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m CARRYING! one hundred passengers, Caproni's great "triple trlp!ne," named the Epocha. soon will at tempt transatlantic flisiit. Thrrash it was reported recently that the giant air craft the largest heavier than air machine ever built, even outclassing the monpter Russian plane of J01G had been seierly damaged by a storm, it was recorded at the same time that she would be repaired and partly rebuilt. Sigcor Gianni Caproni's masterpiece cost 4.000.000 lire. It was constructed on Lake Maggiore and is a novelty in airplane con struction in that it is tailless. There are three sets of triplanes. making nine dis tinct lifting surfaces. The wing spread 1s 30S feet and there are eight Liberty motors, developing upward of 3.000 horse-P'-wer. The height of the air monster is thirty-two feet and its estimated speed, fully loaded. Is ninety miles an hour. The motors are placed four abreast on the middle plane of the front trio and in the same relative positions on the middrS plane of the rearmost trio of planes. The three planes in between are there solely for additional lifting power. The total weight of the Epochi is twenty-four snd a half tons and the carry'ng surface of the planes is 7,150 square feet. Swung below the three t iptanes Is the passenger boat proper, something much like a Pull Jian car. It is sixty-six feet long and Marvellous y fEFEWITH are given items erea from many sources, princi pally abroad, showing some of th! most striking developments in aviation since the world war ceased. It long fca:! been apparent that the great Powers or the Old World profited more from the lessons taught by the war than did tho United States, not only in the military uses of the airplane but in what novi takes: preeminence, its commercial possibilities RECEXT tests of a 1.000 horse-power aeronautical motor in England dis closed such high merits in the en gine that experts are predicting a one day London-Xew 1'ork flight with a regular aerial service, making the round trip In twenty-four hours, either direct or by changing aircraft at the Azores Islands. The new motor, called the Cub, has eigaieen cylinders, weighs nearly a ton and cost about 5,000. Marquis Pateras Pescara, a French born subject of Spain, has perfected a device which by means of helices rotating at ter rific speed he asserts will enable an airplane to hover in the air as well as travel at a great pace. Recent tests at Barcelona indi cated such success that experts expressed the belief Pescara's helicopter may make possible an eight hour Paris to New York flight. . m French airplane experts are discussing an over-airship whh tie possibility of mak ing a flight from Paris to Buenos Aires In twenty-four hours. The over-aSrs.ip would travel above the earth's atmosphere, a feat which recent studies by scientists have sug gested. Oxygen, of course, would have to be Mm W- i'''W-rbb Broadside view of Caproni's great flying boat, Epocha, largest heavier than air machine, from a photograph sent especially to JlPi jap: vM JtF this paper. Somt idea of the size of the gigantic craft may lie gained from comparing the met! on the ground with the machine and ' - , -.... . - - - - L. ' "'" ' ' "' ::. ...... , . ., . ,BPIIflWllir-'-" :v ... ... ......... . . , ...... ....... .... . ,. v . . ....... . : . . ..... ,. ; ...... .-"..J'".; .- ! ..... .j ' " - - " 1 - -fr: LARGEST FLYING BOAT MAY GO OVERSEAS has full accommodation for hundred pas sengers. Also for their baggage. There are glass windows on each side and the upholstery is of the most luxurious kind. The headroom is seven feet and the cabin's width eight feet. (5n ordinary flights the Epocha will carry two pilots and one engineer for each en gine eight in all. For the more extended Journeys there will be ?.n additional pilot to provide three full shifts and two sets of engineers. The nearest approach in size to this monster Caproni machine is a giant air plane being built by the Breguot Company for France. This will have motors develop ing J, 000 horse-power (less ihan one-third of the Epocha's). and the machine ts en tirely of steel, with wings of a brand new design. A saloon for passengers is provided in the fuselage. Caproni. who designed and built the reat seaplane, is known the world over for his work in aeronautics. His first venture was in 1910, when he turned out a monoplane that weighed half a ton and had a forty horse-power engine. He is best known to Americans because of his visit to this coun try in the fall of 1017. He brought along a big biplane and made many flights around Now York. In May. 1918. CY.pt. Antoeio Silvio Ttes nati, the Italian army aviator who flew the Caproni machines here, was killed near Mineola when a new Caproni triplane crashed only fifty feet from the ground. Progress in carried fcr the passengers. It is estimated the crart would fly at a rate of 500 to 600 meters an hour. Charting the air in arcs for the guidance o- aviators has bf-en undertaken by aviation map makers in Franco. The purpose is to rvoid loss of time on the earth's curvature. The aviator would follow orthodromic arcs, drawn to represent the earth's surface. Just as navigators take sailing directions from a project inn chart rather than from a flat drawn charting. For instance. If an aviator leaves Paris for Shanghai, instead cf pass ing over central Europe he will save time by going northeast toward Petrograd and travelling diagonally across China. m Great Britain has mapped out a proposed nerial service to link all divisions of the Empire. The programme would make Egypt the hub of world aviation. England already is connected with many continental centres by regular air service routes. In 1919 French commercial airplanes cov ered in all a distance of 21.S00 miles: in 1920 they covered more than 93,000 miles, and It is predicted that they will reach the 621,000 mile mark this year. The plar'es carried fourteen tons in 1S19. while In 1920 they carried 103 tons, and it is expected the latter figure will be quadrupled in the next twelve months. England's latest factors in commercial aeronautics Include the twin passenger air rhips B-36 and R-37. The R-36 is ouilt to carry fifty passengers. The cargo capacity depends upon the length of the flight. On a 600 mile trip the airship could carry 17.43 tons, while the maximum on a 16.000 mile V Giant Caproni j ... Close up view of the new Caproni flying ship, the largest heavier Photograph taken at the Caproni Brothers works at Sesto Calende on pilot's cabin on the middle plane of the first triplane and the size of the beneath. Aviation Is jcurney would be 10.75 tons. The ship has four 350 horse power engines. The normal rate of speed Is 62.8 and the maximum 66 riiles an hour. The dimensions are: Length, 672 feet: gas capacity, 210,000 cubic feet; gas lift. 63.8 tons: useful lift, 22.5 tons. The Breguet Company of France is build ing a gigantic airplane, constructed entirely of steel. It will be a veritable aerial sh'p. having a total motive power of 1,000 horse power. It is constructed with an engine room in the nose of the machine and a com fortable saloon for passengers in the fuse lage. New types of aerial lighthouse equipment recently produced In England Include an apparatus having acetylene burners giving a 500 candle power beam, visible at a dis tance of ten miles from an altitude of 10,000 feet. Another is a revolving light, a cluster of acetylene burners giving a maximum in tensity of 2,645 candle power, visible for nineteen or twenty miles from a 10,000 foot altitude. Aerial lighthouses and flares for the guid ance of night flying aviators are among the innovations which mark the London-Paris route and other European air lines. Germany's most momentous experiment fclnce the war is the building of a 1,000 horse power metal passenger monoplane in the Zeppelin factory at Staaken. The plane was promptly forbidden by the Allies as being utilizable in war. German aeronautical engineers are devot ing much time and study to problems of a transatlantic Zeppelin service, and persist in With Eight Liberty Motors, Three Sets of Triplanes and Cabin for 100 Passengers Is a Marvel of the Aeronautical Art Being their predictions that such a service will e established in the not distant future. They pin great hope to a 108,000 cubic meter airship. The many safety devices in use at Wad don, England, one of the world's greatest flying centres, have led aeronautical author ities there to assert that the day of "if weather permits" is virtually gone. Wire less direction -find apparatus with wireless telegraphy anu telephony makes it com paratively easy for the aviator to keep his course in thick weather and receive infor mation that will enable him to dodge storms. The Dominion Government is considering a plan for the use of seaplanes and air planes in further exploration of the North western oil bearing country and in carrying on Royal Canadian Mounted Police work. There is also a proposition to use naval sea planes next summer in the forest patrol service. Gigantic seaplanes and torpedo 'aunchlng planes are claiming a measur:- of attention from the British Air Ministry, which prom ises remarkable developments in these fac tors of national defence. The Imperial Japanese "navy is reported to have engaged some of the best obtainable British aviation experts to direct the up building of the Japanese naval air service. The British experts thus ngiged. however, do not institute an official mission. Tho British Air Ministry refused Japan's request for such a mission. Japan Is building an aircraft carrier ca pable of carrying thirty to forty planes as than air machine in the world. Lake Maggiore, Italy. Note the passenger carrying cabin swung isplayed Abroad an adjunct to- its battle fleet, and an air plane factory at Kasumigaura to equip the Japanese naval air service is near comple tion. According to figures compiled by the Manufacturers" Aircraft Association, pas senger planes in the United States carried 115,163 persons 3.1 36,5 50 miles last year. These figures are based only on the 425 air planes that were reported to the association. "Much of the mileage," says the report, "was made on rhort flights of ten to fifteen miles, for which an average fee of $12.50 was charged. The all metal machines, which rank as one of Germany's most remarkable accomplish ments in post-war airplane construction, are made out of a durable, secret process alum inum alloy, a light metal of exceptional solidity. The recent purchase by the War Depart ment of the Roma from the Italian Govern ment gives the United States the secona largest semi-rigid airship In the world. The Roma is 410 feet long and has a cruising radius at full speed of 3.300 miles. The price was 5200,000. It is estimated that the cost to duplicate the airship would be about 51,250,000. The French airplane patrols Instituted in Morocco by Gen. Lyautey are reported to be exerting a tremendous civilizing effect. At tacks by bandits and other deeds of outlawry are said to have decreased 90 per cent. It is figured that 500.000 troops would be re quired to maintain the same effective sur veillance that ten air squadrons give. Electric Drive Ship A Business Success THE Eclipse, America's first electrically propelled cargo carrier, has just completed her first ocean voyage, a trip from New York to Port Said, Egypt, a distance of more than 5,C0 miles. The success of the application of electricity in improving America's merchant marine Is emphasized in the report of the trip, which was made in two days less time than re quired for similar boats not equipped with electric drive and with a great saving in the amount of fuel used. The average speed was increased two knots and, contrary to thi reports which have been current that specially electrically trained men would he required to man the vessel, the same crew which had operated the Eclipse before her old engine was replaced by the electric drive was used on this trip and not the slightest difficulty was experienced. The Eclipse is the first of twelve 12,000 ton vessels being equipped with 'he electric drive for the United States Shipping Board. The second, the Invincible, is expected to be placed in service within a few weeks, and work has already been started on the third ship, the Archer. An official report of the Eclipse's trip saysi "The trip from New York to Port Said was made without a single stop, and although we have had very heavy weather and a poor grade of fuel we maintained excellent speed for the entire trip. "The main turbine and motor gave excel lent service, the control gear was very easily and efficiently operated. Not the slightest trouble of any kind was experienced during the run. "The boilers and superheaters gave very satisfactory results, maintaining a pressure of 200 to 210 pounds and a temperature of 5S5 to 600 degrees at the turbine. "The chief engineer was ery well satisfied with the performance of the entire equip ment, and especially so with the simplicity of its operation. The engineer's force of his vessel is not above the average in experi ence, therefore when we consider these facta and circumstances, together with the per formance of the vessel, it is safe to say that no ship owner would make any mistake by equipping his ships with this type of equipment- "The engineers on watch operated the t paratus as easily as a motorman does a trol ley car. Each and every one showed an interest in his respective duty, due chiefly to the simplicity of operation. "The vessel went through some very rough peas, and when the stern was pitched high up out of the water by the heavy swells there was not the least variation noticeable In the revolutions of the main motor and no vibration was felt at any time in any part of the ship during- the trip." The popularity and growth of the applica tion of electricity for the propulsion of ves sels Is shown by the number of craft thus equipped that are now in service or being built. The merchant vessels include, besides the Eclipse, the Cuba, a 2,126 ton passenger and cargo carrier, in service, and eleven 5.000 ton cargo carriers and four 1.600 ton coast guard cutters under construction. Of naval vessels there are two battleships, the New Mexico and the Tennessee, and the collier Jupiter in service, while being built there are five battleships of 33.000 tons each, six battleships of 43,000 tons each and six battle cruisers of. 43,500 tons each, all to have electric drive equipment. ? t- Atod int.