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JACKSON COUNTY JOURNAL. SYLVA. N. C.
REVIEW OF YEAR THAT BROUGHT PEACE 10 WORLD AFTER FOUR YEARS OF W Germany and Her Allies Are Crushed and Forced to Accept Such Terms as Winners DictateUnited States Supplies Power That Turns Tide President Wilson Joins Other Demo cratic Rulers of World in Great Peace Congress at Versailles Old Nations Crumble and New Ones Are Formed Russia Torn by Disorders. Dy DONALD F. BIGGS. Mori' history has been made In the year 1018 than In any year that has passed since time began. This mo mentous twelve months' period comes to a close with the world at peace af ter more than four years of the most sniiguinary fighting of , this or any other age. Paring the year great nations have crumbled, new nations have sprung Into being, thrones have tottered and fallen, monarch who once ruled hun dreds of millions of people with an Iron hand have tied for their lives or have fallen victim to the wrath of peo nies Intoxlcited by their new-won freedom. The coming of peace finds America and tier allies strong and fully able o meet the responsibilities that come with victory. On the other hand It find- the nations responsible for the world cataclysm exhausted and torn ii civil disorders that are born of de fen r. It finds the once great empire of .ntrlM-llungary in ruins from which there nre a beady rising 'new free na tions, it finds the German empire dis rnpied and threatened with dissolu tion. The end of the war finds Russia in the throes of civil war. The world gets only fragments of news regarding the renl situation in the land of the former czar, but these fragments have told a terrible story of anarchy and class strife In which thousands of persons have perished, slain in bloody riots or ruthlessly executed by the bolshevik lenders who control a large part of the once great empire. Peace finds the menace of autocratic militarism sup planted by the menace of bolshevism. which Is attempting to extend its an archistic propaganda throughout the world. r.ut. amid all the uncertainties that pence has brought, the world rejoices that the last citadel of autocracy has been swept away before the rising tide of democracy, giving assurance that the millions who died upon the field of battle did not die In vain. Brighter cays for all mankind have dawned with the passing of the year 1918. had advanced 47 miles from La Fere and were within six miles of Amiens. Here the advance was halted. Tn the meantime, on March 29, the allies, fac ing a catastrophe, at last agreed upon a unification of command, and General Foch, the brilliant French leader, was placed in supreme command of all the allied armies wa announced that Americans over seas or on the way numbered 1,019.115. The United States on July 7 agreed to allied action in Russia and prepara tions were begun for an allied military expedition into Siberia. On the same day Count von Mirbach, German am bassador to Russia, was slain at Mos cow. On July 8 it was announced that the Murman coast of Russia had thrown off bolshevik rule and invited aid from the allies. During July the first reports came from Russia of the execution of the former czar by a local soviet and these reports later were confirmed. General Foch opened the second phase of his counter-offensive on Au gust 8 when a surprise attack was launched on a 20-mile front in Picardy, the allies gaining seven miles at some points and taking 7,000 prisoners. The following day Haig's men gained 13 miles in Picardy and the next day the French, attacking on a 20-mile front, wiped out the Montdidier salient. Foch Hammers Foe. shattered and the end In sight. Tur key surrendered unconditionally to the British and the Austrians begged for an armistice, while their armies were in full flight. The allied war. council at Versailles began to prepare the terms to be submitted to the Germans. Congress Increased the safeguards thrown about war industries by pass ing the "sabotage" bill, carrying pen alties of $10,000 fine and 30 years' im prisonment for destruction of war ma terials or interference with war indus tries. President Wilson signed this The American First array smashed j measure on April 20. The government me oerman tines at Grand Pre and I aiso prosecuted vigorously many per advanced seven miles west of the sons accused of violation of the espion Meuse as the enemy line cracked. age act. On August 17, 100 members Austria-Hungary, on November 3, of the I. W. W. were convicted of dis accepted the armistice terms which loyalty in the federal court at Chicago provided for unconditional surrender, after a trial lasting several months. hostilities ceasing at three o'clock Government control of the railroads November 4. tlvely few strikes occurred during the remainder of the year. DISASTERS Fires railroad accidents and explo sions took "a heavy toll of human life on land during the year 1913 while the elements combined with the torpedoes of the German U-boats to send thou sands of innocent persons, including women and children, to their death at ea. Fifty-two children met death Jn a fire which destroyed a convent at Mon- On November 5, President Wilson ernment control of all telegraph and notified Germany to apply to Marshal telephone lines. Congress on July 13 Foch for terms, he having been in- authorized the president to take con formed that they had been prepared trol of the wires and the government by the allied war connciL assumed control on July 31. On No- was followed during this year by gov- treal Canada F;,,ruarv 14. February 24 the liner Florizel. bound from St. Johns. N. F., to New York, was wrecked by a blizzard near Cape Race and 92 lives were lost. Seventy inmates of an insane asylum German envoys were appointed and vember 17, the government also took at Nonnailt 0kla were kiUed ,n a fire approached the allied lines but in the control of all Atlantic cable lines. meantime the allied armies did not The first general election since the lessen the pressure they were exert- United States entered the war was ing on the enemy. The Americans, held on November The Republicans having inflicted a severe defeat on won both houses of congress, the sen- Then followed a series of sledge- the- enemy, clearing the whole front be- ate- by a majority of two and the thi m A few day's after the I el ino- f haminer blows on all portions of the tween the Meuse and the Alsne, rapid- house by a margin of more than forty tQ -.... r.,., . . . . r i front, all fitting into the sreneral iy aavanced toward Sedan, cutting tne Dunns September. October and No- irvsterv" . " ichin. -11 i. scheme of attack worked out by the vital communications between Metz vember the entire country was swept was at leastV mile a'Wa on rnnu ' waster mind of Foch. On August 20 and the long German line extending by a serious epidemic of Spanish in- lin Alarm tn the. nnrth TUflnonc oc o racnlt -.. rp, . . : fk 29. Good Frirlnv thi in(,.,nM r. i-assigny fell and the former Somme made a direct hit on a Part church ; front vvas restored- British and French and 75 worshipers were killed. ! arrnies aided by American units, con- On April 10.. the Germans shifted tinued the smash on the Somme front their attack and he.-m tha w,nii and on August 30 the Germans were phase of thir nffci, hurled across the Somme. The British against the British in Flanders with xne cnannel ports as the objective which destroyed that institution April 13. On May 1 the Savannah liner City of Athens was sunk in a collision with a French cruiser off the Delaware coast and 66 lives were lost. On May 18 nearly a hundred persons were killed by explosions in the Aetna Chemical plant near Pittsburgh, Pa. Sixty-three persons, including well- known circus performers, nerished when a circus train was wrecked at to the north. The Germans, as a result fluenza. Thousands of soldiers in the of the American advance, faced the army camps and other thousands of necessity of undertaking a general re- civilians succumbed thereto and to Gary, Ind.. June 22. Fifty persons were treat to save their armies from being pneumonia. killed by the collapse of a building at cut olt- The country was surprised on No- Sioux City. Ia., Jine 29. un November 9 the kaiser abdicat- vember 22 by the resignation of Wil- A small factory explosion in England took Bapaume and were close to ed and the crown prince renounced uam g. McAdoo as secretary of the killed 50 Dersons Julv 1 and on the fol- Peronne. Rove fell to the French and his claims to the throne. The govern- treasury and director general of the lowing day an explosion in a munitions Here ajrain the British Pr fn'm-n tn dov.ens of small towns were wrested ment of Germany passed Into the con give ground, but there was no break from the Invaders. Further north the trol of the social democrats and such as occurred earlier on the Somme brItlsu smashed the Hindenburg line front. The British and Portuguese and ford the Germans to begin a re were swept back along the River Lys. treat from tne Lvs salient. The Germans took the Messines ridge 0n September 12, the First Ameri- under the direct command HOW THE WAR WAS WON and threw tL.'o.OOO men against the British helo Ypres. But the Ypres defenses held firm, and in the west the Germans failed in their efforts to reach Hnzebrouck. The terrific drive spent itself and the Germans had failed to threaten the channel ports seriously. On April 22 the British navy execut ed one of the spectacular feats of the war. blocking the channel of Zee brugge, a German submarine base. Germans Renew Offensive. On May 27 the Germans renewed the offensive with a powerful attack between the Aisne and the Marne. In a day they swept over the Chemin-des-Dames on the heights north of the Aisne and crossed the river in a rush. Next they took Soissons and reached the Vesle. On they went to the Marne, extending their front on the river from Chateau-Thierry to Verneuil, and threatening Reims in their advance. The drive was halted with the Ger mans occupying a front 16 miles wide on the Marne. In the meantime the Americans had won attention on May 28 by taking Cantigny on the Picardy front in a brilliant attack. On May 25. German U-boats began operations off the const of the United States, sinking 11 ships. can army. of General Pershing, began a brilliant action which wiped (Tut the difficult St. Mihiel salient in three days. The Americans took 20.000 prisoners in this action. Serbian. French and Italian forces, on September 18, launched a big drive against the Bulgars in Macedonia. Al most simultaneously the British broke the Turk lines in the Holy Land. The Turkish army was shattered, and by September 27 had lost 45.000 men in prisoners. In the meantime the allies smashed the Hindenburg line along a 22-mile front in the St. Quentin sector, and it was announced at Washington that the United States now had 1.750. 000 men across the sea to aid in crush ing the crumbling armies of the enemy. The first decisive break in the ranks of the central empires came on Sep tember 27, when General Mallnoff, commander of the Bulgar armies which were routed before the advanc ing Serbs and French, asked for an armistice. On September 30 Bulgaria accepted the armistice terms pro posed by the allies and surrendered unconditionally. Teutons Move for Peace. Turkey moved for peace on October 4 and the German people were thrown Herr Ebert was made chancellor. The kaiser fled to Holland and was per mitted to remain there by the Dutch authorities. At the same time vari ous other German princes abdicated and soldiers and workmen's councils sprang into existence at many points. Germans Sign Armistice. Un November 11 tne German en voys signed the armistice which amounted practically to unconditional surrender. Under the terms of the armistice Germany agreed to evacu ate all Invaded territory and retire behind the Rhine, the allies to follow and hold all important crossings of the Rhine. The Germans agreed to surrender the greater part of their navy and thousands of heavy guns and airplanes, rendering them unable to renew hostilities. railroads. Representative Carter Glass of Virginia was named to succeed Mr. McAdoo as secretary of the treasury December 5. On November 28 Governor Stephens of California commuted to life impris onment the death sentence of Thomas J. Mooney. convicted in connection with the death of ten persons from a bomb explosion In San Francisco dur ing a preouredness parade July 22. 1916. Plan for making the United States navy second to that of no other coun try for 1925 were disclosed to congress by Rear Admiral Badger, chairman of the executive committee of the general board 'of the navy December 12. FOREIGN The map f Europe was being re made as the year 1918 came to a close. The Czechoslovak republic was al ready in existence before the close of the war, having been recognized as an independent belligerent government by the United States, Great Britain, France and Italy, but the coming of peace saw the formal establishment of The armistice became effective at 11 a. m., Paris time, November 11. Thus the great world war virtually came to an end, although technically it will end only with the signing of the peace treaty. With the cessation of hostilities revolution snrend throusrh (Jermanv ! and Austria. Emperor Chartes of j tnls new government at Prague. The Rapid Transit lines. On November 21. Austria abdicated and a people's gov- enu OI ine war aiso practically assured abour 1noo persons were rep0rted i me rising oi a greai new roiana, maue plant near Syracuse. N. Y killed 16. Eighty-five merrymakers perished when an excursion boat sank In the Illinois river July 5. A hundred per sons were killed in a collision between two trains near Nashville, Tenn.. July 9. A tornado swept a part of Minnesota August 21. killing 50 persons at Tyler and Connors. On October 6 the United States trans port Otranto was sunk in collision off the Irish coast and 450 persons lost their lives. Four hundred were lost when the British mail boat Leinster was torpedoed and sunk October 10. A series of terrific explosions in a shell-loading plant at Morgan, N. J., on October 3 killed 94 persons and de stroyed a vast amount of property. A severe earthquake which caused the death of 150 persons was reported in Porto Rico October 11. Great forest fires raged In northeastern Minnesota during October. Many towns were de stroyed and about 1.000 lives were lost. On October 25 the steamship Princess Sophia was wrecked on the Alaskan coast and 343 were lost. Ninety-eight persons were killed No vember 1 In a wreck on the Brooklyn The year opened with the opinion generally prevailing that the world war could not be brought to a conclu sion in less than eighteen months. It v.-:is an open secret that the German high command was planning to make a supreme effort on the western front, and during tlu early days of 1018 It was known that many divisions of German troops, released from the Rus sian front, were being transferred to th west front In preparation for the gr.tnd offensive. Interest during these days centered ;n events that were transpiring In ll'issia and in long-range peace discus -ions in which President Wilson and ' fmncellor von Hertllng figured. On .January 8 President Wilson, in an ad- irt'ss to congress, promulgated the fatuous "14 points" which he declared should form the basis of world peace. In Russia Premier Lenine and For eign Minister Trotzky Intrenched themselves In power by dissolving the constituent assembly which met at Pe trugrad January 18. On January 21 an nil-Russian congress of Soviets was convened to replace the 'constituent as sembly. There was little activity on any front during the month, but on January 30 It was announced officially that American troops . were holding front-line trenches In France, occupy ing a sector northwest of Toul. The Americans holding this sector received their baptism of fire when they repulsed a vigorous German raid. The Americans lost two killed, four wounded and one missing. On Febru ary 5 the steamer Tuscanla, carrying 2,179 American soldiers, was torpe doed and sunk, with a loss of 159 lives. On February 9 the Ukraine sigued a separate treaty of peace with the central powers. Conditions In Russia continued to le chaotic. The bolsheviki declared the war with Germany over but re fused to sign the peace treaty demand ed by Germany. The Germans there upon renewed hostilities against Rus sia, capturing Reval, Russian naval base, and advancing on Petrograd. Le slie and Trotzky then announced that Russia was forced to accept the Ger man peace terms. On March 3 the Russian delegates at Brest-Litovsk signed the peace treaty with Germany. Germans Begin Great Drie. On March 21 the long-heralded of fensive of the Germans was launched. A terrific blow was delivered against the British lines on a front of more than 50 miles, extending from the Riv er Olse, near La Fere, to the Sensee river, about Crolselles. Wave after wave of the finest German troops were hurled at the British lines, and in a few days had advanced 15 miles. The British Fifth army at the point where It touched the French lines was rout ed, and for a time the allies faced dis aster. The Germans continued to push southward, and at the end of 15 days The German drive for Paris was re- into a panic as they saw their allies crumbling. Prince Max. who had now become German chancellor, addressed a note to President Wilson, asking that steps be taken immediately to conclude an armistice and to open peace nego tiations President Wilson answered by asking whether he spoke for the people or the then rulers of the empire and whether the proposal was based on an acceptance of the presidents 14 peace points. Meanwhile the drive on the west front continued, and the Ger mans were driven from much ground that they had held since 1914. The Hindenburg line was smashed at many points. Pershing's men broke the foe's main line of defense west of the Meuse and after days of bitter fighting clear ed the Germans out of Argonne forest. The Germans were forced to abandon the Chemin des Danes and to retreat on a long line from Laon as far east sumed but the turning point was reached when on June 6 and 7 Ameri can marines were thrown across the path of the advancing army at Chateau Thierry. The Americans not only stopped the Germans but drove them back two miles, capturing several hun dred prisoners. In an effort to unite the Somme sali ent with that of the Marne to provtdc a base for another move toward Paris, the Germans launched another heavy attack west of Noyon on June 10. They made considerable gains on a 20-mile front but the drive was halted within two days. Austrian Offensive Is Fiasco. ttention was transferred from France to Italy when on June 15 the Austrians opened an offensive on the Italian front from Asiago plateau to the sea. The attack proved a complete fiasco. It was repulsed at all points J,s Argonne. and the Italians pursued the fleeing Austrians across the Piave, taking 45,- 000 prisoners. The German commanders made one last effort to break through to Paris when the crown prince's army group on July 15, the morning after the French national holiday, launched an offensive along a front from Chateau Thierry to Massiges, 30 miles east of Reims. This fifth and last phase of the great Germany sent another note to Pres ident Wilson on October 12, accepting the latter's 14 peace principles and urging the president to transmit its proposal for an armistice to the allies. Prince Max assured the president that by reason of constitutional changes the existing German government spoke for the people. President Wilson re plied two days later, rejecting the Ger man proposals, declaring that any arm istice must be granted by the military offensive failed most signally, being commanders and must guarantee the coniinueu supieumi. ui uie ameu stopped on the third day. The Ameri can forces played a big part in this sec ond decisive battle of the Marne. East of Chateau-Thierry the Germans forced a passage across the Marne and the Americans who opposed them were forced to fall back temporarily. Then, in a brilliant counter-attack, the Amer arms. The answer of the allied armies to the German peace proposals vvas to deliver still harder blows at the retir ing enemy. In the north the Belarian army, led by King Albert, co-operat ing with the British, began to sweep ernment was set up. Field Marshal von Hindenburg re- ' mained In supreme command of the German armies and began to direct the retirement of the Germans in ac cordance with the terms of the armis tice. Carrying out the terms of the armis tice the Germans surrendered 71 war ships to the allies on November 21. Conditions were very unsettled in Germany during the closing weeks of the year, the socialist government ap parently sharing power with the sol diers and workmen's councils. Plans were under discussion for the sum moning of a constituent assembly to determine the future character of the government but activities of the rad ical socialistic element under the lead ership of Herr Liebknecht threatened to disrupt the entire foi.ier empire. On November 29 President Wilson announced that he would head the American delegation to the peace conference and that the other dele gates would be Secretary of State Lansing, Col. E. M. House. Henry White, former ambassador to France, and Gen. Tasker H. Bliss, United States military representative on the supreme war council. The president, accompanied by the other peace dele gates and a large party of assistants, sailed for France December 4. President Wilson arrived at Brest December 13 and proceeded to Paris, where he was given an enthusiastic re ception. He at once entered into con ference with the allied leaders, in prep aration for the opening of the peace conference in January. British, French, American and Bel gian armies of occupation advanced into Germany as the Germans retired in accordance with the armistice, the allied armies reaching the Rhine dur ing the early days of December. up of most, If not all. of the territory divided up years ago among Germany, Austria and Russia. Finland threw off the shackles placed upon her by Russia and out of the turmoil of civil war emerged as a free and independent nation. The peoples of other smaller subject states asserted their independ ence. Civil war continued to threaten the new republic of China throughout the year. Hsu Shin Chang was elected president of the republic on Septem ber 6 and during the next few months reports indicated a possibility of an agreement being reached between the northern and southern sections of the country. Peru and Chile were reported on the brink of war during the closing weeks of the year. The trouble between these countries was an outgrowth of the nitrate war of years ago in which Chile won Taona and Arica. Dr. Sidonia Paes, president of Por tugal, was shot and killed at Lisbon. December 15. The assassin was killed by the crowd that witnessed the crime. Two days later Admiral Canto Y. Cas tro was elected president of Portugal. On December 16 the Finnish diet killed by the explosion of German mu nition trains en route from Belgium to Germany. One of the most unusual cases in maritime history was that of the United States navy collier Cyclops, which disappeared at sea while bound from the West Indies to an American Atlantic port. Announcement was made April 14 that the boat, with 293 persons on board, was a month over-.-due. Not a single trace" of the hoal or its -passengers and crew was ever found, and the fate of the vessel is a complete mystery. NECROLOGY Death took a heavy toll among men and women prominent in public life during the year 1918. The list In cludes the following: January 13, United States Senator James H. Brady of Idaho; January 14, Maj. A. P. Gardner, former congress man from Massachusetts, who re signed to enter the army; January 30, United States Senator William Hughe of New Jersey. February 2, John L. Sullivan, former heavyweight champion, at West Abing- Finland. LAB OH AND INDUSTRY , r u , the Germans from the Belgian coast cans drove the Germans back across " , . , tha oQ, !T A. ,, . , , rnri . . On October 1 the Germans were drlv- the Marne, taking 1,500 prisoners, in- - rw, ,a v . , . .. . en from Ofitend and Bruges and the eluding a complete brigade, staff. Allied Offensive Opens. j On July 18 General Foch assumed the offensive. He struck the crown prince's right flank a vital blow and on the first day the French and Americans fought their way for six miles along the Aisne, reaching the outskirts of Soissons. For two weeks the great counter-offensive continued. On July 29 the Americans met the crack divi sions of German guards and defeated them in a stubborn battle at Sergy. Soissons fell to the French on August 2 and by the following day the entire Soissons-Reims salient had been wiped out. The indignation of the British peo ple, aroused by the U-boat outrages perpetrated by the Germans, was in tensified early In July when news was received of the sinking by a subma rine of the hospital ship Llandovery Castle, carrying wounded men and nurses between Canada and England causing a loss of 258 persons, includ ing 12 nurses. The United States con tinued to speed up Its war activities during July, and early In the month it British occupied Lille. The whole west front was in motion. The allies swept eastward through Belgium and through the industrial regions of France. Chancellor Max, on October 21, sent another peace note to President Wil son, denying the charges that the Ger mans had been guilty of atrocities on land and sea, and again giving assur ances that the new government repre sented the people of Germany. Presi dent Wilson replied two days later, agreeing to transmit the request for an armistice to the allies. Italians Rout Austrians. As this note was delivered the allies were smashing the Germans at all points on the western front and on October 24 the Italians launched a great offensive against the Austrians on the Piave front, who within a few days were in headlong flight with the Italians in pursuit. The Americans continued to smash the Germans in vi cious attacks west of the Meuse. The month of November opened with the German armies facing utter rout, the armies of her allies completely DOMESTIC AFFAIRS Practically every phase of American life felt the dominating influence of war throughout the year 1918. In the field of national legislation woman's suffrage and nation-wide pro hibition were urged as war measures. The Woman's suffrage amendment was defeated in the senate October 1, after having passed the house. A nation-wide prohibition measure, to become effective June 30, 1919. was enacted by congress and approved by dered the manufacture of malt liquor stopped on December 1, as a food conservation measure. The government, early In the year, began to tighten its control over indus try and business for the purpose of furthering war efforts and protecting serious coal shortage which threatened to delay the shipment of war supplies to France, Fuel Administrator Garfield ordered a general shutdown of indus try and business In all states east of the Mississippi river for a period of five days and ten succeeding Mondays. On February 13 the order for heatless Mondays was rescinded, ton, Mass. ; February 10. Abdul Hamld, elected General Mannerheim regent of former sultan of Turkey; February 14, Sir Cecil Spring-Rice, former Brit ish ambassador to America. March 6, John Redmond, Trish Na tionalist leader, at London; March 9, George von L. Meyer, former cabinet member and diplomat, at Boston. April 12. United States Senator R. F. Broussard of Louisiana ; April 14, United States Senator William Joel Stone of Missouri. May 14, James Gordon Bennett, pro prietor of the New York Herald, at Paris. June 3, Ranon M. Valdez, president of Panama; June 4, Charles Warren Fairbanks, former vice president, at Indianapolis. July 3. Mohammed V, sultan of Tur key; Viscount Rhondda, British food controller, and United States Senator Benjamin R. Tillman of South Caro lina; July 27, Gustav Kobbe, Ame-ican author and critic. August 8, Max Rosenthal, famous artist, at Philadelphia; August 12, Anna neld. famous actress, at New York ; August 17, United States Sena tor Jacob II. rtallinger of New Hamp shire; August 28. United States Sena tor Ollie M. James of Kentucky. September 17, Cardinal John M. Far ley, archbishop of New York; Septem ber 25, John Ireland, Catholic arch bishop of St. Paul. October 25, Charles Lecocq. French composer. November 4. Mrs. Russell Sage, wld ow of famous financier, at New York; Dr. Andrew White, noted educator and diplomat; November 8. Robert J. Col lier, editor and publisher; November 15, Gen. H. C. King, soldier and au thor. In New York ; November 19, Dr. C. R. Van Hlse, president of University of Wisconsin; Joseph F. Smith, presi dent of Mormon church. December 2, Edmond Rostand r--mous French playwright and po - (Copyright, 1918. by MeClur .. r Syndicated Labor unrest, resulting in many strikes, threatened to seriously ham per the government's war preparations early in the year but through a spirit of co-operation shown by both labor and capital the danger was averted and there .was little labor trouble during the greater part of the year. During the early days of the yeai disaffection appeared among the work ers In the shipyards and by February 12 the situation had assumed a serious aspect with strikes In effect In five yards. By February 16 the strike had spread still further In spite of an ad vance in wages announced by the la bor adjustment board. On February 17, President Wilson, in a letter to William L. Hutcheson, head of the United Brotherhood of Car penters and Joiners, concerning the ship carpenters strike, denied the right of labor to strike at that critical junc ture. "Will you co-operate or will you obstruct?" the president asked. The workmen responded to the president's the president November 22. On Sep- j appeal and the strike was declared off. tember 6 President Wilson had or- J At the same time Secretary of Labor Wrilson announced the personnel of a national board of labor, to be com posed of representatives of both labor and capital. On February 24 this board opened a conference for the purpose of establishing a basis for the settlement of disputes during the war. Former the public. On January 16, to relieve a President William H. Taft, chosen by ? . j t . . m ' . i r k V the employers, and Frank P. Walsh selected by the lbor organizations, al ternated as chairman. This confer ence, on March 29, reached an agree ment providing that all labor disputes arising during the war should be sub mitted to a board of mediation. This agreement was adhered to by both em ployers and employees and compara- I Si 3. 61 P r, a;