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rtisin Brings Success. j
;ivsto a-lvt-rlisf ii.theGoLDj As an Advertising Medium L;; i", is shown by ith well filled itilvTtini nncolu runs SENSIBLE BUSINESS MEN The ISold LfcAK taudft m tl lun.iot IF . . i , ui mriaiitoii-- BRIGHT TOBiCCO DlSTRlinx iu nt ;.-on 1 iniie to Hpvrid fc irool mony where no J 1:1 hit- ret urns are seen . The most id-k ii That is Proof that it pays Them.J n- it column m it h I hf hi:h.-i SitisUction tod Profit to TfcemselTaX THAD R.H&niH6t Pnbllsber. cc OAROLINAAROIilNAHjBAVElSr's BLES8INOS HER." ISOESCIIPTIOI St it CtiL VOL. XX. HENDERSON, N. C, THURSDAY, JUNE 20, 1901. NO. 27. i I ipil Is rliing for the young husband young wife. But sympathy , i'i- one jot of her nervousness to that plane of sound health Tie the wife and mother can ii'-si. re Favorite Prescription meets every womanly want and need. It trftnriiiilizcs tbe HS''Tl nerves, restores .V"!J1 5? the atwetite and IX induces refresh ing sleep. Its use previous to maternity makes .1 t , m me oaDy s au 6 vent practically painless and .- mother almndant nutrition for 1. "Favorite Prescription " is a , liiedieini and has no equal as '.r womanly iliases. It cstab- irity, dries weakening drains, :': immation and ulceration and ::i:t!t weakness. no substitute for " Favorite Pre i ."' No other medicine is "just " for weak and sick women. int ffr-:it pleasure to 1 able to say .-. U in rtVHrrt to the merits of Dr. ; -! Prescription aii'l 4 iolden m . very." writes Mrs. Flora Am, of . .11 0 . Mo. "I was tempted to try -.- !; filter seeing the effect upon my T .in e:ir!y :i;e of married life I was r'-l with prtinful periols. also a .rii'- "train which rendered me weak .:," t it work of anv kind. I tKramc so wis nothing left of me but skin and Mv "pi-lnnl hecame alarmed and Kot '! "Favorite I'rescription. After he x :i.if-rlnl eff'-cts of that one he fot two m-i :i ft -r I used those up there was no :i and I Iwic'ir' to pain in flesh very !' r. e's Common Sense Medical ; U M iit free on receipt of 21 one ". iT.ij.s, to pay expense of mailing Address Dr. R. V. Pierce, Buf N. V. i y, t.'i- V ' tr 'a- ! t:.:' ! .: Tni a: "DAVE'S PLACE," 1 1 ipposite S. A. Ij. Station.) European Hotel, Restaurant and Lunch Counter. M .;!- served at all Ho irs Day cr Night Famished Rooms. Comfortable Beds. K.-: thtiiLr strictly liist-class. An orderly, well kept place. SALOONS K'-'i'it to anv in the State, stocked with ':i4ithin tut the very Cost and Purest Hoods money can buy. 'lliis be'uiir. the tri ip "season we have all kinds nt inu'reilieHts for relieving same. r iNfi CKiAKS AM) TOBACCOS. lnol. l.'OOMS IN CONXKCTION. HENRY T. POWELL, ATTORNEY AT LAW, 11 i:n ii:ii-"oJ, - - iv. j. o't-.ict; iii Youiij & Tucker building. G. A. Coggeshall, M. D., Physician and Surgeon, HKNDKKSON, N. C. '!: ,:i Conper Opera House litiildinj?. In- I 'hone No. 70. H. H. BASS, Physician and Surgeon, HKNDKKSON, N. C. l?o;'ce over Dorsey's Drug Store. yt. i s. HAiutis, DENTIST, HKNDKRSON, - - N. C. Ifrrottiee over E. O. Davis' store, Main s'-!.'.t. tan.l-a. Henry Perry, -Insurance. A -of .ot!i Life and Fire foiti- panies J, ,..., ,,tt4(- Tolicies issued and n- j-Uoc' " . .vt advantage. f..;:u House. FRANCIS A. MACON, Dental Surgeon, Oftee, Toung&Tucker Building, Under Telephone Exchange. " celunirs ; A.M. to 1 P. M. 3 to 6 I. M. sidence riume 8S; ottice i'hone 25. I'-'inmtes furni-?!ied when deired. No " for examination. A U.dion of PURK LINSEED OIL mixed with a gallon of Gnwtaf am i:.kes 2 gallons of ttiA vrttT BEST PaINT iu tlio VUKLU . -v"iirx:iiT.t bill. Is far siore Pt-RABLtt than 1 ! -L: ui rE I.KAI ;:f J is AI'.SOI-UTELV NOT POI- Nrs. II am m Ait 1'aint is made of the best or '" 1 matl::iai,s such us all food painters me, t :s crt'unti thick. eky thick. ISo trouble to I-'i.s. :T:y iK.y can Uo it. It is the common t5KN"SB it iu. 1 st Tain r. No betteb jmiut can be made ""J cost, eiid is ot to Crack. Blister. Peel or Chip r. IUMJIAU I AINTCO.,St. Lui,3Io. Sold and fiiaranteed bv JAS. A. O'NEIL & SON, HENDERSON, N. C. in. PARKER'S HAIR RAL.SAM C1mbm acd boatifie the hlr. Promote, & lnzurimnt rmwih.' J Hever Foils to Bestore Ory Luru ia!p dmiet ft hair tallmx. a nd 1 L)Jruygitli BANNER 8 A L V E e most healing salve In the world. 0 . T Creditably Represented ARE THE SOUTHERN STATES AT THE PAN AMERICAN EXPOSITION. Exhibit (Made by Southern Railway of Industries and Resources of States Traversed by its Lines Prominence Given to North Carolina for Which Credit is Mainly Due to Col. An drews' Patriotic Consideration Mis souri Astonishes the Natives With its Display of Fine Fruits. (Special Correspondence of the Gold Leaf.) Buffalo, N. Y., Jam 17. '01. - Thanks to the enterprise, liberality and business acumen of the Southern Hailroad, the Southern States through which that great railroad system rung all have a small exhibit iu the Agri culture liuilding at the Pan-American Kxpnsition. The names of these States are emblazoned in golden letters hijjh up on the wall space occupied by the exhibit of the South ern Hail way. The exhibit was installed in the Agriculture liuilding by Mr. Green, of Washington, 1). C, who performed the same service at the Paris Exposi tion. I was gratified this morning to see iu it very line pictures of the Swanannoa and French Hroad rivers, the chateau of Mr. (ieorge Vander bilt from several points of view, the mountains around Hot Springs and a view of Round Knob, nicely framed and advantageously hung. In this building agricultural products from the States of Virginia, North and South Carolina, (ieorgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas were artistically grouped. While it is impossible to do justice to any of these States in the small space necessarily allotted to the Southern Kail way, this exhibit is a great deal better than nothing. Un the desk ware scattered a number of attractive pamphlets showing the re sources of this fertile section. The exhibit is temporarily in charge of Mr. M. A. Hayes, of Boston, Mass. Mr. Green i expected back next week. The literature, which is given out freely to all who pass by. is superbly illustrated. There are a great main' pictures of the cotton mills in the several States. There is a line pamphlet on the city of Kaleigh which dwells particularly on the tobacco and coiton mill industries of North Carolina. It shows the State as a producer of all the cereals and fruits, cotton, etc., etc. Special mention is also made of the fine climate of North Carolina. I am sure the State owes the consideration shown her here mainly to the in tluence of Col. Alexander B. Andraws, First Vice-President of the Southern Kailioad, than whom no man in the history of the South has done more for her material advancement. This is especially true as regards his native State of North Carolina. If the citizens of the State do not know ami appreciate this truth, they are unworthy of their past. Mr. M. V. Richards, of Washington City, has proved himself an able and energetic First Lieuteuant of Colonel Audrews in pushing to the front the vast resources of the South. This kind of service is worth more to the masses of the people than the im peachment of every Chief Justice and Associate Justice '"for political pur poses" in Dixie. Let them keep it up. and in time the whir of cotton mills and tobacco factories will be heard throughout the land. Fine crops of fruit and cereals and all . ' -til evidences 01 prosperity win oe seen on every hand, when capital and skilled labor seek her fertile iields and unexcelled climates. Independent of this exhibit, Ala bama has one of the most artistic pavillions in the Agriculture Build- . - . awr d in"-. Commissioner ami iurs. tj-onuau are both there and extend a genuine Southern welcome to all visitors. I have never seen a better installation than the one which Mr. Gorman has made. He has constructed a model of the warship "Alabama, v of samples of iron ore, pig iron, Iimestoae, cnert, o-old ore, woods, lire brick, wire nails, draw heads, gearing wheels, steel castings, steel bar, steel plates, ex tra wide sheets of rolled iron, coal, coke, cotton seed oil, cotton seed meal, fertilizers, all from the State of Alabama. Several car loads of Alabama peaches have just arrived. Everybody is surprised at the size, beauty of coloriug and delicious tlavor of this fruit. The peaches are free from insects and bruises and arrived in Buffalo in firm condition These peaches command the admira tion of the visitors who nowlhrong the Agriculture Building daily and linger lonsr in this pavillion. The State of Virginia shows the twenty-five varieties of winter apples from the mountain section. Inese were sent bv the Virginia State Horti cultural Society. In the (ieorgia ex hibit one hundred varieties of cereals are shown, grown on one farm of twenty-five acres. The farm is own ed bv John Manget and is near Marietta. Georgia. Rice", cotton wheat, corn, oats, hav, cotton seed are some of the one hundred varieties shown. This is a remarkable yield for twenty-five acres of land, espe cially in the South where the land is cheap and labor plentiful. This week the second large shipment Florida fruit bearing trees will arrive here. There will be on the same date a shipment of fresh pine apples, bananas, pears and peaches selected by the commissioner, Mr. Frederick Pfeifer, who is now making the col lection in Florida. In addition to this there is a very line display of fancy canned goods. Mr. Pfeifer will distribute from his desk handsomely illustrated literature, gotten up under the auspices of the State of Florida, which will prove very interesting to those seeking homes in the South land. There is now on exhibition in the Florida exhibit a hybrid orange as large as grape fruit. The name of the fruit is "Nocatee." The commissioners of the Louisiana exhibit expect to open the rice kitchen June the 20th, completely equipped wnu an me proaucts maae irom tnat valuable cereal. Sixty varieties of strawberries from Louisiana have just arrived. The Barataria Canning Company has on exhibition a fine collection of oysters, crabs, pine apples and lig ja'm. The State also exhibits a sweet potato called "Big Ben" that weighs 122 pounds. 10,400 boxes of strawberries arrived at the Pan-American Exposition from Missouri, June 3rd. These came from Southwest Missouri in and about Springfield and Monette. They were picked on the 30th Declaration Day ana sent in refrigerator cars. About 1,000 boxes were put on exhibition in the Missouri division of the Horti culture building. These include the Gandy, Bubach, Haverland, Warfield, Aroma, Star and Philips. The Philips is a new berry in the Eastern market and a striking variety. It is very large and irregular and peculiar shape. The Haverland is a smaller fruit but of excellent flavor. The Gandy seems to be a large and very tine shipper. 1 hough picked a week befere, it was as fresh as if ju3t off the vines. The others are well known varieties both in the East and the West. These berries are not from hot houses or forcing beds but just direct from the immense open beds- just such beds as the Missourians have been enjoying for a month or six weeks. The display has been the center of attraction in the Horticul ture Building. People have flocked around it and many fortunate enough to get a lasle of the delicious fruit. 'I haven't had a whiff of such berries since I was a child in Missouri,' said a gentle old lauv in a wneel chair whom the fragrance of the fruit had greeted at the East entrance. In pite of being six days off the vines the fruit was rich in color and flavor, varying in shade from the blushing red of the Gandy to the rich, deep crimson of the Haverland. Commis sioner Bell tells some fabulous stories about berry growers in Missouri who train up single vines and raise berries the size of apples, but these are be lieved only by Missourians. How ever, one important fact concerning the strawberries now on exhibition is that they did not come from the far South as some visitors seem to think. Col. Bell went to Missouri Inst week and saw these berries gathered from the great strawberry fields of the State. The various wine exhibits of the Horticultural Building find a rival in the cider display put up by Mis souri. It is the display of one firm alone-TheClarksville Cider Company, of Clarksville, Missouri. Iheir main oflice is in St. Louis. They have a tempting display of apple ciders, in cluding the famous "Log Cabin" brand, the well known beverage of the Presidential campaigu of 1840, known as the"Cidor Campaign." cele brated in the campaign jingle "Tippe canoe and cider too." There are be sides about twenty varieties of small fruit ciders. It is the finest cider ex hibit on the grounds Missouri State University has a display of pickled fruit which is of greater professional interest from the fact that it is not shown as an exhibit of perfect fruit, but was prepared for lecture purposes by the Horticultural Department in the University of Columbia. It does not show faultless fruit, but aims to instruct upon the ills which the average sruit is heir to, and to show the method of in struction as given by the State. A display of line pickles will be made later. There is one curiosity in this connection, provoking the inquiry as to how the pear got into the bottle. This is a very large Duchess pear in a glass bottle with a very small neck. It was sent up by MrE. Pallou, of Boonville, Missouri. When the pear had just formed on its tree he in serted it in the bottle, tying the latter in place to the branch. I he pear grew until it had fairly flattened it self against the four sides of the bottle. The examinations and awards took place in the strawberry department of the Missouri Horticultural exhibit yesterday. The entire display was called a No. 1. The highest award was made to George T. Tippin, Nichols, Missouri. The grading in cluded, in the order given, P. O. Snyder, L. J. Hanley, L. B. Dumil, George Raup and J. K. Furgerson, all of Monett. Each exhibitor displayed the seven varieties mentioned above. Missouri has easily demonstrated her place as a leading berry State. Experiment shows it possible under favorable circumstances, to produce 400 crates, 1,500 boxes, of marketable berries to the acre. From a dozen to twenty standard varieties are grown for home and fancy use. The State has the advantage of great climate range, so that her berries are in season tor montns. 1 ne .Missouri Horticultural Exhibit expects a fresh exhibit in on Tuesday. Captain Hobson's memorial speech made at Detroit on May the 30th in which he advocated one Decoration Day for both the Federal and the Con federate dead has provoked a great deal of favorable comment from the cosmopolitan newspapers North and South. The speech is full of patriotic sentiments and the young hero of the Merrimac showed his courage in a remarkable degree by the suggestion that Northern orators should go South and Southern orators North to praise the bravery of both armies of the Civil War. Another courageous thing on the part of Capt. Hobson was the view he took of slavery in his Detroit speech. A great many old veterans shook him by the hand after the speech and told him that his view of the slavery question was entirely' new to them and that they cordially endorsed it from the beginning to the end. Capt. Hobson was introduced by the oldest veteran of the late war in Michigan, an officer of the G. A. R. In doing this he remorked that as an American he was as proud of the bravery of Lee, Johnston ana Jack 1 son as he was of that of Grant, Sher ; man and Sheridan. At the close of the speech Capt. Hobson was given an ovation bv the people of Detroit. An immense crowd assembled to hear j him speak. Of course he acquitted j himself with credit to his section. J He will spend the summer on duty at the Pan-American Exposition. CHARLES EDWARD LLOYD. THE BATTLE OF MOORE'S CREEK. BY ELISE GREGORY. (Paper read at the closing exercises of Henderson Graded School May 17, 1901.) There is no State in the Union whose early history is marked by purer patriotism, mora unsullied devotion to liberty, or more indomit able opposition "to every form of tyranny than North Carolina. Yet how little of that early history has been given to the world! While Virginia, on one side, has had the labors of her Jefferson, whose intellect shed a lustre on every sub ject it touched; and a Marshall, who was as illustrious as Chief Justice of the highest judicial tribunal of our land as his character was pure in all the relations of life; and the classic genius of her Wirt, Stith, Campbell, Howe, and many others devoted to her history, and to the biogiaphy of her distinguished sons. While South Carolina, on the other, has employed the "philosophic pen" of her Ramsay, Drayton, Simms, and others; North Carolina, earlier colonized in point of history, full ol glorious examples of patriotism and chivalric daring, has been neglected by her own sons and others. Among the glorious specimens of patriotism manifested in our dear old State was the struggle at the bridge of Moore's Creek, in New Hanover county, near where it joins South River. Our fearless patriots, under the command of Caswell and Lilling ton, had met and entrenched them selves on the East, or farther, side of the Creek, which, though narrow, was deep and muddy. With keen in sight they removed the planks from the rude bridge and greased the sleep ers round, smooth pine logs from which the bark had peeled with tal low and soft soap to make them still more slippery. They numbered about eleven hundred and were full of enthusiasm. Those from Craven wore silver crescents in their hats with "Liberty or Death" inscribed on them, and their determination was to rid themselves of the harsh hands of England or to die. The enemy, com manded by General McDonald, had crossed South River on the banks of which Caswell and Lillington were encamped, and here they also en camped for the night, determined to attack the patriots on the morrow. This night the small stream of South River only separated the bellig erent camps, the watch fires of both were plainly visible to each other. Like on the famed and bloody field of Agincourt, "From camp to camp, through the foul womb of night, The hum of either army stilly sounds, . That the fixed sentinels almost receive The secret whispers of each others' watch. Fire answers fire Give dreadful note of preparation." By the dawn of day, February 27th, 1776, the royal forces were in motion, the shrill notes of their pilroch were heard summoning their belted chiefs with their clans to battle. Our troops were ready to receive them and an active and brisk fire commenced on both sides of the stream, which for a moment was severe and fatal, when the Scottish leader, Colonel McLeod, in attempting a gallant charge across the bridge, was killed. His troops were confused by the loss of their leader, and the unexpected absence of the planks on the bridge. Availing themselves of these advantages, our troops charged in turn with great animation across the stream and en gaged the whole force of the enemy. After a gallant resistance the royal troops were routed and their general, McDonald, taken prisoner. It was an overwhelming victory and most important in its effects. Had it not been for this defeat of the Tories, they would have effected a union with Clinton and his troops from abroad, and then the whole country would have been at their mercy. There was only one of our men killed in this battle. His name was Grady, from Duplin county. When he was buried the captain of his com pany, James Love, took off his own sword, wrapped a silk handkerchief round it, and laid it on his dead friend's breast. His is among the too mauy unknown or unmarked graves of our lost heroes. This defeat of the Tories placed North Carolina in her proper place among the foremost on the side of liberty; it inspired her patriots with fresh confidence; it taught the Tories a lesson; and, above all. it saved the State from a threatened invasion by Lord Cornwallis. The day after the battle Colonel Caswell sent his report of it to the State council. The ardor excited by such gloriou news was so great that in less than a fortnight full ten thousand men were in arms and en J rolled, ready to march to Wilmington, j Tallust informs us that Scipio and IMaximus, when beholding the statues j of their illustrious countrymen, be came violently agitated. "It could not," he says, "be the inanimate ; marble which possessed this mighty power. It was the recollections of i noble actions which kindled this I generous flame in their bosoms, only j to be quenched when they, too, by i their achievements and merits, bad j acquired equal reputation." i And so, by the light of our fore- i fathers, let every gallant youth with I ardor move to do brave "deeds and j follow in their patriotic footsteps. j j You may as well expect to run a steam , engine without water as to find an active, I enereetic man with a torpid liver and you ; may know that his liver is torpid when he does not relish his food or feels dull and languid after eating, often has headache and sometimes dizziness. A few doses of Chamberlain's Stomach and Liver Tablets will restore his liver to its normal func tions, renew his vitality, improve his diges tion and make him feel like a new man. Price 2oc. Samples free at Dorsey"8 drug (tore. AS TO CO-EDUCATION. This is an age of experiments. Speculative philosophy has severed the ties that bound our forefathers to fundamentals, and new phases of national life is the result. The young men and young women of today are afraid of being called old foggy if they display too much rever ence for the traditions of the past. Thousands of writers are filling the newspapers and periodicals of the day with advice to the young, and fre quently it is so conflicting that those who would seek to follow any of it may count on being lost in an impene trable forest of words. Especially is this advice conflicting that is being offered to the "sweet girl graduates" just bow. I hey may pick up some "Woman s Magazine" and read: Aim for suc cess. Do not select a calling which is beyond you. It is better to be a good housekeeper than a poor teacher. It is better to be an expert stenographer than an inferior lawyer, and so on down the list. Then they may turn to the verv next page, perhaps, and read: What isjLhe crying need of the home? Not money. Not intellect. Not refine ment. Not wisdom. It is love, and warm demonstration of love. These self appointed advisers would have the home running over with love words, kisses and fond caresses. This advice is set forth as a sure winner of happiness in the home, re gardless of cold victuals for the head of the house when he comes home after a hard, day's work, trying to strangle the wolf, and add a few cop pers to bis coffers to help purchase more advice. About a decade ago a great cry went up for co-education. It was held out that the women of this great free country of ours were entitled to the same class of educa tion as the men, notwithstanding the fundamental truth that God created them to fill entirely different spheres in this mortal existence. Well, co-educational institutions were started up all over the countrT, or the doors of those heretofore devoted to the education of young men were opened to young women. lo the advocates of co-eduoation, who had apparently lost sight of the fundamentals, there has been some startling discoveries of the working of natural phenomena. l or instance, it has been discovered that the phenomena which caused Eve to first flirt with the "Tree of Knowledge" still exists among her fair descendants and the same weak ness that caused Adam to bite the proferred fruit has not been eradi cated .by the civilizing process of the ages; and that Cupid persists in in vading Wisdom realm to shatter the theories of philosophers. Jhe wiseacres are telling us now that co-education has proven a disap pointment. They are telling us that the "flirtations" of schools and col lege life are confessed to be out of place and out of time, yet when young men and young women are to gether nothing can prevent such epi sodes. (ireat wisdom! Beautiful new dis covery! We suspect that some day it will be discovered that it's sometimes wise to remember and be guided by some of the old traditions. Under the old system of education this country gave to the world an ideal womanhood. We believe in a higher education for women as we do for men, but let it be an education that shall bring sunshine around the hearthstone; an education that shall lull a nation into repose through graciousness and gen tleness, and the strains of a melodious lullaby. This is woman's proper sphere, and when she takes up the retort and cru cible she ceases, in a measure, to be the queen of her household; the guid ing star of weak and erring man. Charlotte News. Call at Melville Dorsey's drug store and get a free sample of Chamberlain's Stomach and Liver Tablets. They are an elegant physic. Thev also improve the appetite, strengt lien the digestion and regulate the liver and bowels. They are easy to take and pleasant in eflect. NORTH CAROLINA A GREAT STATE North Carolina is a great State. It is long, too. From Currituck to Cherokee is 500 miles. Take a cord and put one at Currituck county and the other end at Cherokee, and hold ing your thumb on a string at the former and turning it directly North ward it will put you in Lake Cham plain. New York. It has 48,580 square miles of land and 3,670 water area total 52,250 square miles. It has some 50 rivers and with its numerous sounds and lakes it is as well watered a State as any in the Union. Robeson county is largest with 1,043 square miles; Bladen second, 1,013; Cumber land third, 1,008; New Hanover has but 199 square miles, Clay has 185, and Chowan is the smallest with 161. Camden is very smsll also with 258. The 97 counties will average some thing over 500 square miles. Wil mington Messenger. ARE YOU BANKRUPTinhealth. constitution undermined by ex travagance in eating, by disre garding the laws of nature, or physical capital all gone, if so, NEVER DESPAIR Tutt's Liver Pills will cure you. For sick headache, dyspepsia, sour stomach, malaria, torpid liver, constipation, biliousness and all kindred diseases. Tutt's Liver Pills an absolute cure. Facts Plainly Stated. DR. LYMAN ABBOTT TAKES RATIONAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN RACE PROBLEM. Mistake of the North la Clothing W Ith Rights of Full Citizenship an Ignorant and Incompetent Mass of Suddenly Freed Slaves In Its Su preme Desire to Have the Intellect, the Conscience, the Education, Rule, the South is Right, Says Dr. Abbott Frankly. (Lyman Abbott, in New York Outlook.) When two forms of civilization come in conflict, a higher and a lower, one of three results inevitably ensues. The higher civilization may destroy the lower and extirpate the barbar ians, as the Hebrews did the Canaan ites; the higher civilization may sub jugate the lower and hold it under control, and as England is now hold ing the Hindu race in India; or the higher civilization may pervade the lower, convert and transform it, and so make it over, as primitive Chris tianity did imperial Rome. One of these three results is certain to ensue extirpation, subjugation, or trans formation. In this country we have tried to avoid that inevitable, eternal, inflexible law of God; we have tried so to fence around the Indian civiliza tion (which is barbarism) that it should remain permanently in this country alongside of the higher civili zation. And this cannot be done. ,. The race problem at the South is more complicated and more difficult, but it is to be solved by the same fun damental principle. At the end of the Civil War our fathers were con fronted with a very difficult problem. What should they do? Should they rrivik I a 1-iallrtf- tianb intn 111 tianftfi rf the ex-slaveholders who had been in rebellion against the National Gov ernment, and leave the destinies of the Southern States in his hands? This was perilous to National inter ests, and they believed it would be perilous to the rights of the negro race; for there was current talk in the Southern States at the time of estab lishing some system of serfdom to take the place of slavery. Should they put the political power into the hands of the Union men? These were hard to find; and when they were found, to confer political power upon them and deprive all others of it would have been an insignificant and not very intelligent oligarchy. Should they control this conquered territory from Washington by impe rial administration? The Nation had no gifts for imperial administration and no desire for imperial adminis tration, and our fathers justly feared the effects on the Nation as well as on the conquered country. The experi ment which we finally resolved to try was this: Congress established uni versal suffrage, gave the political power equally to blacks and whites, ignorant and educated, thrifty and thriftless, and said to them, "Take care of yourselves." At the same time we intimated, in many a hot political debate and many a public utterance in press and platform, a profound distrust of the Southern people and belief that the negro race who lived among them could iot ex pect from them good will and fair treatment. Thus, on the one hand the North showed a strange and ex traordinary confidence in the black race, and a not so strange but equally marked distrust of the white race. But the confidence and distrust have alike been proved erroneous. It is not necessary for me to trace here the results of the carpetbag rule iu the South, growing out of negro domination. The facts are fresh in the recollection of most of us. The page is a dark, even a terrible one. and there is little inclination on the part of any of us to re-read it. Under that government of ignorance, in competence, and corruption the fun damental function of government was not fulfilled; persons were not pro tected, property was not protected, the family was not protected, reputa tion was not protected. The ends of government were for the time lot sight of; the object of government was not accomplished. Our distrust of the white man in the South has also been proved false. He has shown himself the friend f the slave who used to work in his home and on his farm. We may well be proud of the Nation's record since the close of the Civil War. A great stream of beneficence has flowed from Northern churches and Northern philanthropists into the South to establish and maintain schools for the negro race. But it has been insigni ficant in comparison with the record which the South has made by its gifts to Southern education. Forty million dollars a year, Marion L. Dawson tells us in" the last number of the North American Review, (for February, 1901,) are spent by the Southern States for educaton, one-thirtieth of it contributed by the negroes, nearly one-half of it given to the negroes. A community of ex-slaveholders, whose slave system compelled the keeping of their slaves in ignorance, have suddenly reversed all their pre cedent history, and out of their poverty have contributed with un exampled largeness of generosity for the education of those whom, a little while before, it was a penal offense to instruct: we may search the pages of human history in vain for a parallel. The solution of the race problem in the South is a reversal, on the one band, of the unreasonable confidence, and the reversal, on the other hand, of the unreasonable distrust. It is a mistake to suppose that every man has a right to vote in any community. It is a still greater mistake to sup- Kse that a people who have never irned how to govern themselves can suddenly, by an act of Congress, be empowered with capacity to govern a great Republic. This was our mis take forced upoo ns, indeed, by alternatives that might have brought us into equal disaster had we followed them: but none the les a real and serious mistake; a mistake on which perhaps I should not lay stress now, were there not many who are urging us to fall into the same mistake in new conditions and Under new cir cumstances. (The perils of this mis take are being illustrated, as this article is revised for the press, by the results of an unqualified suffrage in Hawaii.) It is a mistake to sup pose that a people who had behind them three centuries of slavery in the United States, and unnumbered centuries of barbarism in Africa, could be suddenly competent to take equal share in government with a race which bad been ed oca ted by cen turies of struggle in England followed by years of equally trying struggle in the United States, who had written with their hands, by pens dipped in their own blood, the Magna Charts, the Constitution, of Clarendon, the! Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution of the United States. The power of a community to govern itself depends on the power of the in dividuals in that community to gov ern themselves. Before a community can be self-governing, there must be a background of history, or at least a contemporaneous and adequate method of education. The South found a condition of society in which the bottom controlled the top intolerable. So did France after the French Revolution; so would Hayti if there were any top to be con trolled. The South has endeavored to reverse the conditions and put the top of society at the head of govern ment and the bottom of society under government. I do not justify the violence and the frauds by which that has been attempted; I do not justify the process. But in its supreme desire to have the intellect, the con science, the education, rule, the South is right and deserves our sympathy and our support. What we have a right to demand of the South is this that the line shall not be a color line or a race Hue, but a line of char acter; that an educated and cultivated Booker T. Washington shall not be turned from the polls because his face is black, while an ignorant, in competent, drunken white man is permitted to cast his vote because his face is white. Our problem in the North is not to withstand the South and be reluctantly forced back, little by little, to acquiesce in a system which gives the power of governing to those who are competent to govern, but to offer the open hand of cordial fellowship to Southern reformers, and say to them. We will help you in securing for your States government that will protect person and property and reputation and family and liberty. True, we have a right to demand that this shall be done for the negro as for the white man; and, on the whole, it is done. The person and property, the life and liberty, the family and reputation, of the negro are in the main protected in the Southern States. If they were not, the results could not have been secured which are secured. Says Marion L. Dawson in the article already referred to: "In the South all trades are open to them (the negroes), and they re ceive every encouragement to become proficient in the industrial arts. A large number of negroes have eagerly taken advantage of these opportuni ties, and have made unprecedented progress in bettering their condition in every way. They have amassed in one State property the assessed value of which is nearly thirty millions of dollars, and it is estimated that they own, all told, about three hundred million dollars' worth of personal and real estate. They have their own doctors, lawyers, and preachers; they have colleges and universities, and they have their own military com panies." A community in which it is pos sible for a race to accumulate, from a condition of absolute poverty, three hundred millions of dollars of personal and real property is not a community which has signally failed in protecting the rights of persou and property. I know the tragic story of lynch law. Who has not been horri fied by this recrudescence of barbar ism 9 But let us be just; it is not dis tinctly Southern. When negroes are mobbed in Ohio and in Kansas, when lynch law is executed in Indiana, in Colorado, and in Montana, as well as in Mississippi and Alabama and Ken- , tucky; when even the women become lynchers, destroying saloons in Kan sas with some sort of excuse, and drug stores in Chicago without any excuse at all, let us recognize the fact that lynch law is not distinctly Southern. We may not have as large a beam in our eye as our neighbor, but it will he well to remember that we need, as well a he, to submit to a surgical ojeratiun. It is true that the Southerner does not grant to the negro what we call social equality. He does not invite him into his parlor, ask him to sit at his table, introduce him as a friend to his wife and children, or even allow the children of the two races to attend the same school. How much of this is due to unjust and unreason able prejudice, how mucL of it is Nature's own protection against a too intimate intermingling of the races, i it is not necessary nere 10 uiscubs, because it is not the function of gov ernment to protect social privileges. The function of government is ful filled when the rights of person, of property, of reputation, and of the family, and the liberty which results therefrom, are maintained. And in that liberty is the right of each in dividual man to choose his own social companions as be pleases for himself and for his children. Whatever there may be of race prejudice in the South is to be removed, if removed at all. by the gradual, pervasive influence of4 teaching, not by the power 01 govern ment. It presents a moral, not a political, problem. El ward IIuss, a well known business man of Salisbury. 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