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The Ohio organ, of the temperance reform. (Cincinnati, [Ohio]) 1853-1854, October 28, 1853, Image 6

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("The Atmosphere end its Elect! ''
w-j " '-:tpoa Animal Lifa.' f ,! ' '
. r f . " j i
A very interesting lecture was de
livered 611 the 11th tnst, by Dr. Gris
com, at the New York Mechancis' In
stitute,1 on the ' "Influence Air in
connection with' Animal Life " ' The
lecturer commenced by 6aying that
he supposed some 6f them would be
surprised to hear that they lived at
the bottom of an immense ocean of air
fifty miles deep; yet it was so, and the
color of the ocean which is called the
atmosphere, is a deep cerculian blue.
To perceive this color it was necessary
to be able to see at once the whole vol
ume, and also on a calm and clear day,
for no color could be perceived if seen
jn small quantities, or when there was
either wind or haziness. In like man
ner the color of water could not be
seen in small qttantites, and was only
perceptible where there was a vast
expanse of ocean. The air was also
a substance capable of condensation
and expansion. Its expansion was seen
in the winds, by which ships were
made to traverse the ocean, and also
windmills,, The tornado was another
phase of its expansion, by which
trees were uprooted and nouses over
turned; and was almost equal to the
power of steam. The greatest weight
of the atmosphere was fifteen pounds
to the square inch, and this weight
presses on every way, both upward
and downward.' To explain the pres
sure upward, the lecturer , exhausted
the air out of a large vase, which then
remained fast to the plate on which it
stood, but upon the air being let in, it
was easily removed. I remembtr said
he, being asked the question, if there
is a pressure of fifteen pounds to the
square inch, the reason why we were
not at once crushed by the weight;
but this is, as I before explained, be
cause the air presses in all directions
with the same equal force, and hence
there is an equilibrium. This is a
most important element, and one that
requires to be known, and also that the
air never presses more than fifteen
pounds to the square inch.
The next quality of the air is elasti
city. Press it, to make it occupy a
emaller space than it otherwise would,
and then take away the weight, and it
comes back and occuj ies its original
space. The lecturer then explained
that in the air there were two gases :
one oxygen, which is that part of the
atmosphere by which chiefly we live,
and which is the one-fifth part; and
the other nitrogen, which is tour-fifths
of the atmosphere. Oxygen supports
life and combustion, and nitrogen re
strains its effects and dulls its cpera
tions. The quantity of air which a
person consumes depends in a meas
ures on one's self, and by training can
be mace more or less. '1 he tailor and
shoemaker take little in comparison
with the laborer, and the public spe : k
er or singer; or those who cry commo
dities for sale through the streets. A
man in good health makes eighteen re
spirations in a minute, and in twenty,
four hours consumes fifty-one hogs
heads of the air. As the oxyiren
which supporslife is small, we ought
to be very particular how we permit
other gases to mix with it and vitiate
it. lhe blood when it enters the
lungs, is black, but when the cxygsn
acts on it, it becomes red, and is sent
through the veins to impart life and
animation, This black blood is pro
duced by carbon, and impaits the
blackness which we see in the face of
persons who lose their lives by suffoca'
tion, because the air was not allowed
to reach the lungs to purify it. W hen
we send out the air from the lungs we
do not send it in the same manner as
we inhaled it, for when exhaled it is
as deadly a poison as arsenic or corro
sive sublimate. The lecturer showed
this bv experiments, and tilled a vase
with his own breath in which a light
ed candle would not live. It was
such air killed persons who went down
into wells in the country, or died when
a pan of charcoal was placed in a
room. The danger of taking' Impure
matter into the stomach Was hot "so
great as into the lungs; for1 'the sto
mach' had power to eject impurities
which the lungs' had not.':l Besides
the impure air which we exhale therd
are 2,800 pores on every 'square inch
of the body, and to a body of a large
size there, are '2,690 square Inches;
and those; multiplied make 7,000,00;)
of pores.' '' There U a sort of drainage
pipe in the body, 'which sends out
matter as well as gas,' and this pipe is
calculated at twenty-eight miles long.
The particles' of matter 1 which are
sent out and which' do not dissolte,
are so numerous, that in China, where
the houses are low, and a great many
persons are in the habit of assembling
in one room, it has been disooverd that
after fifteen or twenty years, these par
ticles adhere to the ceiling! of the
rooms, so that farmers will contract
to put up a new ceiling if they are al
lowed to take down the old one, 60
valuable has it been found for manure.
Scientific American.
Wheat Culture of Ohio
. . Ohio produces, annually .. about
Wheat. Three successive crops were
as follows:
Crop of 1849...
Crop of 1850,
Crop of lc61,
35,000 ,noo
Aggregate,--' 76000,000
Average, -r ...... 25,333,333
These crops were accurately ascer
tained, that of 1 84.9. under the United
States; that of 1850 and 1851, by
the State Assessors. One is the worst
crop in many years, (that of 1849 ;)
and one (that of 1850,) the best; so
that, on the whole, the average is a
fair one. The crops of 1852 and
1853; will not be far from that of 1851,
that is an average.
There is nothing less understood,
than what is really an average crop
01 any staple gram, we near con
tinually from 70 and 80 bushels, of
corn to an acre, as if that were the
common crop ; and of 40 bushels of
wheat per acre in Jinglund, as if that
were the common crop in that country ;
but in fact it is no such thing. An
average crop for an entire country,
must include all varieties of soil as
well as all varities of seasons. In
some seasons, the crop fails almost
entirely ; and one kind of soil, will
not pr duce half as much as another.
We have looked over the Agricul
tural Report of the State Society, for
the purpose of ascertaining the gen
eral average of wheat production.
in the nrst place, we looked at the
the rERMiuM crops, which were as
Anhland co. 45 buih. 7ftBn per bush.
Athene "
Lorain "
Defiuice "
Erie "
Carroll "
Champ'gn "
Waah'Um "
m "
The premium crop of Ashland was
equal to 52$ bushels per acre, at th".
Statute Weight, which is 60 its per
bushels. The premium crop of Perry
was equal to 4(ty bushels, and the
'premium crop of Athens to 46 bushels
per acre. We can easily see, there
fore, how, on suitable land, and high
culture, a crop of 40 bushels per
acre may occasionlly be raised ;
hut it is not a common thing, either
in England or America, Let us now
look at some of the county averages.
We will take five of the highest
average, and iive of the lowest.
E le... .2 bushels
Miintffomery,.' .22 ' "
Champaign, ,...20) ' ' '' '
Seneca, 2l "
20 ..,'
, Qil: l
Lawrence,. y.... k..'
;,.9. "
..12 "
' We see, therefore, there is a very
great difference between ' the average
of the best counties and the worst
The avervgk production of the
entire State of Ohio, does not 'reach
18 bushels per acre. Let u next
enquire into the cost of production, .,
:,The actual cost of plowing, seeding
harrowing, putting and threshing an
acre of! premium wheat in Brown
county, was $6,90 per ncre. The ac
tual cost of nine acres of premium
wheat in Deflartce county, was $71,
75; making about $8 per acre. In
the former case, the produce was 40
bushels per acre, and the cost 33 cents
per bushels. ; In the later case, the
product . was 369 . bushels, or,1 41
bushels per ; acre. The cost, there
fore, was, about 20 cents per bushel.
We infer, that the actual cost of the
wheat production, independent of the
interest of capital invested, and the
charges of Government, is not more
than 20 "cents per bushel. If the crop
be only a common one it is because it
, 11 1.! ... J 1 '
be less manured ana. cumvaicu.
In other words, it has cost less. 1 An
average production of 16 bushels per
acre, does not cost over $3,25 per acre.
But, the interest of., capital, at $30
per acre, is $1,80 per acre, The
churges of government , are about
30 cents per acre. The total
cqarges therefore, are $3,25 per
acre. The product is 16 bushels per
acre, which at 60 cents, is $9,60.
With an average of 16 bushels, per
acre,' and a price of 60 cts. per bushel,
wheat is a profitable crop. This cor
responds with a remark made by far
mers, that wheat may be raised profit
ably in Ohio at 60 cents per bushel;
but not under. ' The whole cost per
bushel, as we have seen above, is less
than 33 cents per bushel. But wheat
culture on botom lands, or without the
aid of rotation crops, would soon
cease to be profitable. It is not cal
culated to do well, without rotation;
nor does it suit alluvial land, as well
as Indian corn. :; i;, ,
Of the 25,000,000 bushels of wheat
raised in Ohin, at least thirteen
million is surplus, which at 70 cents
per bushel, is worth over $9,100,000!
Notwithstanding this immense and
valuable crop , is actually raised in
this State, yet the traveler on our
railroads would scarcely suspect its
existence. Not one twentieth part of
the State is occupied by wheat, while
all around, the stranger 6ees heavy
forests yet occupying the ground. :
The whole cultivated land of Ohio
is only about l-5th part. iJ. 72. Re
Principle of the Maine Law.
This law embodies no new principles
of legislation, but is simply anew ap
plication of principles as old as legis
lation itsel f, and often embodied and
applied in previous legislation on this
as well as on other subjects in this
State, and is based upon a principle at
the foundation of society, to wit, that
society has a right to protect itself, and
that public welfare is paramount to
personal interest or individual gratifi
cation. -
A celebrated toper, intending to go
to a masked ball, consulted an ac-
Suaintance in what character he should
sguise himself. ' Go sober," replied
his friend, "and your most intimate
friends will not know you." '' ''"
'Mr, Smith, don't you think Mr.
Skeesicks is a young man of parts??'
"Decidedly so, Miss .Brown, he is
part numskull, part knave, and part
A Tavkrn. The Devil's drawing
room, as an alt-house is his kitchen.
I ktlacb. Labor on little Land, h
The Farmer' t Companion, in an ar
ticl on "Small Farms, marks oui
the, following course for the, farmer of
small capital tq pursue: ri 1, !,,;.,,;,
You have one hundred acres .dear,
fifty of which you keep for pasture and
for meadow. . Make up your mind to
work only'twenty:five acres; the other
twenty-five being put down to clover
and timothy, as you best can. You
have manure enough1 in and about
your farm for six acres. This year
haul that on to your land, plough it,
and put in corn, with little ashes, and.
if you can get it, slaked lime or plas
ter . to every hill. , j Plough twice,, as
deep as usual, and drag' twice .as
long, with a long-toothea drag,! til ',
the land is , like a garden. Jf you
have got thirty-five bushels of corn to
the acre before, we can warrant you
now, seventy or eighty;: for you cul
tivate and hoe the corn twice as much'
likewise. You double your crop at a.
very little increased cost. Having no
more manure, you must depend , on
deeper ploughing and belter dragging
for the other ten acres for this year,,
not forgetting to sow a little more seed
than usual il it is oats or barley., In
the fall, 6ow wheat where the corn was,
with the same care, and next Spring,
manure the next six acres for corn.
Yes, but you may manure the ten or
twelve acres; for you have had twenty
five more acres for hay, or oat straw
cut green for fodder, and can keep
twenty -five more cows for the winter;,
and knowing the value of the manure,,
that it is as important to you as the
very sod itself, you will take much
better care of it.
Thus, every two or three years, all
your land will get a dressing of ma
nure, and every year you will have a
j re : . u - ;
lliereni crup oil )i. Jiivery year in
will improve; and you grow rich with
about half your work. : But after a
while, sow, a few acres of this land
wi th clover and timothy, and break up
as much of your old grass. You will
get double the crop of hay on the piece,
and a good crop of grain on the old
piece, in one word, of all men in the
world, a farmer should' work a small
piece of land; work itthoroughly; keep
all the stock he can to make manure;
keep the manure dry; and he will not
be a' small farmer long. We have '
tried it, and we know it. For the
rest, take and read a good farmers' ,
newspaper. . ,
1 Cylinder Telegraph.
A company is now being formed,
with a capital of $500,000, for the
purpose of constructing a line of tele
graphs from Boston to New York,
having a cylinder twd feet in diameter,
by means of which, it is believed,
packages may be transmitted from
one city to the other in fifteen minutes.
It has been objected by some, that the
power required to exhaust the tube ,
lor so great a distance, would be so
great, that no reasonable number of ,
pumps would be able to accomplish it. ,
But this objection is met by the fact,
that it is not proposed by the plan of
Mr. R. to exhaust the air through, the
whole length of the tube, at once; but
as a portion of the air is exhausted and
the plunger rushes through the tube,
the air is cut off behind it, and a new ;
column of air commences to act upon
it. , The scheme is attracting favor.
Boston Traveller. .
Widows as Printers, The Pittsburgh
"Gazette" says the attempt to introduce
women as compositors in that city, has
been remaikably successful, and that
widows make the most rapid advance-
men!, 'as their intellects are more ma-;
lure, and their knowledge superior 10
that of most boys when they commence
an apprenticeship to the printing busi
ness Besides this, we presume their
previous experience in small caps, bod
kins, washing forms, and press ,work '
generally, nas aireany initiated mem in '
several of the details of the craft.

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