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IN THE CAPITAL WORK OF THOSE OFFICIALS WHO GUARD WASHINGTON HAS BECOME ONEROUS. WORKERS IN CITY Navy Yards, Bridges, Army Depots, Capitol Building and All Other Vital Points Must Be Protected Against Enemy Machinations. By EDWARD B. CLARK. Washington. Washington today Is a zone forbidden to the trespassing feet of the alien enemy. The capital of the country is the largest district thus far set aside as one in which no alien enemy over the age of fourteen years may loiter or re side. Perhaps the country has no adequate conception of the trying work It Is for the government officials to guard this city against the insidious machi nations and overt acts of men who would like to see the United Stares lose the war in which it is engaged, and who would stop at no means to help accomplish such an inglorious end. It must be remembered that not alone must navy yards and bridges ant', army depots and camps be guarded, but every department of government, indoors and out, must be sentineled against the intrusion of the spy and the dynamiter. So far as the safety of the country Is concerned. It Is largely connected with the safety of its diplomatic and military secrets. Recently 20,000 ad ditional workers have come to Wash Ington to take places in the depart ments of government. There must b added the 30,000 workers that were here before, and so now the agents of Uncle Sam have Intrusted to them the difficult work of detecting in the mul titude the few men or the women who. masquerading as friends, are doing the enemy's work. Money Has Bought Spies. It has been proved on several occa sions since the United States went to war with Germany that money has been used to secure the spying services of individuals who, because of native birth or of naturalization, were sup posed to be loyal to their country against all temptation. It is a com paratively easy thing for the authori ties to watch men and women of German-birth because their naturalization records tell at once who, they are, but It is another thing for the authorities to be able to determine among the thousands of Americans of American lineage who it is that needs watching. President Wilson, in one of his ad dresses to congress, spoke of the dis covery of enemy agents within the of fices of government. The peril is a real one, but in considerable part U was met and overcome so far as resi dent Washingtonians were concerned prior to the time that the District of Columbia was declared to be a military zone, but since the first searching and apprehending process, 20,000 additional persons have come to Washington nn.l have secured government work. The labor of the detection of disaffected ones has increased in proportion. For a long time the bridges over the Potomac river, and certain vital places in the city itself have been guarded by members of the National Guard. Manj of the public buildings and offices, how ever, have been entrusted to the care of privately employed watchmen. These men were chosen for the work only after a rigid investigation. Vital Places Well Guarded. It now has been determined that the vital places In Washington shall be guarded by men sworn into the servire of the government as members of the military forces. Such regulars as can readily be obtained will be used and with them will be some of the remain ing National Guardsmen and beyonl this It Is probable that members of the Home Guard organization will be pressed into the service The under standing is that they will be clad in the blue uniforms of peace days in the army. The capitol has been guarded by civilians in the service of the govern ment ever since that day two years ago when a bomb was exploded In the hallway leading to the senate cham ber. Entrance to the capitol has been obtainable only through two doorways, one at the house end and the other at the senate end. The main precaution taken was to see to it that no person with a package of any kind was al lowed within the doors. No attempt iwa made to search individuals who might enter and in a way the safe guarding was rather a perfunctory hing. Now things have changed and It is ;the Intention to station guards In a !prety Closely set picket line about the great building, in the hall and aboul other places which might attract "the damaging attention" of cranks, spies or alien enemies generally. New War Council's Plans. In Washington, as perhaps elsewhere In the country, the question frequently in this time of war is "Are we getting the results that we should get from the energy expended?" Of course co-ordination is the thing thai is needed and one reason that Jhe seeming need has not been emphasized more generally in the press of the country unquestionably is that mosjt of the reporters of the news in this City have feared to overstep the pron er lines of criticism, and moreover have held themselves up with the buoy of hope from aaylo day that a coal escing of effort would come and that matters would move more quickly to ward the end of war accomplishment. The press has carried the word that the national council of defense has announced a new and large "co-ordinating body" to include seven members of the cabinet and the heads of the civilian boards which concern them selves with shipping, food, fuel and war Industries. Can this council bring about complete order and make out of the different elements one machine, all of whose parts will work in unison, without friction, and turn out rapidly the things needed? In a statement made by the council of national defense this is said: "Since the Council of National De fense, composed of Secretary of War Baker, Secretary of the Navy Dan iels, Secretary of the Interior Lane, Secretary of Agriculture Houston. Sec retary of Commerce Redfleld, and Sec retary of Labor Wilson, represents the military aims of the government, as well as those federal executive depart ments dealing most directly with the vital resources of the nation, this larg er co-ordinating body will work toward unification of the machinery neces sary in the prosecution of the war." Aims of New Council. This new war council, with three cabinet members added, will deal with the larger affairs of a government en gaged in war. The attempt will be to see to it that there is co-ordination of purchases for the army, navy and the allied and neutral countries; that there is quick handling of all war sup plies at home ; that the direction of the industrial energies of the country be firm in method and rapid in maneuver, and that in short everyone of the great affairs of a country at war be managed without loss of time, without fear of a duplication of effort and with a view singly to getting quick results. If such a program can be put through; if all friction such as that which developed in the shipping board, for instance, can be avoided ; if no two men do the same work dally, neither one knowing that the other is doing it, and in short, if system can be made master of the situation, expedition will be the result and a weight of worry will be lifted from the minds of the officials of the administration and from those of the patriotic people. There is another matter of co-ordination of work which is not taken Into consideration In connection with this effort to secure harmony and a syste matizing of effort by means of a high American war council in Washington. Bureaus Need Attention, Too. Things cannot move smoothly nor quickly anywhere along the line which runs from the top of things to the bot tom of things unless the rough places below be smoothed as well as the rough places above. Every man connected with this new war council is a chief of operations so to speak in hjs own right. He may direct that things be done in a certain way and the order will run down the line, but if tt is found impossible in some of the lower official spheres to make things run smoothly, the whole effort, if not lost, is delayed In its result. There are bureaus In the war depart ment today In which ten men are en gaged at work where the work of only one man was necessary In the times of peace. Into the charge of these bu reaus come daily multitudinous masses of material Intended for the army and the navy and in some few instances for the pacific branches of the govern ment. The different branches of the war department have ben run for years along certain well defined lines. There was not a great deal of material to handle, nor was there a mass of detail to master. A few officers, trained to do the work systematically, succeeded In doing It satisfactorily. In times of peace there was no great hurry in mov ing material from one place to anoth er. Now everything is changed. When a request comes In for certain supplies of different kinds it means that they must be forwarded immedi ately. There are a thousand new men on the job and thus far few of them have definite information as to the ex act nature of their duties. Neither is there any one iran who, as should be the case, can tell instantly where those things or the other things are stored. The result is delay but there are signs that King System soon will begin his reign. Porcelain, Feather, Fur Money. Porcelain money Is used In Burma and Slam ; and feather money, manu factured from the short red feathers from beneath the wings of a species of parrot, is the ordinary currency of the Santa Cruz islanders. The Loyalty Islands, which He in the Pacific to the east of Australia, are famous for their fur money. The fur, which Is taken from "behind the ears of the so-called "flying fox," In reality a large frult eatlhg bat. Is woven Into cords of vari ous lengths, and these constitute the ordinary currency of the islanders. Heel Not to Bear Weight The weight of the body must never be borne on the heels. In walking, the leg Is thrown forward from the hip, knee acting in harmony, heel touching the ground first ; but the weight should be so quickly trans ferred to the ball Of the foot that the heel makes no noise. One who walks noisily is always walking Incorrectly and of course cannot be graceful. Keep Grapes Fresh for Months. Grapes can be kept fresh for several months by inserting their stems through the corks of glass bottles, fill ing these with water, pressing the corks firmly in, sealing 'them If neces sary with paraffin and Inverting the bottles on wooden racks in a cool, dark cellar. The bunches should hang free. their stems sticking up into the water. THE REVIEW. HIGH POINT, NOBTH OABOUHA. SHOWING CITY AND STUNSJOMINION Disaster Probably Most Fearful That Ever Occurred on the American Continent TOTAL LOSS OF LIFE UNKNOWN Will Surely Be Numbered by Thous andsStricken City One of Great Britain's Important Military Posts Its History. The disaster at Halifax, which cost the lives of at least 2,000 people, though the exact number will never be known, plunged the Dominion into mourning. It probably ranks as the most fearful that ever occurred on the American continent. Residents of Halifax and thousands of volunteer re lief workers who came into the city were dazed at the extent of the hor ror. The Belgian relief ship Imo collided with the French munition vessel, Mont Blanc, loaded with 8,000 tons of T. N. T. and a large quantity of benzine. The impact set fire to a deck load of benzine on the French ship and the flames quickly communicated with the munitions, resulting' in a practical bombardment of the city. The zone of destruction in Halifax itself extended from the North street railway station as far north as Afric ville to Bedford basin and covered an area of about two square miles in the section known as Richmond. The buildings which were not demolished by the force of the terrfflc explosion were destroyed by the fire which fol lowed. District Densely Populated. ' The devastated district was the old er part of Halifax and thickly popu lated. It contained, in addition to Citadel hill, many churches and schools, the railway station, govern ment dockyard, Wellington barracks. Admiralty House (the official resi dence of the admiral In command of the North American British squad ron), the military hospital, post office, provisional parliament building, city hall, the ordnance department, most of the department stores, all of. the tele graph and cable offices and a few ho tels. The better residence district was al most unharmed. It lies southward from the Queens, and includes most of the churches, Including St Mary's Ro man Catholic cathedral. In the fire-swept section were the parliament buildings, post office, three newspaper offices, Royal Bank of Can ada, Canadian Bank of Commerce, Bank of Nova Scotia, Bank of British North America and the Bank of Mon treal. Other structures destroyed are Dal housie college, two Roman Catholic convents, the Presbyterian Theological college, the government technical col lege. 42 churches and 80 factories, in cluding Iron foundries, breweries, dis tilleries and two sugar refineries. FAMOUS FOR BEAUTY. One of the oldest of Canadian cities, Halifax also is one of the most pic turesque. It has two principal beau ty spots, Point Pleasant park and the Public Gardens. The first lies between the North Arm, a fiord three miles long, and he harbor proper. The North Arm Is the cruising basin for canoes and pleasure craft of small size. Two hundred acres of land make up Point Pleasant park, and the woods have been- left In a wild state. The roads are splendid. They were built for military purposes. The park has a pair of magnificent iron gates given to the city by Sir William Young.- a former chief justice of the province. They are set at the head of Young avenue, one of the principal roads of the park. ( A mile from. Yung avenue gales x HORROR HARBOR OF HALIFAX are the Public Gardens, the most cul tivated spot ni Canada, and said to be its most beautiful garden. An area of 20 acres is thus given up for pur pose of pleasure right in the heart of the city. When the land was-originally taken up for park purposes it lay on the outskirts of the town, and was a hunting field. It is laid out in formal :i- r beds, a band stand and precipe walks. Other Noted Buildings. The Provincial Building, the Govern ment House, the City Hall, the Domin ion Building and the new Customs House were among the edifices of which the natives of Halifax boasted. Other buildings of prominence are the Dalhousie College, Provincial Museum, Academy of Music, Y. M. C. A. Build ing, Odd Fellows' Temple and the three principal hotels, Halifax, Prince George and Queen's. Among the famous edifices of the city is the St. Paul's Episcopal Church, said to be the oldest Protestant church built in North America. It was con structed in Boston in 1750, a year after the town was founded, and carried in schooners to Halifax, where the parts were put together. The story is told that when Cornwallis wrote the Earl of Halifax he wanted to build a church the earl replied by sending to Canada the architect who built St. Peter's in London. St. Matthew's Presbyterian Church, which was built during the late years of the eighteenth century, was de stroyed by fire in 1857, only to be re built. One of the most beautiful buildings in the city is the St. Mary's Catholic Cathedral. With a tall white spire extending upward, It la visible for miles. Religion of all denominations seems to thrive in Nova Scotia, for in a re cent census of religions only 543 per sons were listed as belonging to no sect. At present there are 129,000 Ro man Catholics, 106,000 Presbyterians, 83,000 Baptists, 66,000 Anglicans, 57,000 Methodists and a few thousand spread through the Adventists, Disciples and Jews. Of the latter there were 437. Eighty years ago, when the province was small and practically uninhabited, the Presbyterians were the largest body, although there was a flourishing colony of Roman Catholics at Cape Breton. The Baptists then were an in considerable body of poor peasants with badly educated teachers and preachers. Today the Baptists stand third in the list of denominations. One of World's Best Harbors. "Halifax has one of the finest har bors in the world and Is the chief Canadian gateway for exports. It is the capital of Nova Scotia, with a population of 60,000. The city Is three miles long and' a mile wide ; is built on the eastern slope of a small penin sula. "It Is a garrison city and has eleven forts and batteries, including the Cita del, once one of the strongest fortifica tions in America. "The harbor is open all year. Its inner haven is Bedford Basin, 20 miles in circumference, in which the colli sion and explosion occurred. I have seen as many as 140 ocean vessels in the basin at once. "Vast new wharves and railway ter minals are being constructed by the government at a cost of $30,000,000, but these are near the tip of the penin sula at the south, and evidently were not harmed. "Halifax Is 616 miles nearer Liver pool than is New York for trans-Atlantic liners. It is 600 miles from New York. Founded By Cornwallis In 1749. "Colonel Edward Cornwallis left Britain in 1749 and founded the city. j The French armada gathered there in 1 1757 bent on demolishing Louisburg, rdnly to meet disaster through storm j and plague. Howe went to Halifax with his men after they were defeated at Boston. Great numbers of royalists from New York found refuge there in the revolution. Halifax was the chief British base of supplies. "One hundred and six warships made harbor there in 1812. The expedition that burnt Washington started from Halifax. And it was there the Shan non sailed with her prise, the Chesa peake." . ' ALLIES ARE A STEADY N EARING GOAL DESPITE SOME UNTOWARD CIRCUMSTANCES SAYS LLOYD GEORGE. DARKEST HOUR IS JUST HON Because Russia Has Quit and Gone Into Revolution and America is Just Coming In- Every Passing Hour is Brighter. London. That steady progress to wards the desired goal is being made by the allies, despite some untoward occurrences, is the firm conviction of Premier Lloyd George, ie declared. It is because of this fact, the pre mier said, that he would regard peace overtures to Prussia at the moment when her military spirit was drunk with boastfulness as a betrayal of the trust of himself and his colleages. The premier's words were: "It is because I am firmly convinc ed that despite some untoward events, despite discouraging appearances we are making steady progress toward the goal that I would regard peace over tures to Prussia at the very moment the Prussian, military spirit is drunk with boastfulness as a betrayal of the great trust with which my colleagues and myself have been charged." If Russia persists- in her present policy, the premier pointed out, the withdrawal by the enemy from the east of a third of his troops must re lease hundreds of thousands of men and masses if material to attack Oreat Britain, France and Intaly. America Is In. "If the Russian democracy has de cided to abandon the struggle against military autocracy the American de mocracy is taking it up." Germany's victories were emblaz oned to the world, the premier said, but her troubles did not apepar in bulletins. Something was known of them however. The deadly grip of the British navy was having its effect and the valor of the troops was making an impression which would -tell in the end. He said those who during the past fortnight were organizing a ner vous breakdown in the nation were the same as those who recently were organizing an hysterical shout over the Flanders victories. Mr. Lloyd George said he was glad to understand that Lord Landsowne's recent letter had been misunderstood and that Lord Lansdowne was in sympathy with President Wilson. "I also," the premier declared, "agree with President Wilson and do not desire to force a controversy where none exists. "I warn the nation to watch the ma nwho thinks ther eisahalafw-y man who thinks there is a half-way house between victory' and defeat," the premier admonished. "There are the men who think you can end the war now by some sort of what they call peace by setting up a league of nations. That is the right policy after victory; without victory it would be a farce." Premier Lloyd George, who was speaking at the dinner at the Grey's Inn Benchers, said: Is Darkest Hour. "If this is the worst moment, it is because Russia has stepped out and America is only preparing to come in. Every hour that passes will see the gap formed by the retirement of the Russians filled by the valiant sons of the great Republic. Germany j knows it and Austria knows it, hence j the desperate efforts that they are making to force the issue before America is ready. WAR RESOLUTION IS UNANIMOUSLY PASSED Havana. The senate unanimously adopted a resolution declaring that a state of war between Cuba and Austria-Hungary exists. The resolution was the same as that passed by the house. TWO LIGHTLESS NIGHT FOR EVERY WEEK ORDERED City White Ways and Advertising Signs Must be Darkened Sunday and Thursday Nights. Washington Two "lightless nights" a week were ordered by the fuel ad ministration. Next Sunday night will be the first and thereafter Sunday and Thursday of every week will see the city white ways and advertising signs darkened, only necessary street lights used and only trach lights as the law requires inr offices and stores not open NO TEUTONS WERE ABOARD THE IMO Halifax. There were no Germans or Austrians aboard the Imo when it collided with the Mont Blanc, Alex B. Bjorssen, second officer of the Imo, testified at session of the government inquiry into the explosion. So far as he knew the captain and pilot were both on the bridge of-the ship until after the collision. Ha ha A ntl..J .change in the Imo's course prior to the collision. Twenty minutes v..WVoCU uiure use ex MAKING ADVANCE COZIER DENIES DELAY IN EQU ANY IPMG ADMITS THAT TROOPS HAD BEEN SUPPLIED WITH FRENCH MA CHINE GUNS. LACK OF GUNS IN Responsibility Rests on Secretary Ba ker. Training of New Army Will Not Be Seriously Retarded on Ac count of Equipment. CAMPS Washington. Leaders of the senate military committee subjected Major General Crozier, chief of ordnance, to three hours of sharp cross-examination, seeking explanation of delays in providing the war army with weapons. At the executive session they will press questions which the general ob jected to answering in the open hear ing. Throughout the examinations Gen eral Crozier insisted that there had been and would be no delay in equip ping soldiers sent abroad. He admit ted that because of a shortage of ma chine guns the American troops in France were supplied with weapons of French make, and that there was a lack of both machine guns and rifles in the training cantonments, but de clared that the training of troops would not be seriously retarded. Responsibility for the machine ran situation was placed by the general squarely upon Secretary Baker, who, he said, had taken a personal interest in the matter and ordered an investi gation which resulted in the adoption in June of a new gun known as the Browning type. This statement came when Chairman Chamberlain said be was not satisfied with the explanation that the delay had been caused by in vestigation. "Neither am I satisfied," responded the witness, "but I am not personally, responsible." Nearly every member of the committee joined in the exam ination and questions were fired across the table as rapidly as the general , could answer. Chairman Chamberlain took excep tions to the conclusions drawn from General Crozier's testimony that con gress, by failing to make prompt ap propriations, and labor troubles, wers largely responsible for the delay. Gen eral Crozier said he had not intended such an interpretation, and that mil lions of dollars appropriated had not been expended. UNITED STATES GUARD 13 NAME SELECTED Auxiliary Force of Troops Will Num ber 25,000. Washington. The United States guard will be the name of the 25,000 auxiliary force of troops, authorized by the war department, to supplement state and other forces now guarding war supplies, war industries and do ing police duty essential to the con duct of the war, including patrol of water fronts. President Wilson has signed the or der for organization of the force and further orders were going out from the war department. Forty battalions will be organized to relieve regular troops, national guard or other purely military units of this guard duty. The order prescribes that the force be raised by voluntary enlistment or draft. It is the pirpose of the gov ernment to make it up of men not available for war oarvice at the front. Volunteers mill be accepted only between- the ages of 31 and 45. If re sort to draft is necessary men placed in the special classes under the new draft system as being fit for limited military service only, will be used to fill up the ranks. The guards will be clothed in regu lar army blue uniforms for which there is no need in the army during war times. They will he armed with Krag Jorgensen rifles, and other equipment not suitable for modern warfare. AMERICAN ENGINEERS KILLED BY HUN BOMBS With the American Army in France. A number of American railway en gineers have been killed by German aerial bombs in a town somewhere De hind the British front. Details. r? not yet known. It is now PermTJ, to announce that a German bomb in a street in a town through wfli American troops were passing Pl. of the bomb shattered the window of a house in which there were on cers, showering them with glass ARE NOT EXPECTED TO Qfi RESIST TAX IMPOSITION Louisville, Ky01, "ontes" State of Kentucky, without a LU of approximately 12,000,000 in ltance taxes on the estate or w Mrs. Robert Worth Bingham was dicated by announeemeat tha' ld w ventory of the entite estate oi filed with- the state taxing autn The announcement was aDy, 1 icers of a LomseviUc trust comp j administrators of the estate wi ' annexed.