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These Disasters Have Been With Us Since the Earliest Times, Ten Mentioned In the Bible -10,000,000 People Perished In the Indian Famine of 1769. Copyright, 1913, The International Syndicate. ' rx THE 0IGANTTC struggle now engulfing the entire world one of the weapons employed by each combatant is to starve the other into submission. Whilst trying in ev ery conceivable way to cut of! supplies to the enemy each is eager to obtain and conserve their own resources so as to stave off for an indefinite tims the gaunt spectre. Every war of any consequence has brought its privations and many of them have sunk deep into the hearts of the people the pangs of hunger. But famine and pestilence, which usually go together, whilst generally the Inevitable accompaniments of war have come from other causes and s some of the greatost calamities to a people have been caused by want and starvation not chargeable to arms or to the ambition of some military ruler or leader. The havoc and destruction of these famines are harrowing and heart rending, but a brief account of them may not at this time be amiss, when appeals are urgent among us for economy and care in the use of the necessities of life. America's Work America must feed her Allies in this great war and unless we in this coun try heed to the words of those in au thority in the conservation of food there may come a time when we will find among us as uninvited guests pestilence and famine the sisters of war. It is estimated that we must supply our Allies with at least 550, 000,000 bushels of wheat during the coming year in order to feed their men in the field and keep the health of their civilian population in condi tion for these people to manufacture ammunition and supplies essential to victory over the Germans. With our present crop this will be impossible unless we avoid waste and substitute certain articles of food to take the place of wheat and certain kinds of meat for this too must be conserved. So much has been written, however, on this subject that it would seem that the smallest child has come to a .ZX zZ?JyZTZ2 G&s2&rgrZZy&(Zezn&frat,2 Of JO72?2 CZ&Z'.S7' Activities Include Recre ation for Our Soldier Boys, Federal Cooper ation, Red Cross, Lib erty Loan,Rural Work, etc. Copyright, 191S, by The International Syndicate. CHAT THE American boys who are weary of the camp and the trench as they flght-their coun try's battles in France may have a "Blighty" to which they may go' for rest and recreation, and. where they may enjoy some few of the comforts of home, will be the main thought and topic of discussion among the repre sentatives of the 2,000,000 women members of the General Federation of Women's Clubs when they meet at the fourteenth hiennial on April 29 at Hot Springs, Arkansas. To provide such a recreational cen ter for their sons and 'husbands and brothers in military service was the reason for the creation of a War, Vic tory Commission at the board meet ing of the General Federation of Women's Clubs held in Hot Springs, Virginia, last winter. The fund set for this provision was $250,000, and the women of the board laid the foun dation of that sum by "a contribution of $5,000. Since that time the amount has, grown proportionately with the days and their need of patriotism, and it will not be surprising if the specified quarter of- a million runs into a sum far greater and ,one that is proportionate to the splendid title of the commission set out to raise It, ' This big war effoVt for war relief is the conjoint endeavor of the two mil- 'ion women from every State in the Union represented in the General Fed full understanding of the meaning of food conservation. It Is a well known fact that today there is not a child living in Poland under two years of age, while hundreds of babies are j starving to death in Armenia and many are dying from lack of nourish ment -in Serbia. America is seeking to save these little children as well as to allay the pangs of hunger from which their parents are suffering. Usually the first cause of famine is the failure of the crops. This may be caused by too little rain or too much rain, or by insect pests, earthquakes or untimely frosts, or by the devasta tions of farm lands through wars and by the taking of farm laborers for soldiers. War and famine breed pes tilence, for dead bodies on a battle field are a pregnant source of plague, and when the human body is ill nour ished it is an easy prey to disease. Famines Of The Bible Ten famines are recorded In the Bible, the one in which Joseph played a part being the most noted. Another is found in the book of Ruth, in the story of Ruth and Naomi. Again in the book of Kings it is recorded that during a famine just before the Chris tian era cannibalism was practiced, human beings being boiled and eaten. Roman Empire The early history of the Roman Empire is filled with accounts of the catastrophes caused by the trium virate, war, pestilence and famine. During the fifth century there was a failure of crops and people became so crazed with the pangs of hunger that hundreds committed suicide by throwing themselves In the Tiber. It was while this famine was at its worst that a knight of low origin named Maclius began importing corn and selling It at a low rate. Naturally this won him the favor of the people and the upper classes became suspic ious of his work, believing that he meant to win the people and try to make himself king and they had him summoned before the dictator of WZZZ2 6eZoZ. czZWgsrz CCzZZzwe' Z?2Z2t?Z eration of Women's Clubs. Many oth er topics of timely interest will be discussed during the ten days' meet ing, and a wonderful harvest of war time effort and activity will be placed at the disposal of the 9,000 federated clubs which will be represented. Standardized Dress Standardized dress is another sub ject which will come before the Gen eral Federation as a whole, at its Hot Springs convention. The effort to per suade women to adopt a form of dress which will make for economy, sim plicity and greater efficiency along all lines of effort should carry its special appeal in war-time, and the subject will be stressed by those women who have presented it and demonstrated its practicability and beauty for the past decade. Standardized dress does not imply a uniform or anything ap proaching a uniform, but it does imply a uniform basic pattern upon which may be built .gowns of every fabric ana ror every purpose in woman's realm. In referring to the subject of stand ardized dress, Mrs. Josiah Evans Cowles, President of the General Fed eration of Women's Clubs, said re cently: "Has the time not come for us to definitely proclaim and take our stand in favor of standardization of dress for women?- This need not imply a uniform, nor that we shall all look exactly alike; rather that certain rules must be obeyed, certain principles known and followed, while individual adaptation is made. It ought to mean more beauty as well as more freedom far actual expression of ourselves. In the solution of this problem it will be 7 : j THE BEIDGEPOET TIMES: OF THE PAST fJll mr lit ZZZZZZt7S2SyoZZ:sqDZ&jrZ2 ZzzcZ&z-ZZ2&ZrS?Z2Z!?-y' Rome. Maclius refused to appear and when found in the crowd near the forum he was killed by an officer of the guard. Pestilence, . war and famine were brought to Rome by the Gauls some fifty years later. For a time the Ro mans held the citadel in the' face of hunger after the city had been de stroyed. The invaders failed to bury the dead and disease spread through the camps of both the siegers and the sieged. About 23, B. C, Rome had another famine caused by the overflow of the River Tiber and Augustus Caeser be came the pioneer in relief work. He is said to have sent his grandson to collect food at various ports on the Mediterranean and then fed the poor free of charge. He attempted to guard against future disasters by building good roads and ships whereby sup plies could be brought in quickly in case of famine. During the ten years period between 78, A. D., and 88, A. D., a famine swept over Italy dur ing which thousands of persons died each day despite the facilities for bringing in food. There was also a great earthquake during which Pom peii and Herculaneum were buried beneath lava and ashes. Africa and Syria suffered from famine about the same time when locusts came in great numbers and destroyed what little crops had been saved. A disease so dreadful accompanied the famine that a noted historian writes that the vul tures even refused to feed on the dead bodies, thousands of which remained unburied. This famine seems to have been- general for It extended even to England. During the tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries Egypt was visited by several great famines and in one year (Service o -5$ 77z& (ZsZZ&'CZc5$j'7Z? I?Zc?izZ? ZPecZCs JZanfc necessary to have- the mutual under standing and cooperation of those who design, .make, sell and wear garments. "There are hundreds of club women throughout the country wearing the dress which was presented at the Bi ennial in New York," said Mrs. Cowles. "This dress evidenced the expression of artistic principles in a common sense gown." Among the arguments which will fce put forth in -the present biennial is that which declares that standardization of styles would affect not only an artistic improvement in women's dress and a vast national economy for consumers but would gradually turn non-essential labor to essential uses, conserve material and whether in war or peace would elim inate from the garment industry many distressing elements such as lack of continuity of employment and busi ness hazards in style. Department Of Federation Work The General Federation of Women's Clubs carries on its work through eleven separate and distinct depart CZ2sZ2&srs GtrZsZ2 half a million people in one section fell victims to starvation. There was a revolution and many people became brigands and robbed the few who were able to secure a small amount of food. There was a reign of terror and the peasants were unable to farm the land fearing the bands of bandits who held sway in the country. Cats and dogs were sold for food, the peo ple paying unheard of prices for meat and even human flesh was eaten. One historian tells us that people let down, ropes, to which great hooks were at tached, from their windows and caught up people who were walking on the streets. After drawing them up they killed and cooked them and then sold the human flesh for food. Property changed hands rapidly by deaths and in one instance a single house passed to thirty different rela tives in a single month. England And France England too has suffered from fam ines and during the eighth century there was a dearth of food which led the people to practice cannibalism. Again in the eleventh century about half the population died of starvation. In 1069 the lack of food was so great that people sold themselves into slav ery in order to obtain enough food to live. While all these things were going on In England, France was suffering from famine as well. During the tenth and eleventh centuries some forty or fifty famines are recorded. During one of these, when starvation was at its height, fanatics declared that the end of the world was at hand. People deserting their homes and shops, went on pilgrimages. The sea sons changed, the summer was cold and there was oppressive heat during lAeGenens t ments. These are: Art, Civics, Civil Service, Reform, Conservation, Edu cation, Home Economics, Industrial and Social Conditions, Legislation, Literature and Library Extension, Music and Public Health. The coming of the war to the Unit ed States made no change in the char acter of these' eleven departments 'of work, but in every one the range and scope have been broadened, the pur pose intensified. All are imbued with the one end, namely, the winning of the war. "Our object," said Mrs. Cowles in a recent conversation, "is, first and foremost, to be of utmost service in time of need; second, and quite as important, to keep alive in every community the sense of law and order, the security of the persona! elements that must rebuild society when the tumult of war is past. - "The record of war service present ed " at the different state federation meetings throughout the country Is great in volume and comprehensive in extent," said Mrs. Cowles. "It must 191ST. 1 J'&ryvz Z?t?Zzs?Z WdZt the winter. From.-1030 to 1032 there were no crops raised and people died of starvation by the thousands and remained unburied because the living were too weak to perform this "office. Human flesh was found on the market stalls but this was too expensive for the poor people who lived upon roots, grass and clay. The forest wolves be came so hungry that they came into villages ; and devoured the helpless people and it seemed that France was doomed, but when the fields once more blossomed with grain the people took courage and for a time food was abundant, .then came the Crusades when an attempt was -made to drive the Mohammedans out of the Holy Land, and during the first crusade famine and plague caused the death of about 100,000 persons in one year. During the thirteenth century both England and France suffered serious ly from a scarcity of food and about the middle of the fourteenth century the Black Death, a dread disease Im ported from -China, .swept over both countries and carried off thousands, and both lands were upset .by revolu tions and riots. Just before the French Revolution excessive taxation, brought about by the extravagance of the French Court and the failure of the crops caused a famine in that country and riots were frequent. Madame de Maintenon was accused of speculating in corn and her carriage was mobbed by a. hungry crowd who were trying to reach the king at Versailles. Ireland too has had her share of famines and in several of them Amer ica has been among the first countries to give relief. The one of 1822 was be recorded and kept as a part of the history of the General Federation, for, however difficult life may be at this time, it is inspiring to realize that we are taking an active part in its making. It is my firm belief that the General Federation of Women's Clubs is a more intensely active or ganization than any other in the world, and that its complete organiza tion makes-it one of the most efficient working war organizations ot women in the country. Connections Made By Federation With The National Government While the women's clubs of the country are endeavoring to carry on their normal club work in a normal way, the. General Federation has made connection in nearly every one of its departments of work with the Na tional Government. As one instance, thewhole federation is placing itself solidly behind the Federal Children's Bureau in -its intensive child welfare campaign which was inaugurated on April 6. The topic, "The Children's Tear of 1918," with its program of work outlining the saving of 100,000 of the 300,000 American babies who die every year, is to be given one full day's discussion at the biennial under the leadership of Mrs. Cowles, who will serve not only in her capacity of President of the General Federation of Women's Clubs but also in that of director of the Child Welfare De partment of- the Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense. At this all-important meeting Miss Julia Lathrcp, Chief of the Federal Children's Bureau, will be a prom inent speaker as will also be Dr. Jessiea B. Peixotto, professor of So cial Economy at the University of Cal ifornia, who has taken a few months" furlough " to lend a hand in the na tional baby-saving campaign of 1918. small as compared with the suffering which occurred in 184S, 1846 and 1847, when the entire potato crop of the land rotted. During these years the deaths from starvation and dis ease superinduced by lack of proper nourishment ran into hundreds of thousands. Although both America and Great Britain were prompt in their relief work the population of the Emerald Isle began to decline from that time falling from over eight millions in 1845 to less than five millions today. During the Franco-Prussian War Paris suffered from lack of food owing to the great numbers of refugees who flocked to the city as the Germans ad vanced. Dogs, cats and even rats were sold as food and at such prices as were prohibitive to the poorer classes. When the garrison finally surrendered to the Germans, the whole city was in a starving condition. . The distress, however, was relieved by foreign na tions in a short time. China, India And Russia China has been a prey to famines for centuries, usually caused by inun dations which ruin the crops. That country is so densely populated that hundreds can die without being missed. They are fatalists and when pestilence comes they will spend their last coin for rice and even sell their daughters into slavery for a mere pit tance, but they will not riot for food. It is a well known fact that during the great Chinese famine of 1906-1907 over a quarter of a million of starving Celestials camped beneath the walls of a city in which the warehouses were filled with rice and wheat. They I 7?2e ZecFe&Zroz? &&2d&yoZsZZr&eZ2zr2cf&e Z)zZt5 ozZPZS Cooperation Or 9,000 Clubs In The. Red Cross And Liberty Loan The General Federation as a whole has raised very large amounts of money for various war purposes. Practically every one of the 9,000 clubs in the Federation have cooper rated loyally with the Red Cros in its wonderful mission of mercy, and the same may be said in connection with the Liberty Loan, patriotic edu cation and home and foreign relief work. The Home Economics department of the General Federation has lined up closely with the Department of Agri culture in its food production and con servation program; covering the sub ject in more than one of its depart ments. To quote Mrs. Cowles: "Our food conservation program necessarily embraces the problem of food production,- not alone thaMv of conservation by proper handling and elimination of waste, but Its transportation, distribu tion, sale and use. Food production, as we cover it in our department. Is not merely a narrow agricultural ques tion, but goes on to matters relating to soil, water supply, preservation of forests, irrigation and of drainage. "Its transportation carries us into the realm of road-making, ,not only the main highways of the country but the by-ways in every little community as well,' said Mrs. Cowles. "Reach ing the point of distribution, it be comes a civic concern, and here legls la tionxenters, because there is need of safe-guarding against new legisla tion that mav be introduced which seeks to control prices and to Increase profits at the expense of the consum-J er. inus ao tne various departments of our work cooperate with every great movement of today." Club Chairman In Every Camp The Public Health Department of the General Federation has placed a chairman in every camp and canton ment throughout the country to co operate with the authorities in their lines of endeavor, and the department of Education is actively functioning in not only carrying on its work along normal routes, but In performing in tensive constructive work along voca tional and Americanization lines. -The Washington State Federation IliilllilHIIIIil did not clamor for the food within but merely sat outside and patiently await ed death. The Red Cross has dohe excellent work in relieving these peo ple and just before the outbreak of the present war they were engaged in some engineering work with the assist ance of the Chinese Government, which was expected to prevent these inundations and the spoiling of the crops. It has nqt been completed as yet. India has been scourged by famines from the earliest times and plague runs rampant during these periods of starvation. The number of people who die at these times is staggering for the records show that In the great famine of 1769-1770 ten million peo ple perished. Failure of the crops owing to the peculiar climatic condi tions of the country is the cause. Even as late as 1876-1878 more than five million of India's people starved to death. Caste, the curse' of that land, is one of the great difficulties in solving thft famine nrnhlftm flnrt hundreds will starve before they will touch food cooked by people of an other caste. Great Britain has tried in various ways to save the people from these pestilences but the race traditions are preserved with such fi delity by the native that they would rather die than give up their fanatical ideas the inheritance of ages. Russia, whose wheat fields spread over such a large part of the earth's surface has suffered from famine many times and as late as 1911 the sufferers of that land ran into the hundreds of thousands. People lived on weeds and roots and a bitter bread made of acorns. America lent her assistance in this famine. Happily today, although we are facing a crisis which seems unbelievable in the pres-' ent age, we can by a patriotic perse verance in food conservation, by the elimination of waste, keep out those twin sisters of warfamine and pestilence thereby shutting off a repetition of the scenes through which I the European countries have passed in by-gone times. i AvnMnia nt -nrViat iq heinc done in connection with camp work. Wash ington club women are working vig orously in every city and town adja cent to mobilization camps, cooperat ing closely with the National Commit tee on Training Camp Activities in keeping the towns clean and ; moral, looking after the environments of camps as their conditions relate to both the boys and girls of the com munities. The Minnesota Federation takes the lighter view of soldier life, and at a recent Federation meeting it urged the clubs of the State to supply mandolins, guitars.) zithers, and especially phono graphs in abundance. In referring to this branch of the Federation work an officer, on his way to France, said: "Give the boys music, the best music and all the music you can." Rural Club Work ' V . While the work of the federated clubs in the cities has been great, as was to be expected, that in the coun try places has touched the high wa ter mark in the splendid response made by the thousands of small clubs in the outlying country places throughout every section of the coun try. These women's clubs in small places have purchased many Liberty Bonds and donated liberally to the Red Cross, to the T. M. C. A. and the T. W. C. A. The State Secretary for Tennessee's Federation of Clubs writes that through the organization of federated clubs in every part of Tennessee the women of that State have been earl" and late at their posts of duty as the call for service of its women has gone forth. The women of Tennessee stand ready to help in any movement for the betterment of the country and to as sist the Government at a moment's no tice. From the Nevada Federation of women's clubs comes the word: "Our. women are meeting all demands mada upon them and are always ready and anxious to do more. Many ;of our clubs, especially in the smaller towns. devote tneir enure uiecuugs m i Cross work. In the larger cities separate-, organizations are maintained,: but the clubs are ready at all times to share their part of the burdMk" 4 - ;A