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THE BEIDGEPOET TIMES:
v$ B -ess- K : seas -'wri.fl t,t-" ",assr33 - ;Xf ' 1 II ri:Vr -Mli - m&j-t3? ' ill Hff a p " t'si i 1 WWW- TO How the Germans Introduced Poisons of Various Kinds In the Present Conflict After Assuring ", the Hague That They Would Carry On War In a Humane Manner Only. Copyright, 1918, Tlie International Syndicate. HE OLD SATING "there Is noth- 1 H ng new under the sun,", applies aptly to the majority of the weapons used in the present w;r. It Is especially applicable to the use of incendiary apparatus for all these hellish devices for causing the suffering and torture of one's fellow man are merely the evolution of the cauldrons of burning material used in battles as far back as 200 B. C. From that time to the present day man has been trying out new inventions along these lines until today we have the incendiary bomb, the liquid fire spray, the phosphor shrapnel and the various kinds of poison gas, all of which cause death, some instant, and others after long suffering. Early History. In the early days the incendiary ap paratus was used on ships as well as pn land and one historian gives a graphic description of the effect of "sea Are" in the year 668 A. D., when the Arabs, still in the height of their conquering enthusiasm, began to be leaguer Constantinople by land and sea. when an architect named Kal linikos fled from Heliopolis in Syria to the Imperial City and imparted the secret of "sea fire." Its use spread terror and destruction among the Moslem fleet and was the principal cause of the siege being eventually raised after seven years. In A. D 716 to 718, the Arabs again appeared before Constantinople and were once more defeated by "sea fire." The Russian Naval forces were similarily defeated in 941 anJ 1043. This "sea fire" was discharged from siphons and its mode of preparation was a close secret. Chemists of to day, however, claim that it was com posed of naptha, quick lime and sul phur. The Moors made continual use of incendiary missiles from the years 1240 to 1260. At the siege of Weis senburg, in 1460', stone balls covered with an incendiary composition were in vogue. During the middle ages it was the custom of soldiers to attach burning substances to swallows and other birds so that when they flew to the house tops they would set the roofs on fire. They even smeared cats and dogs with pitch and after setting them on fire chased the poor tortured animals into enemy's lines. Cauldrons of melted lead and boiling oil were poured from housetops on the besiegers heads. In the ninth century the lancers rode into battle with burning pikes and during the fifteenth century cross bowmen used incendiary arrows. Naptha flames were used in 1758. In I860 the Chinese used "fire arrows" against the French. During the war of 1870 the French at one time decid ed to use petrol fire pumps in battle with the Germans but later the idea was abandoned whether on account of I inferior apparatus or because of the inhumanity of the weapon is not re corded.. From time to time the shells used gave out an ill smelling gas but it seldom caused serious results. Germany's "Civilized" Weapon. It remained for Germany to perfect the most terrible of all weapons of war in the shape of poison gas, phos phor shrapnel and flame projectors. Although in 1909 the Kaiser's dele gates made vigorous avowals as to their country's decision to carry on warfare by humane methods only it is well known that the German mili tary men were engaged in experi ments as to the best means available for the use of poison gas and various other ways of poisoning their enemies. How well they succeeded is shown by the hundreds of men who have gone to their death after the most excru ciating tortures. This is Germany's idea of "civilized warfare" and the Allies have been forced to retaliate by the same methods and "fight the devil with his own weapons." During the early part of the war one heard of jets of gasoline being pumped into the the Allies trenches from time to time by the Germans and of curious bombs being tossed across "No Man's Land" by Fritz, but the real "civilized" weapon made its appearance one day at Ypres, when the men in the Allies' trenches saw heavy clouds of vapor arising from the German front. The wind was blowing in the direction of the Allies, so it came slowly on and finally they breathed it. In a short time they were nearly all dead and the Huns advanced over the dead and dying Canadians, English and French but they gained little as they feared the wind would change and they were compelled to return, but poison gas had become a weapon of the war. Again and again it has been used with more or less effect Gas Masks. Naturally all the combatants at once set about to find a way to escape its deadly fumes and a gas mask was in vented which now forms a part of every soldier's equipment. They can be placed in a wallet and slung over the man's shoulder. Alarm bells and even automobile horns are set up in the trenches and at the very first sign of gas vapors the alarm is sounded and the men put on their masks. In every army there are careless men and the deaths which occur from gas today takes its toll from this class, who either forget their masks or do not keep them in proper order. One of the first bits of training given our men in France was in the use of these masks. Gas chambers are set un and the men put on the protectors and go into the chamber for the test. Drills in putting on the masks are held daily and some of the Americans already hold the record for the proper ad justment in a short time. Occasional ly the Huns spring a new kind of gas and the Allies have to be continually on the alert. German frightfulness is practiced to such an extent that the school children of the French villages near the German front had to be taught how to adjust the masks as on one or two occasions gas vapors have been opened up on the civilian population. Frequently while the gas attacks are being made the wind changes and the Germans get a dose of their own medicine and in order to escape this they too wear masks. Recently several of these were found on captured Germans. Owing to trfe scarcity of rubber in that country the flexible parts were made of leather, otherwise they were similar to those used by the Allies. Various Kinds Of Gas. The gas used is of various kinds but all produce the same result in the end death. The most inexpen sive kind is found in the employment of sulphur dioxide. This is a highly poisonous asphyxiating nas produced by burning sulphur with any suitable combustible agent at hand. It is, when pure, transparent and colorless with a pungent odor and causes great irritation to the eyes, lungs and air passages, setting up bronchitis in an acute form, owing to its corrosive properties, and destroying everything within its reach. Troops engaged in the projection of this gas upon a large scale are usually provided with smoke helmets. Chlorin, which has a suffocating odor, is also used. Bromin too a heavy dark reddish brown liquid plays its part. It derives its name from the Greek term "bad odor," and is known to the soldiers as "stink gas." It gives off a reddish brown vapor, the smell and asphyxiating effect of which are similar to those of Chlorin. Its contact with the skin produces painful sores. It also irritates the covering of the eye to such an extent as to cause cancer. A certain kind of this gas is known to the men as "mustard" or "tear gas," on account of its making tlie eyes water. There is still another type of gas which renders a man unconscious for a time and when he recovers he feels little ill effect while in a reclining position, but the instant he tries to sit up he falls back dead. For many years Ger many has icontrolled almost the world's market for both Chlorin and Bromin owing to the huge supplies, obtainable from the Starssfurt potash deposits and had a. huge supply on hand at the outbreak of hostilities. Apparatus Used. The apparatus used by the Germans in throwing out the gas is an ingenious, affair consisting of a drum and a gas cylinder attached by means of a tube. There is a closeable orifice in the drum or reservoir through which the liquid fuel is added, the subsistence requid for the generation of poison ous gas. A cock mounted on the drums upper cover at the end of the tube connecting the cylinder controls the supply of liquid or gas under pres sure which is used to expel with force the poisonous mixture. Near the bot tom of the drum there is another cock joined to' a long pipe or hose which may be carried underground by means of a tunnel or over the ground surface' as near as possible to the trenches. The mixture liberated by the opening of the cock is forced from the drum through the pipe at a pres sure capable of carrying it, under fav orable conditions, a considerable dis tance in the "form of poison gas, igni tion having taken place by means of an inflammable liquid contained in a small receptacle near the nozzle at the end of the tube. Various ignition devices are employed, according to the length of the tube and whether it is underground or otherwise. A num ber of photographs of a gas attack have been made from aeroplanes and the effect is rather curious as one can trace row after row of the machines sending forth the "humane" weapon of German warfare. Other Uses Of Poison. Germany seems to have a fondness for using poison in war for aside from poison gas her men hurl poison gren ades a grenade which, instead of being filled with the ordinary explo sives is charged with Chlorin nitric peroxide and other gas. The tube of their poison gas machine has a spe cial nozzle, which can be used for charging grenades in the field. It has also been proven that much of their shrapnel is poisoned by the use of white phospor a poison so deadly in its effect that since 1907 its use on matches has been forbidden in Ger many. Its results are difficult to trace for a wounded soldier poisoned by a phosphorized bullet or fragment may depart on leave apparently well' only to suffer later with jaundice, kidney and liver disorders which cause his death after much suffering. Many of the German shells when exploding" emit a peculiar white smoke, which according to a noted English chemist is caused by the union of the phos phoric and phosphorus acids with the oxygen of the air. The luminous shells too contain the same terrible h poison. The surgeons declare that their work in curing wounds is great ly hampered by the German deviltry m Lreuuiig xueir explosives wi-tn some thing which poisons the wound and leaves an acrid smell. The machines used for projecting liquid fire are not unlike fire extin- giLiaiieis aiiu ure usually wonted Dy two men. The liquid in set on fire as it leaves the tube. It cannot be used to any great distance but when shot into a trench the men have no escape. A number of German fire sprays have been captured and some may be turned against ihem by the Allies. -As the gas kills animals as well as men many of the soldiers have pro-" vided gas masks for their horses. The effect of a man and his mount done up in the ghostly affairs present the effect of the Klu Klux Klan out for a raid. And now the men of our own armv are forced to take up the gas and flame fighting and a call has been issued for expert mechanics and chemical workers to join this section of the engineer corps. Already a number of soldiers are in training learning how to "strafe" sheets of liquid fire that will burn and blind the enemy and make way for power ful attacks. They are also studying how to loosen clouds of poison vapors and waft them across "No Man's Land"' to the enemies trenches, in short to fight the Germans as they are fighting us. The details of the work are at present kept a secret and no photographs of the appartus to be used are permitted at the present time. Our chemists and inventors have not been asleep and our men will be fully equipped to meet the Hun on common ground and fight him with the weapon of his own choosing, barbarous though it may be. -C Mill f n- m-E i 1 mmmM"uu - 'i-.wvv w-: i:t- t.tv-.: vs-L.-.sja' . -apt: iH'ft" : ;c fen ' x 41 i uu vm srff rttw e s 'a' Cf "in wti wo tae cup, it 5 psss 4o m. pit wn su?ar in m! csflse, i Ug zn eg? irm fee pfeitsr. mi m bmkw I fswft mv fcreaKf as?, t lav tiows nv Knife, i m out fnrn to mug rem - Melhods and Ways of Producing a United People Behind the Fighting Lines. Copyright, 1918, Xhe Iutruutional Syndicate HE STATE DEPARTMENT has found out since the beginning of the war that a network of sedition has spread over this country from coast to coast. Serious inquiry into this condition finds its most fruitful source in the ignorance of the alien population of the lan guage and of American principles. To ameliorate , this condition the United States Bureau of Education has taken upon itself the task of pro jecting a campaign of the American ization of the alien within our gates. It has more than one avenue for the outlet of this pro-American propa ganda, but that which is most active is the National Committee of One Hundred, which is a cooperating body of one hundred men and women rep resentative of every part of the coun try, who are prominently identified with movements working for Ameri canization of aliens. The Chairman .i the Executive Committee of the Committee of One Hundred is Dr. Harrison H. Wheaton, specialist in the education of immigrants of the United States Bureau of Education. Large Percentage Of Foreigners. Some of the facts which have led to the realizing sense of need for in tensive education of aliens are con tained in statistics supplied by the Bureau of Education. There are 33, 000,000 people of foreign parentage in the . United States today. These represent one hundred races and na tionalities. Of these people 13,000, 000 are foreign-born, .and 3,000.000 of tham do not apeak the English language. Aliens to the number of 100,000 are debarred by law from United States citizenship, and there are 66,643 aliens who are subject to the draft, many of whom are alveady in training camps, and military train ing must wait until they are taught English. Soma further facts given out by the Committee of One Hundred visualize the situation in a pregnant manner. New York is the fourth German and the largest Hebrew city in the world, while It is a larger Italian city than Rome. Chicago is the second Bohe mian, the fourth Polish and the fifth German city in the world. Pittsburg holds more Serbs than does the cap ital of their own country. The United States Bureau of Educa tion, in conjunction with the National Committee of One Hundred, believes that the present is the time and op portunity to unite behind a. pro-Amer ican program to overcome the circum stances resulting from the condition which has been found to exist, largely, it is believed, because of the perver sion of the truth which is mainly the result of ignorance of the English language. The Plan. The war Americanization plan pro jected by the United States Bureau of Education, in cooperation with the Committee of One Hundred, proposes to substitute Amerjcan for anti-American Influence among immigrants. "Make the Engliah language the lan guage of the United States and break down sedition," was the slogan oris- u "tiSK ; i , r :r J ; inated by the Committee of One Hun dred in reference to the first and most important step in the process of Americanization, and the teaching of English is to be one of the foremost features of the campaign. The plan is founded upon the proposition that constructive principles of patriotic education and Americanism are the ultimate basis upon which to build national unity. The main features of the plan will cover a variety of lines. The teaching of English to aliens in training camps will be made a prominent feature of the work of Americanization. The program will also include war Amer icanization lessons, compulsory school attendance of illiterate minors, schedule of standards and methods, pledge cards for one million, volun teers, articles in foreign language press, factory classes, home teaching, teacher training, public speakers, supervisors of immigrant education and correlation of Federal and State activities. In connection with the American ization of men in camp, the Bureau of Education has just completed a series of reading lessons for soldiers the National Army, who need in struction. It is estimated that there e 50,000 men who will be instructed English through this medium. The lessons will give the soldier boys the rudiments of English by the medium of simple, practical lessons treating of objects and events in their daily camp life. Night Schools. , Under the stimulus of the Bureau of Education night schools for foreigners have grown with gratifying rapidity. It has been found that foreigners have been kept out of night schools by non-American propaganda, as well as by overtime work. One phase of this problem has been met by the Bureau of Education by reaching the foreigners in their homes and places of work. Factory classes have been formed in most of the large labor centers with most gratifying re sults. In the mining districts of Penn sylvania the vocational bureau of the Pennsylvania department of Public Instruction has established numerous schools for the mine workers. Through instruction in English and other branches in those schools many CELEBRATED ALONE- A Golden Wedding Reception at Which Only the Bride Received the Guests. HE problems of our civilization are surely very great As an illustration take the case of Mrs. K. Mrs. K. is an old lady now but not so very many years ago she was a spirited middle-aged one. It was during her spirited middle- age that she and her husband agreed to disagree, and separated. They separated and have never seen each other since, though they live in the same town. Recently a person who called on Mrs. K. found that ancient lady frisk ily a-top a step-ladder putting gar lands over the frames of the., pic tures. Her eyebrows being eloquent, of surprise, Mrs. K. explained. "I am decorating for my golden wedding reception," said she. "You are going to have a celebra tion?" asked the friend aghast "Of course. I have been mar ried fifty years on the twenty-fifth of February, why should I not cele brate 1" "But Mr. K V faltered the friend. "He will not be here. I wouldn't permit that man to cross my door-stt-Tv" rcanonded "that man's" wife. cheerfully. "It, l t0 be an evening reception , so do come, dear, and bring Minnie with you." And thfc reception was a great suc cess. The antiquated Dnae received tiie guests alone and everyone pre tended politely to see nothing odd in the fact that the bridegroom was missing. But this is what our peculiar civil ization with its divorces and its sepa rations has brought us to wedding anniversaries with only one of the married pair celebrating, and the other one enjoying himself in his own fashion somewhere else in the same town- laborers have become foremen and superintendents. Home Teaching. Another method of meeting the anti-American propaganda instituted by the Bureau of Education is through its home teaching. This is a new departure in educational methods. The home teachers carry with them not only the lessons of the English language, but at the same time teach domestic arts and sciences, hygiene and the care of children. The Bureau is promoting this plan all over the country, the cities taking up the idea with much interest. New York City has designated certain of its day school teachers to visit the homes of their day scholars and stimulate at tendance at night schools of the adult members of the famliy. Many other Federal departments and bureaus are cooperating with the Bureau of Education in its plan of Americanization. The States Rela tions Office of the Department of Agri culture and the Food Administration are preparing lessons incorporating the production, conservation and thrift idea into the language lessons. The Committee of One Hundred is taking in hand the printing of those lessons as well as the introduction of them into the hundreds of night schools and the thousands of commu nities which are sustaining unofficial organizations. The keynote of all the lessons so distributed is "America's Part in the War." Striking Posters. The majority of the national pa triotic organizations in the United States are cooperating with the Bu reau of Education and the Committee of One Hundred in their present cam paign of Americanization, and not the least potent feature of the lessons which they have issued is the striking' posters which tell their own story to the casual eye, and in their many lan guages further elucidate the prin ciples of Americanization they are de signed to teach to the foreign dwell ers in the communities for which they have been prepared. Some of the states have already . taken definite action in the matter of teaching its immigrants American principles along with its language. New York has been the first to take a definite step in this direction. A supervisor of immigrant education has been appointed by the Board of Re- ents. W. C. Smith, Recording Secre tary of the Committee of One Hun dred, serving in that office. Pennsyl vania is organizing for the same pur- Council of Defense presented the sub ject of Americanization as a war measure at its December war confer ence. The State of Wyoming has also appointed a supervisor of Immigrant education. Wyoming particularly needs such work as its foreign popu lation is not congregated in the cities, but spreads all over the State, in the mines, on the ranches and in every remote district Women Interested. Among the prominent organiza tions lending their hearty cooperation to the plan of the United States Bu reau of Education is the General Fed eration of Women's Clubs. The club women of America have for long been keenly interested in the work of . t t m m 5 wMnt wnman . AmericaiuziiiB imnon" " " The granting of the ballot to the wom--en of the State of New York has add- "" ed to the problem, because according to the law of the United States wives of naturalized citizens automatically become voting citizens. The leading commercial and pa triotic organizations are aireauy reg istered and organized for this great movement. An appeal will be made for one million volunteers to enroll . . j ,, , and teach "One Immigrant the lan guage of America." Public speaker who will lend their aid in the cauM of Americanizing the alien will be tar nished with "keynote" material. Men and w omen who do their part in the cause of actively proclaiming "Amer ica First," will periorm a. Benium-; service toward the great end of win-, ning the wax.