions for that purpose is recognized in treaties which this government has concluded with a number of European states, and it is advisable that the diffi culties which now arise in our relations vith other countries on the same subject should be similarly adjusted. The Hrnzllian Revolution. The recent revolution iu Brazil in favor of the establishment of a republican form of govern ment is an event of great interest to the United States. Our minister at Rio de Janeiro was at once instructed to maintain friendly diplomatic relations with the provisional government, and the Brazilian representatives at this capital were instructed by tit.: provisional government to con tinue their functions. Our friendly intercourse with Brazil has, therefore, suffered no interrup tion. Our minister has been further instructed to ex tend on the part of this government a formal and cordial recognition of the new republic so soon as the majority of the people of Brazil shall have signified their assent to its establishment and maintenance. Within our own borders a general condition of prosperity prevails. The harvests of the last summer were exceptionally abundant, and the trade conditions now prevailing seem to promise a suece.-vf ul seasou to the merchant and the man ufacturer, and general employment to our work ing people. Our Financial Condition. The report of the secretary of the treasury for the fiscal year ending June , 1889, has been pre pared, a:id will be presented to congress. It pre sents with clearness the fiscal operations of the government, and I avail myself of it to obtain some facts for use here. The aggregate receipts from all sources for the year were 8:187,050.058.84, derived as follows: From customs $223,832,741.69 From internal revenue 130,881,513.98 From miscellaneous sources 32,835,803.28 The ordinary expenditures for the same period were $281,D9G,t;i5.G0, and the total expenditures, including the sinking fund, were $329,579,929.25. The excess of receipts over expenditures was, after providing for the sinking fund, $57,470,129.59. For the current fiscal year the total revenues, actual aud estimated, are $385,000,000, and the or dinary expenditures, actual and estimated, are $293,000,000, making with the sinking fund a total expenditure of $341,321,116.99, leaving an estimated surplus of $43,678,883.01. Purchase of Itonds. During the fiscal year there was applied to th purchase of bonds, in addition to those for the sinking fund, $9J,456, 172.35, and during the first quarter of the current year the sum of $37,838, 937.77, all of which were credited to the sinking fund. The revenues for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, are estimated by the treasury de partment at $3S5,000,000, and the expenditures for the same period, including the sinking fund. at $341,430,477.70. This shows an estimated sur plus for that year of $43,569,522.30, which is mora likely to be increased than reduced when the actual transactions are written up 1 he existence of so large an actual and antici pated surplus should have the immediate atten tion of congress, with a view to reducing the re ceipts of the treasury to the needs of the govern ment as closely as may be. The collection of moneys not needed for public uses imposes an uuneecssary burden upon our people, and the presence of so large a surplus in the public vaults Is a disturbing element in the conduct of private business. It has called into use expedients for putting it into circulation of very questionable propriety. We should not collect revenue for the purpose of anticipating our bonds beyond the requirements of the sinking fund,Hut any unappropriated surplus in the treasury should be so used, as there is no other lawful way of re turning the money to circulation, and the profit realized by the government offers a substantia) advantage. Lonninf Public Funds to Hank. The loaning of public funds to the banks with out interest, upon the security of government bonds, I regard as an unauthorized and dangerous expedient. It results hi a temporary and un natural increase of the banking capital of favored localities, and compels a cautious and gradual re call of the deposits to avoid injury to the com mercial inteiv;4,s. It is not to lm expected that the banks having these deposits will-aell their bonds to tb treasury so long as the present high ly beneficial arrangement is continued. They nojr practically get interest both upon the bonds and lurir proeeods. No further use should be made of this method of getting the surplus into circula tion, and the deposits now outstanding should be gradually withdrawn and applied to the purchase of bonds. It is fortunate that such a use can be made of the existing surplus, and for some time to come of any casual surplus that may exist after congress has taken the necessary steps for a reduction of the revenue. Such legislation should be promptly, but very considerately, enacted. Tariff Revision Recommended. 1 recommend a revision of our tariff law, both in its administrative features and in the schedules. The need of the former is generally conceded, and au agreement upon the evils and inconven . ieuces to be remedied and the best methods for their correction will probably not be difficult. Uniformity of valuation at all our ports is essen tial, aud effective measures should be taken to secure it. It is equally desirable that questions affecting rates and classifications should be promptly decided. j The preparation of a new schedule of customs ; duties is a matter of great delicacy because of its direct Kt.-ct upon the business of the country, and ' of grea'. difficulty by reason of the wide diver-! gence of opinion as to the objects that may prop j erly be promoted fey such legislation. Some dis turbance of business may perhaps result from the consideration of this subject by congress, but this temporary ill effect will be reduced to the mini mum by prompt action and by the assurance which the country already enjoys that any necessary changes will be so made as not to impair the just and reasonable protection of our home industries. The inequalities of the law should be adjusted, but the protective principle should be maintained , and fairly appUed to the products of our farms as 1 well as of our shops. These duties necessarily j have relation to other things besides the public revenues. We can not limit their effects by fixing our eyes on the public treasury alone. They have a direct relation to home production, to work, to wages, and to the commercial independence of our country, and the wise and patriotic legislator should enlarge the field of his vision to include all of these. i Removal of the Tobacco Tax. j The necessary reduction in our public revenues 1 can, I am sure, be made without making the , smaller burdeu more onerous than the larger by reason of the disabilities and limitations which I the process of reduction puts upon both capita : and labor. The free list can be very safely ex- j tended by placing thereon articles that do not ' offer injurious competition to such domestic pro- j ducts as our home labor cau supply. The removal of the internal tax upon tobacco would relieve an J im!ortaiit agricultural product from a burden j wjucu was lmposeu only oecaase our revenue from customs duties was iusiuluioiit for the pub lic needs. If saf pruvi j.m against fraud can be devised, the removal of t i-: tux upou spirits used in the arts and ia manufactures would ait) offer au unobjectionable method of reducing the sur plus. (The president here refers to tho amount of money in circulation nt some length.) Tlffe law requiring the purchase, by the treas ury, of two million dollars' worth of silver bul lion each mouth, to be coiue I into silver dollars of four hundred and twelve and one-half grains, has been observed by the department; but neither the present secretary nor any of his predccessois has deemed it safe to exercise the discretion given by law to increase the monthly purchases to four mil; ion dollars. When the law was enacted (Feb. ii. 1878) the price of stiver in the market was $l.j 4-10 per ounce, making tho bullion value of the dollar 93 cents. Since that time the price has f.ilieu as low as 91.2 cents per ounce, reducing the bullion value of the dollar to 70.6 cents. Within t .e kist few months the market price has some what advanced, and ou the 1st day ot" November la 1 1 uc bullion value of the silver dollar was 72 The Silver Dollar. The evil anticipations which have accompanied the coinage and use of the silver dollar havs not been realiz:d. As a coin it has not had general use, aud the public treasury has been compelled to store it But this is manifestly owing to the fnct that its paior representative is more con venient. I he general acceptance and use of the silver certificate show that silver has not been otherwise discredited. Some favorable conditions have contributed to maintain this practical equal. ty, iu their commercial use, between the gold aud silver dollars. But some of these are iiade conditions that statutory enactments do not control, and of the cuutiuuauce of which we cannot be certain. 1 think it is clear that, if we should make the coinage of silver at the present ratio free, we must expect that the difference in the bullion values of the gold and silver dollars will be taken account of iu commercial transactions, and 1 fear the same result would follow any consider able increase of the present rate of coinage. Such a result would be disci editable to our finan cial management and disastrous to all busiuess interests. We should not tread the dangerous edge of such a peril. And, indeed, nothing more harmful could happen to the silver interests. Any safe legislation upon this subject must se cure the equality of the two coins in their com-1 mercial uses. I have always been an advocate of the use of silver in our currency. We are large producers of that metal, and should not discredit it. To the plan which will be presented by the secretary bf the treasury for the issuance of notes or certifi cates upon the deposit of silver bullion at its mar ket value, I have been able to give only a hasty examination, owing to the press of other matters and to the fact that it has been so recently formu lated. The details of such a law require careful consideration, but the general plan suggested by him seems to satisfy the purpose to continue the use of silver in connection with our currency, and at the same time to obviate the danger of which I have spoken. At a later day I may communicate further with congress upon this subject. (President Harrison here makes brief ref erence to the Chines $ Exclusion act and the Behring Sea proclamation.) Coast Defenses. Judged by modern standards, we are practical-k-" without coat defenses. Many of the structures we have would enhance rather than diminish the perils of their garrisons if subjected to th-i fire ol improved guus; and very few are so located as tc giTe full effect to the greater range of such guue as we are now making for coat defense uses. This general subject has had consideration in con gress for some years, and th appropri.it ion for the construction of large rifled guns, made one year ago, was, I am sure, the expression of a pur pose to provide suitable works in which these guus might be mounted. An appropriation now made for that purpose would not advance th completion of the works beyond our ability to ! supply them with fairly effective guns. I The security of our coast cities asrainst foreign attack should not rest altogether in the friendly dispositiou of other nations. There should be a second line wholly in our own keeping. I very urgently recommend an appropriation at this ses siou for the construction of such works in our most exposed harbors. I approve the suggestion of the secretary of war that provision be made for encamping com panies of the National Guard in our coast work! for a specified time each year, and for their train ing in the use of heavy guns. His suggestion that an increase of the artillery force of the army it desirable is also in this connection commended tc the consideration of congress. The improvement of our, important rivers and " harbors should be promoted by the necessary ap propriations. Care should be taken that the gov ernment is not committed to the prosecution ol works not of public and general advantage, and that the relative usefulness of works of that class is not overlooked. So far as this work can evei be said to be completed, I do not doubt that the end would be sooner and more economically reached if fewer separate works were undertaken at the same time, and those selected for then j greater general interest were more rapidly pushed to completion. A work once considerably begun should not be subjected to the risks and deteriora tion which interrupted or Insufficient appropria tions necessarily occasion. Protection of Federal Officers and Wit esse. The assault made by David 8. Terry upon the person of Justice Field, of the supreme court ol the United States, at Lathrop, CaL, in August last, and the killing of the assailant by a deputy United States niarsnai wno nan been deputed t -accompany Justice Fiel 1 and to protect him from anticipated violence at the hands of Terry, In con nection with the legal proceedings which have followed, suggest questions which, in my judg ment, are worthy of the attention of congress. I recommend that more definite provision be made by la'w. not only for the protection of fed eral officers, but for a full trial of such cases ic the United States courts. In recommending such legislation I do not at all Impeach either the gen eral adequacy of the pr-'.isiyn made by the state laws for the protection of all citizens, or the gen-"1 eral good disposition of those charged with the execution of such laws to give protection to the officers of the United States. The duty of pro tecting its officers, as such, and of punishing those who assault them on accouci of their offi cial acts, should not be devolved expressly or by acquiescence upon the local authorities. Events which have been brought to my atten tion, happening in other parts of the country, have also suggested the propriety of extending by legislation fuller protection to those who may be called as witnesses in the courts of the United States. The law compels those who are supposed to hare knowledge of public offenses to attend upon our courts and grand juries and to give evi dence. There is a manifest resulting duty that these witnesses shall be protected from injury ou account of their testimony. The investigation! of criminal offenses are often rendered futile and the punishment of crime impossible, by the in timidation of witnesses. The necessity of providing some more speedy method for disposing of the cases which now come for final adjudication to the supreme court becomes every year more apparent and urgent The plan of pijvidjng tome inUrmediate courts, having final appellate jurisdiction of certain classes of questions and eases, has, I think, re ceived a more general approval from the bench and bar of the country than any other. Without attempting to discuss details, I recommend that provision be made for the establishment of such courts. The salaries of the judges of the district courts in many of the districts are, In my judgment, in adequate. I recommend that all such salaries now boiow $5,000 per annum be increased to that amount. It is quite true that the amount of labor performed by these judges is very unequal; but as they cannot properly engage in other pursuits to supplement their incomes, the salary should be such in all cases as to provide an independent and comfortable support. Earnest attention should be given by congress to a consideration of the question how far the re straint of those combinations of capital commonly called "trusts" is matter of federal jurisdiction. When organized, as they often are, to crash out all healthy competition and to monopolize the production or sale of an article of commerce and general necessity, they are dangerous conspira cies against tho public good, and should be made the subject of prohibitory and even penal legis lation. The subject of an international copyright has been frequently commended to the attention of congress by my predecessors. The enactment of such a law would be eminently wise and just. Our naturalization laws should be 'jo revised as to make the inquiry into the moral character and good disposition towards our government of the persons" applying for citizenship more thor ough. This can only be done by taking fuller control of the examination, by fixing the times for hearing such applications, and by requiring the presence of some one who shall represent the government in the inquiry. Those who are the avowed enemies of social order, or who come to our shores to swell the injurious influence and to ex tend the evil practices of any association that de fies our laws, should not only be denied citizen ship, but a domicile. The enactment of a national bankrupt law of a charae. .r to be a permanent part of our general legislation is desirable. It should be simple in its methods and inexpensive in its administration. The Postmaster General's Report. The report of the postmaster general not only exhibits the operations of the department for the last fiscal year, but contains many valuable sug gestions for the improvement and extension of the service, which are commended to youf atten tion. No other branch of the government has so close a contact with the daily life of the people. Almost every one uses the service it offers, and ' every hour gained in the transmission of the great commercial mails has an actual and possi ble value that only those engaged in trade can . understand. The saving of one day in the transmission of the . mails between New York and San Francisco, j which has recently been accomplished, is an inci- j dent worthy of mention. The plan suggested of a supervision of the post- offices m separate districts that shall involve in struction and suggestion and a rating of the afficiency of the postmasters would, I hae no doubt, greatly improve the service. Secretary Tracy's Report. The report of the secretary of the navy shows a reorganization of the bureaus of the department that will, I do not doubt, promote the efficiency of each. In general, satisfactory progress lias been mode in the construction of the new ships of war authorized by congress. The first vessel of the new navy, the Doiphin, was subjected to very severe trial tests aud to very much adverse criticism. But it is gratifying to be able to state that a cruise around the world, from which she has recently returned, has demonstrated that she is a first class vessel of her rate. The report of the secretary shows that while the effective force of the navy is rapidly increas ing, by reason of the improved build and arma ment of the new ships, the number of our ships fit for sea duty grows very slowly. We had. oa the 4th of Mirch last, thirty-6eveu serviceable shitis, and though four have since beeu added to the list, the total number has not lieen increased, because ia the nieau time four have been lost or condemned. Twenty-six additional vessels have been authorized and appropriated for, but it is probable that when they are completed our list will only be increased to forty-two, a gain of five. The old wooilen ships are disappearing almost as fast as the new vessels are added. These facts carry their own argument. One of the new ships may, in fighting strength, be equal to two of the old, but it cannot do the cruising duty of two. It is important, therefore, that we should have a more rapid increase ia the number of serviceable ships. I concur in the recommendation of the secret;u-y that the construction of eight armored ships, three gunboats and five torpedo boats be authorized. Au appalling calamity befell three of our naval vessels on duty at the Samoan islands, iu the harbor of Apia, iu Jiarcli last, involving l:.e loss of four officers and forty -seven seamen, of two vessels, the Treuton and the Vaudaha. and" the disabling of a third, the Nipsic. Three vessels of the German navy, also in the harbor, shared with our ships the force of the hurricane au J M-.ffered even more heavily. Whde uiourui ig the brave officers and men who died, facing wi.h hih re solve perils greatwr thau those of I ulc, it is most gratis j iug to state that ihe i red it of the American navy for scauiuuship, courage, and generosity was magnificently sustained in the storm beaten hart or of Apia. (The president here speaks at length of the progress and condition of taj Indian on gov ernment reservations, and refers to the Sioux and Cher, kee negotiations.) The Opening of Oklahoma. Under the agreement made between the United States, and the Muscogee (or Creek) nation of Indians on the 19th day of January, 1883, an ab solute title was secured by the United States to about three and a half millions of acrei of land. Section 12 of the general Indian appropriation act, approved March 2, 18S9, made provisioh for the purchase by the United States from the Sem inole tribe of a certain portion of their lands. The delegates of the Seminole nation, having f rst duly evinced to m-i their power to act in that iK'hilf, djiivred a proper release and convey-uiil-j c tha Uuked States of all the lands men ti M.cd in ihe act, which was accepted by me and Ceitilie-i to be in compliance with the statute. By the trrms of both the acts referred to all the lu.ls so purchased were declared to be a part of the public domain, and open to settlement under the homestead law. But of the lands embraced in tiie;i purchases, being in the aggregate about five and a half million acres, three and a half mil lion acres had already, under the terms of the t.vaty of 1866, been acquired by the United States for the, purpose of settling other Indian tribes t'..':'jta, and had been appropriated to that pur j.i. ;.'. The land remaining and available for set tl; .:iie?-t consisted of 1,887,796 acres, surrounded on all sides by lands in the occupancy of Indian triln's. Congress had provided no civil govern menffor the people who were to be Invited by my proclamation to settle upon these lands, except as the new court, which had been established at Muscogee, or the United States courts In some of the adjoining states, had power to enforce the general laws of the United States. Ia this condition of things I was quite reluctant to o)en the lands to settlement. But in view of the fact that several thousand persons, many of them with their families, had gathered upon tire borders of the Indian Territory, with a view to securing homesteads on the ceded lands, and that delay would involve them in much loss and suffer 3:iK, I did, on the 23d day of March last, issue a 1' reclamation declaring that the lands therein de scribed would be open to settlement under the provisions of the law on the 22d day of April fol lowing, at 12 o'clock noon. Two land districts had been established and the offices were open for the transaction of business when the appointed time arrived. It is much to the credit of the settlers that they very generally observed the limitation as to tht time when they might enter the territory. Care will be taken that those who entered in violation of the law do not secure the advantage they un fairly sought. There was- a good deal of appre hension that the strife for locations would result in much violence and bloodshed, but happily these anticipations were not realized. It is estimated that there arj now in the territory about CO.OOC people, and several considerable towns havt sprung up, for which temporary municipal gov ernments have been organized. Guthrie is said tc j have now a population of almost 8,000. Elever schools and nine churches have been established and three daily and five weekly newspapers art ! published in this city, whose charter aud ordi I nances have only the sanction of the voluntary :-r: rivKvuc? of the people from day to day. : .1 o:na City has a population of about fivr thousand, and is proportionately as well provided ;:; Guthrie with churches, schools and newspa pers. Other towns and villages having popula tions of from one hundred to a thousand are scat tered over the territory. Iu order to secure the peace of this new com munity, in the absence of civil government, I dl rected.Gen. Merritt, commanding the Department of the Missouri, to act in conjunction with the marshals of the United States to preserve the peace, and upon their requisition to use the troops to aid them in executing warrants and in quieting any riots or breaches of the peace that might occur. He was further directed to use his influence to promote good order and to avoid any conflicts between or with the settlers. Believing that the introduction and sale of liquors, where no legal restraints or regulations existed, would endanger the public peace, and in view of the fact that such liquors must first be introduced into the Indian reservations before reaching the white settlements, I further directed the general commanding to enforce the laws relating to the introduction of ardent spirits into the Indian country. The presence of the troops has given a sense of security to the we'l disposed citizens, and has tended to restrain the lawless. In one instance the officer in immediate command of the troops went further than I deemed justifiable in sup porting the de facto municipal government of Guthrie, and he was so informed and directed to limit Ihe interference of the military to the sup port of the marshals on the lines iud2asad in the original order. I very urgently recommend that congress a once provide a territorial govern ment for these people. Serious questions, which may at any time lead to violent outbreaks, are awaiting the institution of courts for their peace ful adjustment. The American genius for self government has been well illustrated in Okla homa, but it is neither safe nor wise to leave these people longer to the expedients which have tem porarily served them. Provision should be made for the acquisition of title totown lots in the towns now established in Alaska, for locating town sites and for the estab lishment of municipal governments. Only the mining laws have been extended to that territory, and no other form of title to lands can now be ob tained. The general land laws were framed with reference to the disposition of agricultural lands, and it is doubtful if their operation in Alaska would be beneficial. In the administration of the land laws the policy of facilitating, in every proper way, the adjust ment of the honest claims of individual settlers upon the public lands has been pursued. The numlier of pending cases had, during the preced ing administration, been greatly increased under the operation of orders for a time suspending final action iu a large part of the cases origi nating in the west and northwest, and by the sub sequent use of unusual methods of examination. Only those who are familiar with the conditions under which our agricultural landj hr.ve betn set tled can appreciate serious and often fatal consequences to the seyhfr of a policy that puts his title under suspicion, or delays the issuance of his paten. While care is taketi to preventand to expose fraud, it should not be imputed without reason. The manifest purpose of the homestead and preemption laws was to promote the settlement of the public domain by persons having a bona fide intent to mate a home upon the selected lands. Where this intent has been well estab lished and the requirements of the law have been 8iilstantial!y complied with, the claimant is en titled to a prompt and friendly consideration of his case. But where there is reason telieve that the claimant is the mere a.-?ent of another, who is seeking to evade a law intended to promote small holdings, and to secure by fraudulent methods large tracts of timber and other lands, both principal and agent should not only be thwarted in their fraudulent purpose, but should be made to feel the full penalties of our criminal statutes The laws should be so administered as not to confound these two classes, and to visit penalties only upon the latter. (Reference is here made to New Mexico end Arizona land titles.) Pensions. The If.w now provides a pension for every soldier and sailor who was mustered into the service of the United States during the civil war and is now suffering from wounds or disease having an origin in the service and in the line of duty. Two of the three necessary facts, viz.. muster and disability, are usually susceptible of easy proof: but the third, origin in the service, is often difficult, and iu mauy deserving coses impossible to establish That veiy many of those wlio endured, the hard ships of our most bloody and arduous campaigns are now disabled from diseases that had a real but not traceable origin in the service I do ttot doubt. Besi i-s tlise there is another class composed of men many of whom served au enlistment of three full years, and of re-enlisted veterans who added a fourth year of erviee, who escaped the casualties of battle ami the assaults of disease, who were always ready for any detail, who were in every battle line of their command, and were mustered out in sound health, aud have, sncetbe close of the war, while fighting with the same indomitable and independent (spirit the coutests of civil life, been overcome by disease or cos unity. I an: uot unaware that the pension roll already involv e a very large annual expenditue, neitaer am 1 1 ternd by that fact from recommending that oo igr.-ss grunt a pension to siich honorary discharged soldiers and s.iifci-3 of the civil war tun having rendered KubsiaiXJ seriioe during the war i.rv avw depend u., ,:i t'.i.-i.- ussrn labor for a inintenaace, and by divuse or casualty are in capacitated from earumg it. Many of tne men who woviVl be iuo'.u led ia this form of rcii-fare now dej u.ii'iit upon jHi'.4ic tad, and it dova not, in my judgment, consist with the national h juor tluit they shall cu.itinue to subsist upon the local relief given indiscriminately to pauper instead of upon the s;vjcial and generoos provision of the nation they served so gallantly and unselfishly. Our people l l 1 a-u sare, very generally ap prove such legi.-datiou. And I am equally sure that the survivors f the Union army and navy will feel a grateful sense of relief when this worthy aud suffering class of their comrades is fairly cared f -r. There arc onie manifest inequalities ia the ex isting law that should be nemedied. To some of thte the secretary of ihe interior has called at tention It is gratifying to bable to state that by tho adoption of new and better, methods in the war department the calls of the pension office for In formation as to the military and hospital records of pension claimants are now promptly answered, and the injurious and vexatious delays that have heretofore occurred are entirely avoided. This will greatly facilitate the adjustment of all pend ing claims. (The president then speaks of the four new states.) Protection of Railroad Employes. The attention of the interstate commerce com mission has been called to the urgent need of congressional legislation for the better protection of the lives and limbs of those engaged in operat ing the great interstate freight lines of the coun try, and especially of the yardmen and brake men. A petition, signed by nearly 10,000 railway brakemcn, was presented to the commission, ask ing that steps might be taken to bring about the use of automatic brakes and couplers on freight cars. At a meeting of state railroad commissioners and their accredited representatives, held at Washington in March last, upon the invitation of the interstate commerce commission, a resolution was unanimously adopted urging the commission "to consider what can be done to prevent the loss of life and limb in coupling and uncoupling freight cars, and iu handling the brakes of such cars." During the year ending June 30, 1888, over 2,000 railroad employes were killed in service, and more . than 0,000 injured. ' It is competent, I think, for congress to require uniformity in the construction of cars used in in terstate commerce, and the use of improved safety appliances upon such trains. Time will be necessary to make the needed changes, but an earnest and intelligent beginning should be made at once. It is a reproach to our civilizat-on that any class of American workmen shoulf9u the pursuit of a necessary and useful vocation, be subjected to a peril cf life and limb as great as that of a soldier in time of war. (The president than speaks of the depart ment cf agriculturs, the weather service, and the District of Columbia.) Tne proposition to observe the four hundreth anniversary of the discovery of America by the opening of a world's fair or exposition in some one of our great cities will be presented for the consideration of congress. The value and inter ... . f -ik-Ii an exposition may well claim the pro on . f the general government. In the course of lengthy reference to the civil service commission, he says: The reform of the civil service will make no safe or satisfactory advance until the present law and its equal administration are well established in the confidence of the people. It will be my pleasure, as it is my duty, to see that the law is executed with firmness and Impartiality. If' some of ita provisions have been fraudulently evaded by appointing officers, our resentment should not suggest the repeal of the law, but re form in its administration. We should have one view of the matter, and hold it with a sincerity that is not affected by the consideration that the party to which we belong is for the time in power. My predecessor, on the 4th day of January, 1889, by an executive order to take effect March 15, brought the railway mail service under the opera tion of the civil service law. Provision was made that the order should take effect sooner in any state where an eligible list was sooner obtained. On the 11th day of March, Mr. Lyman, then the only member of the commission, reported to me in writing that it would not be possible to have the list of eligibles ready before May 1, and re quested that the taking effect of the order be ' postponed until that time, which was done, sub ( ject to the same provision contained in the origi- nal order as to states in which an eligible list was j sooner obtained. j As a result of the revision of the rules, of the I new classification, and of the inclusitlflf the rail way mail service, the work of the commission has been greatly increased, and the present clerical force is found to be inadequate. I recommend that the additional clerks asked by the commia sion be appropriated for. I am satisfied that both in and out of the classi fied service great benefit would accrue from the adoption of some system by which the officer would receive the distinction and benefit that, in all private employments, cornea from exceptional faithfulness and efficiency in the performance of duty. I have suggested to the heads of the executive departments that they consider whether a record might not be kept in each bureau of all those ele ments that arw covered by the terms "faithful ness" and "efficiency," and a rating made showing the relative merits of the clerks of each class, this rating to be regarded as a test of merit in making promotions. I have also suggested to the postmaster general that he adot some plan by which he can, upon the basis of the reports to (the department and of frequent insp:tions, indicate the relative merit of postmasters of eai class. They will be ap propriately indicated in the official register and in the report of t.'ie department. That a great stim ulus would thus be given to the whole service I do not doubt, and such a record would be the best defense aga'ost inconsiderate removals from office, (The president here suggests a national ex perimental giant in aid of education.) Tho "Color Question." The colored people did not intrude themselves upon us; tbey were brought here in chains and held in the communities where tbey are now chiefly found, by a cruel slave code. Happily fcr both races they are now free. They have, from a standpoint of ignorance and poverty, which was ourshame. not t':eir-. made remarkable ad vuuon in e lucatiou aud iu tue acquisition of projierty. They have, as a people, shown theui sVIves to be friendly and faithful towards the wi.ite race, under teniptat orts of tremendous strength. They have their representatives in the uatioi.al cemeteries where a grateful government has gathered the ahes of those who died In Us defeus-. Th' have furnished to our regular army regi ments that have won high praise from their com manding officers for courage and soldierly quali ties and for fidelity to the enlistment oath. In civil life they are now the toilers of their com munities, making their full contribution to the widening streams of prosperity which these com munities are receiving. Their sudden withdrawal would stop production, and bring disorder into the household as well as the shop. OtpneraUy, they do not desire to quit their bomea, and their employers resent the interference of the emigra tion agent who seek to stimulate such a desire. But, notwithstanding all this, ia many parts of our country where the colored population is large the people of that race are, by various devices, deprived of any effective exercise of their politi cal rights and of many of their civil rights. The wrong does not expend itself upon those whose votes are suppressed. Every constituency in the Union is wronged. It has been the hope of every patriot that a sense of justice and of respect for the law would work a gradual curs of these flagrant evils. Surely no one suppose that the present can be accepted as a permanent condition. If it is said that these communities must work out this prob lem for t hentscl ves, we ha ve a right to ask whether they are at work upoo it. Do tbey suggest any Isolation? When and under what conditions is the black man to liave a free ballot? When Is he In feet to Lavt tiutm full civil riehu which have ...i -t.x Wen l. ia lawr W ban W tool equanly of ..ll,i ;aiv v Licit our form ot government was -ti't-uoed to ho ure to ihe electors to be rtoredf Ta. ; imi-.ii ti k.Lo.i l courageously face these gr..vc q ie .il- us, n-l not leave Uiem as a heritage of woe to the next. Tha vo&sukation should r..-ed wi;h candor, calmness and great pa t -i.c.-; upou tl iiues of ji st.ee and humanity, lioL of pi judice and cruelty. No question la it f-oui try can be at rest except upon the firm iM - of justice and of the law. I -anutly invoke the attention of congress to ilia etnuuderatiou of such measures within its well defined constitutional powers as will secure to nil our people a free exercise of the right of Mittrago an J every other civil right under the coa tititution and laws of the United Status. No evil, however deplorable, can justify the saaumpUoo, either on the part of the executive or of congress, of power not granted; but both will be highly hHwH'p ir nil th powers granted are not wisely but firmly used to correct these evils. The power to take the whole direction and control of th election of members of the house of represents tives is clearly given to the general governments A partial aud qualified supervision of these elec tions ia now provided for by law, and in my oplnlosi Uiu law may be so strengthened and extended as to s ure, on the whole, better results than can be attained by a law taking all the processes of such election into federal control. The colored man chouM be protected in all of his relations to the federal government, whether as litigant. Juror, or u it uesa in our courts, as an elector for men l-rs of congress, or as a ieaceful traveler uposi our interstate railways. The Merchant Marine, In t he course of bis remarks on tha rasr cha.it marine, the following occurs: I recoMtnend that such appropriations be l&ads for ocean mail service, in American steamships, between our ports and those of Central aa4 S'. utii America, China, Japan and the important islands ia both of the great oceans, as will be IfsV eraily remunerative for the service rendered, and as will encourage the establishment and la Mime fair degree equalize the chances of Ameri can steamship lines ia the competitions which they must meet. That the American statsa ly ing south of us will cordially co-operate la es tablishing and maintaining such lines of steam ships to their principal ports I do not doubt. We should also make provision for a naval re serve to consist of such merchant ships, of Amer ican construction and of a specified tonnage and speed, as the owners will commit to place at tha . use of the government, in case of need, u armed cruisers. England has adopted this policy, and as a result can now, upon necessity, at once plaoa upon her naval list some of the fastest steamships in the world. A proper supervision of the con struction of such vessels would lake their con version into effective ships of war very easy. I am an advocate of economy in oir national expenditures, but it is a misuse of terms te snaka this word describe a policy that withholds aa ex penditure for thepurpoae of extending our for eign commerce. The enlargement and improve ment of our merchant marine, the development of a sufficient body of trained American seamen, the promotion of rapid and regular mail commu nication between the ports of other countries and our own, and the adaptation of large and swift American merchant steamships to naval uses, in time of war, are public purposes of the highest concern. The enlarged participation of our people ia tha carrying trade, the new and increased markets that will be opened for the products of our farms and factories, and the) fuller and better employ ment of our mechanics, which will result from a liberal promotion of our foreign; commerce, insure the widest possible diiT isi- m : lenellt to ail the states and to all our people Everything is most propitious for the pree;i' angulation of a lib eral and progressive lii .ipn this subject, and we should enter upor it u itii promptness ovi de cision. The legislation uLicti I have suggested, it Is ' sincerely believed, will promote the ieace and honor or our country and tl-.e prosiierity and s curity of the ople. I invoke the diligent and se rious attention of congress to the consideration Of tlies-i and such other measures as may be pre sented, having the same great end iu view. Hknj. IlAaautoN. Kxecutivc Mansion, Washington, Ieo. s, Itfett. 01VJS J31VJOY Both the method aud results when Syrup of Figs is taken ; it is pleasant , and refreshing to the taste, and act fently yet promptly on the Kidneys, aver and Bowels, cleanses the sys tem effectually, dispels colds, head aches and fevers and cures habitual constipation. Syrup of Figs is .the only remedy of ita kind ever pro duced, pleasing to the taste and ac ceptable to the stomach, prompt in its action and truly beneficial in its effects, prepared only from the most healthy and agreeable substances, its many excellent qualities commend it to all and have made it the most popular remedy known. I Syrup of Figs is for sale in 50c and $1 bottles by all leading drug gists. Any reliable druggist who may not have it on hand will pro cure it promptly for any one who wishes to try it Do not accept any substitute. CALIFORNIA FIG SYRUP CO. SAN FRANCISCO. CAU LOUISVILLE, KY. HEW YORK. K.t. HENDERSON Carriage Wagon Works, Crow & Marston, Prop'rs. W take thin method of Informing oar friends and Ibe public generally that we are better prepared to suppl v Carriage. Boggie, Wagon, Carts, dec, cheaper than ever before. We make a specialty In manufacturing the celebrated Alliance Wagon, on of th best wagon wold. It cannot be excelled. We have with us the finest workmen in the State, and are prepared to do all kinds of work with neatness j and despatch. 1 Carriage Painting and Horseshoeing- a specialty. Thankful for past patrons we b"pe b. good work and atrict atten tion to baftineaa to merit a cor.tinntnec of the same. " Very Respectfully. jan.24 3 1. CROW fc MARSTON.