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4- ;7 7 w v yTf x if if j f .s-i it i i e 1 1 ' . i . i u - g ni. i- jl i : 1 -I 31 Spread Through the Me dium of Currant and Gooseberry Bushes - Is the Destruction of Our White Pine a Part of the German Propaganda? By Rusfcll T. Edwards. IN THESE DAYS of the cry for "ships, ships, and still more ships" attention of the American public should be directed to the white blister rust, which Is destroy ing thousands of whit pine trees throughout the country, and threatens destruction to the entire growth of this; the most valuable asset of our forests. Like the chestnut blight, the white pine blister disease is a native of foreign lands and was introduced here on nursery stock. The original home of this disease is northern Eu rope. While a few importations of the rust were made from Holland, France and Great Britain, one nursery In Germany may be said to be re sponsible for the present wide spread of the disease in the Eastern United States. If the introduction of this destruc tive disease Into the United States and Canada was deliberately plotted by the Germans, as some people believe, they chose the most effective agent that could be found to destroy the usefulness of the American forests of the future. For nearly three cen turies white pine was the leading commercial tree of America, and the pre-eminence of white pine in the lumber Industry is recorded In the history and statistics of the trade Other woods in recent years have sur passed white pine in output and use- liBrii:iii ill - : A New Enterprise In Support of the Slogan "Save Food and Win the War!" - Operates With Ap proval of Food Administration - Movement ' Is Spreading To Other Cities - Recipes. Copyright, 1913, by The International Syndicate. iXCLE SAM'S first Liberty War Kitchen is running full blast in Washington other cities please sit up and take notice. It has beeu in operation but a month or so and already has accomplished won der. This kitchen, organized and oper ated by a group of patriotic women of the Nation's capital, is exactly what its name implies a kitchen that dem onstrates in practice as well as in theory how food may be prepared by the average housewife in keeping with the nation-wide slogan, "Save food and win the war!" Cooperates With Food Administration. This Liberty War Kitchen its offi cial name co-operates with the Food Administration; which fact, of course, means that it has the approval of Mr. Herbert Hoover, the Food Administra tor. In fact, the Food Administration contributes a hundred and fifty dol lars a month to its up-keep; and this money Is used to defray the necessary expenses of a professional instructor In the preparation of economical foods and for the services of a director who fulness for special purposes, but as a profitable tree crop no other American tree offers the splendid possibilities of white pine. In Southern New Eng land the planting of white pine has assumed large proportions because its rapid growth and high stumpage values makes it the most profitable crop which could be grown on thou sands of acres of cut over land and worn out pastures. White pine also is highly resistant to the attacks of the gypsy moth and has been largely planted in certain localities to take the place of the hardwoods of which the insect feeds. Not An Insect. The white pine blister disease is not an insect, but a plant parasite. which grows inside of the bark and sap wood of white pine and other five-leaved pines, gradually girdling the branch or trunk, causing death above the part' affected. A peripd of incubation, varying from one to six or seven years, takes place after the pines are affected. The bark eventu ally becomes swollen and discolored, and in the spring (late April to early June), the sacs or "blisters," from which the disease takes its name ap pears on the surface. The sac is a white membrane; it is about the size of a grain of corn and'eontains thou sands of orange colored, dust-like seeds. After a few days the covering of the "blister" breaks and the spores are broadcasted by the wind. Many States Infected. An extensive search for the blister rust has been carried on in Western New York, Pennsylvania, the lake States, and in the Rocky Mountains supervises the work. All the other women active in the work serve with out compensation. The kitchen is open to all women for instruction, absolutely without fee except that each woman, of course, must defray the cost of the ingredi ents she uses in making the various dishes listed. She is permitted, how ever, to take home any dish she pre pares. Committee In Charge Of The Project. The classes vary in size and all of them are well attended; indeed, the little room in the basement is crowd ed always during working hours. . The women in the work have been drawn together naturally by mutual interest in similar work; and their plan to establish a war kitchen, which should teach the principles of food conservation by demonstrating meth ods of saving scarce materials by using substitutes for all staple articles, grew out of the Capital Garden Club. This Club which was active last summer In Washington . in obtaining vacant lots for cultivation and in in structing the public In the simple and Pacific Coast States. As a result, in fection has been found in small quan tities but widely scattered throughout Southern and Western New York. In the St. Croix Valley in Minnesota and Wisconsin, not only have diseased currants and gooseberries been found over an area approximately 70 miles long and 10 miles wide, but diseased pines have been found as far north as Pine City. In Pennsylvania, South Dakota and Iowa, the only disease found has been in plantations made from stock purchased from nurseries. However, it is encouraging to learn that the disease has not been found west of the great plains," so for the present at least the sugar pine and western white pine are not in danger. The lumbermen are to be congrat ulated on the timely action of the Federal Horticultural Board in plac ing a quarantine on the movement of nursery stock of white pine and cur rants and gooseberries from the East ern United States, west of a line drawn along the western boundary of Min nesota, southward to the Gulf. This greatly lessens the possibility of in troducing this dangerous disease into the splendid pine forests of the coast. Chestnut Blight. The history of the blister rust inva sion should be our final warning. Chestnut blight was brought to this country from China and Japan, and has caused millions of dollars loss. The loss from this disease in the State of Pennsylvania alone, up to the pres principles of gardening was the nat ural forerunner of the Liberty War Kitchen; for what could be so ob viously needed as an advanced class for those interested in food produc tion, one which would be a class in conservation of the food produced? So, the kitchen was started and fi nanced by this group of women during its early days .of formation. The work of the Liberty War Kit chen is eminently practical. It has theories, but it puts them into prac tice and teaches untrained Women to do likewise. Already, it is a potent factor in the practical application of the principles advocated by the Food Administration. To quote Miss Aldis,' chairman of the executive committee, "The aim of the Liberty War Kitchen is to teach the women of Washington to save food, especially to save those kinds of food needed by men fighting to save, not food, bnt human life, prin ciples of pure democracy and civiliza tion itself. In technical words, our object Is to plan economical and ade quate' meals which conserve sugar, fats, meats and wheat and to enable women intelligently to conform to the food pledges; to interpret and dem onstrate what the Food Administra tion is requesting of the American public. "Economy, and saving of white flour, sugar and animal fats, with the idea especially of popularizing sub stitutes for them such substitutes ent time, is placed by the state fores try oflicials at $9,000,000 to $10,000, 000. Other pests with appetites that cost the United States more than $500,000,000' annually, such as the gypsy moth, brown tail moth. San Jose scale, the cotton boll weevil, etc., are immigrants from abroad which might easily have been kept out of the coun try had the proper precautions been taken. This is a tax of $5 on each person in this country, or $25 for a family of five a considerable item in the cost of living. The United States is the only coun try in the world which permits a rather free importation of nursery stock from other countries. We have depended in the past upon inspection and the result has been a failure, be cause no inspector can find every one of the pests which are carried on the .plants. A single shipment of plants from Brazil brought several hundred different kinds of insects with it. Most of the insects were new and their pos sibilities of destruction were unknown. At the present time there are more than three thousand insects, and ap proximately as many fungus diseases which have their homes in foreign lands and may prove highly danger ous if introduced here. It is a fact that it is impossible to estimate how serious the ravages of an imported pest may be until it is so firmly estab lished here that there is no hope of its eradication. This is explained first because the CHICKEN FAT IS often wasted. . being corn-meal and graham flours for wheat, corn-syrup for sugar-cane products, and vegetable oils for- ani mal fats meet the general require ments of war-time conservation of food. "Much of our weekly program is given to making the housewife alert to every opportunity for applying this knowledge in her own kitchen. More over, we show her how to conserve food in this way and yet to make it taste as good and to be as nourishing as in the prodigal days before the war." A Sample Week In The Kitchen. A resume of a week's work in the kitchen is enlightening. The program accommodates many different les sons all of them essentially practical for use in the average home kitchen Special stress is laid upon the fact that special equipment is not neces sary; in fact, the ordinary utensils of the average kitchen are quite ade quate for utilizing for home consump tion the recipes and conservation methods taught in the class room. On a Monday morning, for example, an hour and a nan is eiven to in struction in the making of yeast and soups; and in the afternoon an ex pert of the Department of Agricul ture, or the Food Administration, makes a special demonstration of food conservation along some particular line. Tuesday, perhaps, finds the class utilizing the yeast made the day be fore in the mixing and baking of war bread; with a lecture upon ttie con servation of fats. Wednesday morn ing, too. is devoted to the making of war bread for this is a most im portant item of the Nation's war diet. as the people of the United States plant disease or Insect finds new con ditions of climate and new food plants which may be especially favorable to its development. Equally important is the fact that in its native home the pest finds its development limited by enemies which maintain the balance of natnrS. When brought to our shore, free from its enemies, it has the chance to spread like wild fire. This is illustrated by the gypsy moth. where a single pair of insects acci dentally escaped and in a compara tively few years the expenditure of a million dollars annually was insuffi cient to control their ravages and limit their spread into new territory. A vigorous campaign to place an embargo on the importation of all foreign nursery stock except such as is brought in by the United States Department of Agriculture and grown under quarantine, has been started by the American Forestry Association. Other organizations are assisting in the movement. Even the nursery men themselves are rapidly coming to the conclusion that very strict pre ventive measures must be adopted if their business is to continue. The Forest Regiment. In war ridden Europe they are alive to the value of scientific forestry and the loss that bids fair to reach a billion dollars in this country from disease will go far over that figure in Europe from war losses. With this in view the largest regiment in the world, the Twentieth Engineers (Forest) will command the attention and respect of Allies and enemy alike. This regiment has already sent a part of its forces to the French war zone. When the entire organization is in service, which will be in the near future, the roster will show approxi mately 17,000 officers and men, or ten times as many as the ordinary regi ment. In the Twentieth there will be ten battalions of foresters, woodsmen and lumbermen, with a strength of 7,500 enlisted men. In additions there will be nine service battalions composed of 7,250 enlisted men to work as laborers m connection with tne activities or the regiment. Colonel W. A. Mitchell, U. S. A. is in command. He Is a West Point 'graduate of first honors and is a native of Georgia. This regiment is the second to be organized in the United States for service in the forests of France. The 10th Engineers (Forest), went across the ocean last summer. In the two regiments there will be a total strength of 9,200 American foresters and woodsmen in service in the war zone. The work of these organiza tions is under the general supervision of Lieutenant Colonel Henry S. Graves, United States Forester, who is designated director of forestry with the American Expeditionary forces, will presently find out most em phatically and somewhat to their con sternation. In the afternoon the con servation of sugar engages the serious attention of the class. Thursday strikes a new note. Dis cussion of meat substitutes occupies two hours in the morning; this, ob viously, is a popular class. In the afternoon there is a special class for colored cooks, to demonstrate that conservation means the saving of food, not money. Saving In Fuel Is Effected. "Quick bread" takes a lot of time on Friday; for the instructors are placing great emphasis upon its wider use. Quick breads such as muffins, pop-overs, scones, spoon-bread, etc require far less cooking than does the ordinary kind. Hence, an appreciable saving in fuel is effected. In the aft ernoon the women are taught how to make and to use a tireless cooker. Saturday is the big day. Despite the many household tasks generally performed on that day, preparatory to Sunday with its more elaborate menus, the women still find time to attend class. There is a lecture upon food values; ,the preparation of bal anced menus is expounded, utilizing the principles taught during the week; recipes are tested, discussed and ex changed these being modified by the experts so as to fulfill all the require ments of the Food Administration; and criticism and comment upon the previous week's lessons refresh the memory and give opportunity for a culinary "experience meeting," so to speak. "Wars are won or lost in the kit chen," is the inscription which hangs in the work room; and it is the spirit which dominates the work. J-SW i i " t 1 Major William B. Greeley, Assistant United States Forester, is deputy di rector. The work of these men will be to utilize the materials of the French forests in supplying timbers for the building of trenches and the -many other forms of construction necessary to modern warfare. Complete logging and sawmill equipment is provided for them and the regiments will afford the Allied forces a source of supply for their timber needs of every char acter. In addition the trained forest ers will work with an eye to the future of the forests, selecting those trees which may be harvested with the least damage. Relief Needed. Importance of making relief provi sion for the men and their families is emphasized by R. H. Downman, Lumber Director of the Committee on Raw Materials for the Council of Na tional Defense. "The men who compose the Forest Regiments are making a big personal sacrifice in following the flag into the French forests," said Mr. Downman. "A large majority of these men are above the draft age. but they have answered their country's call. With the unprecedented demand for lum ber at home there is work at high wages for all the men who are skilled in any branch of forestry lumbering and sawmill operations. Thousands of men who could stay at home at war-time wage3 have answered. These men will build the things needed to make your boys comfortable. "Their work is as important as that of the soldier in the trenches and the purpose of the Lumber and Forests Relief Committee is to provide com forts for these men and perhaps their families if necessary. It is important that this fund have prompt and cor dial support of all lumber men and all timber interests. I hope this will take the form of generous Contributions sent at once to the headquarters of the American Forestry Association in the Maryland Building here." The fund was organized by men widely known in forestry and lumber fields. The committee is: Charles In addition to training the house wives who, by the way, are increas ing in attendance each day, the Lib erty War Kitchen is also training volunteer teachejs who are willing to give their time later to demonstrat ing the Kitchen's principles. Without such teachers, obviously the work must go on ii a limited way; and with a large number of these teach ers at the disposal of the Executive Committee, the Kitchen can grow and establish the many branches that oth er sections of the city and the country are asking. While this work of expansion is an ticipated, the committee has already prepared a pamphlet of war-time re cipes; and every recipe in it has been tested and proved to be practical and worth-while. Use Fat Instead Of Butter. Fats are scarce, so the housewife attending the kitchen hears that she must save all the drippings from her frying and other cooking pans; and she must not allow the butcher to cut and throw away the suet from a steak she buys. She must ask for this suet and take it home and render it into fat The Kitchen teaches a method of utilizing this fat so that it serves as a substitute for butter, and indeed tastes like butter. Here is the recipe: To six parts of fat, which has been rendered from beef suet and boiled with water to carry off the animal odor and taste, mix one-half cup of sour milk, and set away to harden. When cool, this mixture may be used much the same as butter in cooking. In substituting for meat, the Kit chen demonstrates the use of nuts, cheese, eggs, cereals and fish. Its recipe for salmon loaf is popular: One slice of stale bread cooked smooth with one-half cup of milk; "rice" one cup of salmon with a po tato ricer and add to the above; then add one-quarter of a cup of milk, one egg, one-quarter teaspoonful of salt, dust with pepper, mix thoroughly and poor into a grated paper-lined mold and bake In a water bath until firm; ' 1 If 1 " f " 0fv: j' ""ft I- v jt....' ' T"f Lathrop Pack, president American Forestry Association; Albert F. Potter and William L. Hall. V. S. Forest Service; W. P. Brown, Berlin Mills Co., Berlin, New Hampshire; P. S. Ridsdale, editor American Forestry Magazine, and Mr. Downman. J. W. Tourney, director of Yale Uni versity School of Forestry, points to the great importance of forestry work and the lesson of denuded France as a sign post to this country. He views the situation this way: "The war is bleeding Europe drs L . - . i England, whose chief dependence for wood for two centuries has been from beyond the seas, is destined to be stripped as bare as China before the end of hostilities. She now sees her great mistake in the neglect ot her absolute forest lands and the great economic advantage in times of war when lumber-laden ships are swept from the sea, in having adequate re serves of lumber. Many decades must pass after the dawn of peace before Great Britain can re-establish produc tive stands of timber. She has learned her lesson, and her meagre and scat tered forests and neglected absolute forest land of the past will I believe, erive wav to a e-lorinnn rftnAi.aHAnriV and a development of well-managed forests beyond even the dream of the past. ' Lesson Of Denuded France "The well managed forests ot France in those parts of the country devastated by the nations of rMfr Europe are being depleted with start- ' ling rapidity. The French, however, with the assistance of the Americas Foresters, are felling the forests with an eye to the future and the securing of reproduction so that when the peace comes the reconstruction wtH bring back the production of the ab solute forest lands to their normal oa pacity. The forest capital of all Eu rope, will, however, be enormously cut into when fighting ceases and the not over abundant forest resources of the rest of the world will be required to rebuild Europe. "The lessons of the great war that so clearly shows the necessity of forests for the existence of national life should be taken to heart by the people of America. Our slogan should be, 'Make the land produce." .This slogan should ring from every school house, from nverv board of-lrade trom every organization irom Maine to California, that is striving for the betterment of the nation." then take out of the mold and serve with cream sauce made with water in place of milk and using some of the oil (as part of the liquid), in which the salmon was canned. This is ap proved by the Food Administration; The wheat flour substitutes are oat meal, rye flour, potato flour? bran flour, and soy bean pulp flour. These furnish the materials for war bread. The recipes are furnished by the Food Administration and worked out by the experts at the kitchen with variations in the proportion of ingredients, so that while the kitchen has nmnerous bread recipes in its card index which give directions for making different kinds of economical bread, it is most enthusiastic about the so-called war. bread, which uses a mixture of rye flour, whole wheat and white flour instead of all wheat flour. The recipe is as follows; One quarter cup of rye flour, three-quaz ter cup of whole wheat flour, three cups white flour, one and one-quarter cups luke warm water, one and one half teaspoonfuls salt, one-half yeast cake combine as in making other breads and bake in the usual way. Recipe For Oatmeal Bread, The oatmeal bread also net3 the housewife who uses it an appreci able saving in her flour supply. The recipe is: Ingredients: Seven eights of a cup of boiling water, one cup of oat flakes, one and one-half teaspoonfuls of corn syrup, one and one-half teaspoonfuls of salt, one-half , yeast cake, one-eighth cup of luke warm water and about two and one half cups flour. Pour the boiling -water over the oat flakes in a bowl? add the syrup and salt, allow mixture to stand until luke warm; then add , the yeast in luke warm water and enough bread flour to knead. , Knead it 15 minutes and set to rise In a warm place until three times its ; size. Then knead it for about five ' minutes and put it in a greased pan ; and allow it to again rise to three j times its size. Then bake in a mod erate oven for from 45 to EO mln- utes.