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THE. BRIDGEPORT TIMES
And Evening Farmer -
Sketches from Life
LOOKING BACK 50 YEARS
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Entered at Mt Oflea. Bridgeport.
VUmSDAT, atTJTB 4, 191.
TIIE BOMB OUTRAGES
1 HE FIRST bomb outrage might have been the work of
X. one persons, who might have been merely a crank.
The bombs were sent by mail, they were alike in workman'
ship. One mind and one set of hands might have contrived the
The second outrage, attempted in widely scattered cities,
i required the employment of at least as many persons, operat
ing simultaneously, as the number of cities in which there
were explosions. These bombs were placed, each in the posi
tion where it exploded. At least one person must have been
employed in each of these cities, to wit: Washington, Pitts
burgh, Cleveland, Boston, Philadelphia, Paterson, New York
and Newtonville, Mass.
There existed, therefore, an organized conspiracy to create
terror, and the purpose to have the terror react against capital
'ism, since the conspirators went to the trouble of printing a
circular, in which they set out their motives and the objects
they hope to attain.
The idea that these persons are insane, which is so com
monly advanced is not tenable. Fanatics they undoubtedly are;
but they are coolly and calmly attempting to make war on so
ciety, in the spirit in which the most legal war might be wag
ad. The conspirators are sane persons, who may be dealt with
as sane, when they are arrested and brought to trial.
This conspiracy and these crimes must, and should, excite
reflection. These men, who proceed, so deliberately, and who
take so much risk, are not vulgar, private criminals, assault
ing society to get a personal end. Their crime is political. They
regard themselves as friends of the working class. They be
fleve that they have a mission to destroy capitalism. They are
pursuing methods that are traditional and primitive. Private
war is much older than public war. Private justice is more
ancient than public justice. There were ages when every fam
ily was its own avenger. Slowly, laboriously, painfully man
kind emerged into social justice; a system by no means per
fect; a plan that needs improvement, which yet is vastly bet
ter than the earlier way.
It is doubtful if this sort of violence ever has gained any
thing for the working class. Robert Hunter, who is a socialist,
a brilliant economic scholar, and a profound student, has writ
, ten; a book called "Violence and the Labor Movement," in which
he shows, rather conclusively that the dynamiter's and other
destructive groups have delayed the development of social jus
tice, and have injured the cause of labor.
What has been gained for the laboring classes by the two
most recent bomb plots?
The first plot resulted in the maiming of a domestic ser
vant. Nobody else was injured.
The latest conspiracy destroyed one of the bomb throwers,
removed a night watchman, and mangled an aged foreign wom
an, who was asleep in her bed.
How were the working classes benefitted by killing these
Suppose that some of the persons whose lives were sought
had been killed, instead of workers. How would that have
It is true, as the conspirators declare, that the Czar is no
longer on his throne, that the Hapsburgs are gone and the Ho
henzollerns are no more rulers. These changes were brought
about by democracy, in arms, proceeding after the orderly fash
ion of civilized society.
All the dynamite hurled in Russia did not suffice to turn
the empire into a republic. The empire fell when the soldiers,
with arms in their hands, refused to fire on the people; it hap
pened when the soldiers joined with the people. It didn't hap
pen because of bombing and assassination. The source of
overthrow of the empire was education.
The dynamite plots in Russia, though they had little or no
effect on events, were not the crude and wholesale murder of
innocent persons, which the American. conspirators attempt.
The Russian vengeance sought the very person against whom
it was directed.
Planting bombs that kill those against whom the assassins
have no occasion, whom they do not desire to reach, is surely
not good war. Such propaganda of the deed stirs in the minds
of all men, and especially in the minds of workers, a hatrcJ
of those who resort to violence.
Every thoughtful man prefers the stability of established
law, with the constantly diminishing injustice of the present
day, to tho arbitrary rule of violence by dynamite and bomb.
Those who study the phenomena of bomb violence will ob
serve certain things about it. It prevails most, as assassina
tion always does, where there is most repression of free speech.
Tho assassin is in oriental countries, where rulers are
despotic, a common typo. History recounts how often Eastern
thrones have descended by the dagger.
Russia, in which of European countries, there was most
repression, suffered most by propaganda of the deed.
Great Britain, in which speech is freer than in any other
land, has been freest from the assassin. Ireland, that part of
Great Britain, in which speech was least free, has suffered most
by dynamite. But the bomb went out of fashion in Ireland, as
tho rule of Britain was relaxed:
The . present reign of terrorism in America accompanies
the necessary suppression of the war.
For thfe reasons,' the bombing conspiracy, should not be
made the occasion for restrictions upon expression.. Rather
the limitations should be broadened.
Speech relieves overwrought minds. Speech tells every
body what everybody else Is thinking about. The doctrine a
man entertains will be known, u ha Is permitted to tell it.
Free speech does not include the right to advocate vio
lence, or disobedience to law, and therefore . brings its own
. remedy, in cases where tha privilege of free speech is abused.
v (Continued in last two columns.
My Brother's. He Didn't Gome Back, 2
By WM. J. WYMANN
(Member of The Examining Corps)
Tha Patent aystem, by which an Inventor was
given a limited enjoyment of his invention as a re
ward for his services to tne community, originated
in England. The famous "Statues of Monopolies," en
acted in 1623, abolished all exclusive economic priv
ileges but established the right of an inventor to
receive as a reward from the state a grant commen
surate with the services rendered. Thus the very
act which first recognized the reprehensible charac
ter of private monopoly was the means of establishing-,
for the first time in history, the right of patent
Early Days of the Patent System In America.
The first patent granted on this continent was
to Samuel Winslow, by tne General Court of Mas
sachusetts in 1641, for a novel method of making
salt. Connecticut also was- early active in encourag
ing invention and required, as the basis of a patent
grant, that the invention "shall be judged profita
ble to the country." The spirit of the "Statute of Mon
opolies" was thus promptly carried over to this side
of the water and was followed more faithfully in
some of the colonies than in the mother ' country,
where it originated ,
The basis of the .patent system in the United
States is a provision in the Constitution giving Con
gress the power to secure to inventors for limited
times an exclusive right to their respective dis
coveries. Madison was mainly instrumental in in
troducing this provision into the Constitution. The
first legislative enactment' was the law of 1790,
which .was placed on the statute book after Wash
ington had addressed Congress in its favor. Under
It, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War,
and the Attorney-General constituted a board for
the examination of applications and grant of pat
ents. The first Secretary of State was Thomas Jef
ferson', and as he was, through his office, the keeper
of the records, he became in fact the first adminis
trator of the patent system in the country. He was
exceedingly interested in this duty and was tne most
active member of the board, examining personally
every application filed during his term.
Establishment of Present Patent System by Congress.
In 179 3 the Patent Act was changed no as to
permit anyone to obtain a patent, whether or not
he was the original inventor and whether or not
his contribution was useful or novel. In 1836 the
present system was established by an act passed
through the efforts of Senator Ruggles of Maine.
This law instituted the so-called American method
of granting patents only after a thorough examin
ation into the utility, operativeness, and novelty of
the inventions, and provided the machinery and
procedure for carrying out the purpose of the act.
It created a revolution in the methods of arranting
patents comparable in effect with the institution
of the patent aystem itself. It is under the system
so Inaugurated that the Patent Office is now opera
ting, and so superior is this method oyer any other
that every civilized and progressive country In the
world, with one exception, had adopted it
Growth, Organization, and Methods of Granting; Patoents.
.. Since 188 more than a million and a quarter
patents have been issued. The Patent Office began
Its existence with a commissioner, one examiner, a
clerk and two other clerks having the necessary
qualifications of draftsmen. The office now Includes
a commissioner, two assistant commissioners, five
law examiners, a board of appeals of five members,
forty-eight examiners having the rank of princi
pals, about 860 assistant examiners, and a cleri
cal force numbering approximately 525.
There are forty-five examining divisions, each
In charge of a principal, who has under him six to
eight assistant examiners. Each division passes on
dlstince subject of Invention, representing the en
tire range of -human endeavor In tangible effort.
Whether the Invention pertains to a hairpin or a
cantilever bridge, a perfume or a deadly gas, a
prooeaa for mounting Jewel, or for extracting and
refining metals, a new toy or a new engine of des
truction; whether It Is mechanical, chemical, er
electrical, as simple as a pin or ae complex as a
newspaper priming press; there will be found In the
Patent Office experts possessed of the requisite
knowledge to understand the Invention, its oper
ation, and the field occupied by similar attempts.
Every material device or operation in a mater
ial process is disclosed eventually in the compre
hensive records of the Patent Office, and every de
velopment thereof, before being protected by pat
ent, must pass through the hands of the examining
force of the office, to be critically scrutinized, sub
jected to amendment, and rejected or accepted. Vir
tually all the members of the examining force are
college graduates, most of whom hold degrees in
both law and science, such combined education and
training being found to make for efficiency in the
discharge of their important duties.
The assistant examiner, by whom applications
for patents are originally dealt with, must know
the "art" relating to the invention disclosed. He
must be at least tolerably familiar with the patents
and literature in various languages covering sim
ilar Inventions, must understand the principles,
both scientific and technical, of the devices he is ex
amining, and must be acquainted with related de
vices' Scattered throughout the office. He must be
able, of course, to read drawings and must have so
detailed a knowledge of the prinicples of, and de
cisions in, patent law as to be able to correspond
intelligently and to hold his own in controversy
with the alertest attorneys, many of whom represent
the largest manufacturing interests in the . country.
The primary examiners are the immediate super
iors of the assistant examiners. Each of them is in
charge of several classes of inventions, and his de
cision, if in favor of an application, is final. It is
. estimated that the adjudications of the primary ex
aminers involve property rights reaching into hun
dreds of millions annually. A single invention the
Bessemer converter process has been held by one
authority to have doubled the wealth cf the world.
In addition to the examining corps, the tech
nical and legal organizations of the Patent Office
consists of interference .examiners, a trade-mark
examiner, a classification examiner, a board of examiners-in-chief,
a staff of law examiners, and a
commissioner and assistant commissioners. The in
terference examiners decide who is the earliest of
several inventors having conflicting claims for the
same invention; the board is an appelate tribunal,
which hears and decides cases passed on adversely
by a lower tribunal; while the commissioner has
still further appellate jurisdiction. From the com
missioner a final appeal lies to the Court of Appeals
in the District of Columbia.
The work of the classification examiner and
his assistants is probably the most involved in the
office. As before stated, more than a million and a
quarter patents have been granted in this country.
Probably upward of a billion facts are disclosed in
these patents, each more or less concrete and all
more or less associated in different combinations,
involving several more billion arrangements of a
greater or less number of units. The effectiveness -of
the search of the examiner In wholly dependent
on the character of this classification, consequently
the importance of a scientific classification is evi
dent. The office has wrestled with this problem for
about twenty years, at an expense of more than a
half million dollars, and hopes to secure eventually a
complete and workable scheme.
Beginnings of tho Merit System in the Civil Service.
An Interesting historical fact is the institution
by Commissioner of Patents Fisher, in 1869, of the
competitive examination system for entrance into
the' examining corps, thus anticipating by many years
the general introduction of the merit system for"
government appointments. This is believed to be the
first appearance of this feature in the history of
our civil service. The requirements of the position
of examblner were such as to make it dangerous
to the rights of inventors and manufacturers to
place In control of the technical and legal admin
istration of the work untsalned men selected by
haphazard appointment through favoritism. Thus,
force of circumstances compelled the establishment
and retention in the Patent Office of the merit sys
tem long in advance of its endorsement by public .
sentiment and its general adoption through legis
GET HOME AGAIN
Among the local soldiers who ar
ia this country from overseas
mi arflajr-were : Sriwu yiocaat -X.
Purnarl, 1T Marlon street: Private
Viotor E. Hideout. 428 Harral avenue;
Private ' James T. Morrissey. 1315
East Main street; Mechanio Stephen
Tylkish, Mi Stiilman street; Private
Raymond A. Hutchins, 0 John
street; Mmtt Harold A. Bay. 35
Vairaald. , aaonoej t Private Maurioe
Reilly, 309 Cottage street; Corporal
John H. Williams. 1153 Capitol ave
nue: Private Joseph A. Baxter. 1289
North avenue, and Cook James V.
Condon, 699 Connecticut avenue.
Advertise in The-Times
(From The Farmer, Wednesday, June 4, 1869)
The engine, "N. Thayer" belontrine to the HousntnmV noil-
road Co., is being altered from a wood into a coal burner.
w w w w -m
A sewer well is beincr constr-ipted at. thr nr p fAu
and Beaver streets a noint
A man was arrested bv a noli nffirpr in vw uQ,-
j - - " ' v aiu i. ii a,
day or two since, for rolling' a wheel barrow on the sidewalk
f i x a. r 7 x ; . ...
uxi uiittjjei sireei. oucii arrests are unKiiown in tnis city.
- Ward & Kelley, the new coal dealers, on Water, corner of
m.'i ' i i i
uunion street, are malting arrangements ami room for a large
stock of coar the recent strike at the mines to the mntrarv
If the Standard chap got "stuck" by Q. L, D. Smikes clothes
pins, let him grin and bear it like a man, not by making up
mouths at others who were a little sharper than he was. His
back handed way of striking- at the lock is not in acrordnnpft.
with the rules of the "gold room."
The employees of Howes shop, who are out on a strike pa
raded through the principal streets this afternoon, proceeded
by the City band. They numbered nearly 300, and carried
American flags and a banner with the inscription "Our rights
are all we demanded." They made a good appearance and are
a fine body of men. We heartily acknowledge the compliment
paid The Farmer office and trust that the difficulty between
them and the company may be adjusted to their entire satisfaction.
A lady owning a favorite terrier, sends us a nole asking
if we can tell her what will keep fleas from tormenting her dog.
Not sure we can, but we saw it recommended in print, some
time ago, to soak the dog in camphene, and then set him on
fire. This, it is said, would clean out the fleas arniihe dog also.
We don't approve of the prescription.
The Gas company in trenching for a pipe in South avenue,
front of Crossley Carpet Factory, came square upon an old
stone ditch or sewer that was built years ago in that street by
Mr. Stephen Lounsbury. Of what service the ditch now is we
do not know, but, if we remember right it was extended to the
jail and made tho receptacle of the slops and waste water of
mat, estaDiisnment. it that is so, it will nardly do lor the Gas
company to interfere with it or so lay their iipcs as to destroy
its usefulness for tho jail. "When 'this old hat was new," a
salt marsh, bog swamp, etc., extended all through that seer
tion nearly if not quite ip to Broad street, and at Main street
it was crossed by a bridtre. Mr. Lounsbury purchased the
ground at a low rate, and contrary to expectations, was suc
cessful in draining, filling anil reclaiming it for utilitarian pur
There is a rumor around town that the police whose duty
it is to light the kerosene street lamps are expecting an eclipse
of the sun, in a few days, ami that they are preparing for the
event by neglecting to trim the wicivs of the aforesaid lamps
and by neglecting to clean the glass chimneys thereof, which,
as everyone can see who will take the trouble to examine them
by day, or who has occasion to pass them by night, are "beau
tifully smoked" besides being covered with, grease and dirt.
We havejio objection to having the police provide themseve
with smoked glass, if they want, but we suggest that tho
chimneys of toe public lamps are designed for another pur
pose, and that it will save much tall swearing and no little
grumbling if they are kept in proper order. A pair of scissors,
a little- soap and water, and a disposition to use them, is what
is wanted gentlemen.
Archie and Tom sparked the same girl. One night Archie
called on her and found her alone. After some conversation
he burst out with: "Miss Mollie, do you think you could leave
this comfortable home, kind father and motherlcving brothers
and sisters, and go to the far west with a young man -with
little to lwe on only his profession?"
Miss Mollie laid her hand gently on Archie's shoulder, with
here eyes half closed, and said softly, "Yes, Archie, I think I
could." "Well," said Archie, "my friend Tom is going west,
and wants to marry, I will mention it to him."
An engineer resigned his position on a western railroad
in disgust, because he said it consisted of nothing but the
right of way and two streaks of rust.
Westport. On Saturday evening last, while Mr. E. Bed
ford, who was attempting to pass Mr. Osborn, on Main street,
their carriage wheels became entangled with each other,
smashing both vehicles to some extent and emptying their load
of living freight on terra finna. Both claims to be in the right,
and both claim damages from the other. We do not presume to
say which is to blame, but we do say that it is hoped that reck
less driving through the village will be stopped.
(Continued from first two columns)
By reason and justice men can accomplish their every
purpose in this country. Every man must make it his duty to
warn those who have a theory of rule by violence and terror,
that along this road only misery lies.
IN VERY different terms does Dr. Renner address the peac
conference. He is as humble as Rantzau is haughty.
The difference lies, perhaps, in the different estates that sup
port the two chancellors. Germany is still a solid homegeneous
people, with comparatively undiminished territories. ' Aus
tria is scarcely one-tenth of the ancient Empire. On the north
Czecho-Slovakia sets up alone. South lie. Jugo Slavia. East
lies independent Hungary and the Austrian territory, confided
to Rumania. Other portions have gone to Poland and the
In the new Austria are some 6,000,000 people, with limit-
ed material resources. Dr. Renner must needs speak meekly,
any .other sort of speech.
MORE SERVICE WANTED
XHE KEY to successful trolley road operation is more ser-i
vice. The practical condition of more service is that ,
the property shall pass into the control of new men, preferably,
into the control of Bridgeport men. Sometime since it was sug r
gested that the local lines might be segregated for local opera-.
tion, that several hundred one man safety cars might be ac
quired, fares put upon a five cent basis, the property be thereby
improved and the public convenienced. . ...
Tha sooner something of the kind is done', the better. Pres
ent trolley conditions are intolerable. The evil includes slow
service at high cost; it includes crowded cars; it includes high--ways,
only half paved, because the portion between the trol-J
ley tracks is not attended to. Taking all of these facts, together
with delayed tax payments and other annoyances, the founda. k
tion is laid of. proof that a change in management U-neoeBsary.