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THE CONNECTICUT LABOR PRESS
THE CONNECTICUT LABOR PRESS A NEWSPAPER FOR THE PEOPLE. :l v Published by Connecticut Labor Press Company 286-288 York Street, New Haven, Conn. Telephone Colony 1082. Entered as second class matter December 2, 1916, at the postoffice at New . Haven, Conn., under act of March 3, 1879. Three Cents per Copy NEW HAVEN, CONN., wQcrc TfiAr WOULD PROBABLY BE OPERATED BY UNION MEN tlint t.hft or to secure from-the next Legislature power to operate bus lines oi iv.., v,0av.Tr rviootinfy iitnpv nmnfitition on its own jrround. This would seem to be a most desirable and reasonable solution oi the problem.. Rncofl0 i!iTO nrnvfin a convenience and the amount oi patronage they have received would go to fnvm Vvf trorcnnrffltinn service. doubt that the bus has come to stay lines, as they undoubtedly-would be would beyond question prove oi present. . . , 4 . . . An onrlA the mvmnsit.ion which must atmeal to Organized La bor is that the, Connecticut Company's busses would undoubtedly be The porananv's attitude toward the union has. been most commendable. It toward amicably adjusting any which have arisen and members ASSOCiatlOn Have 1UUUU It a iCttiJUuauic o.uu. jum xxxjj-kij v-x . , .Members of Organized Labor could ride on union operated busses without feeling that they were depriving fellow trade unionists of a livelihood. ..This in itself is an important factor for if an extreme should be reached which would result in the discontinuance of the trolley system it would mean the disruption of the trolleymen's or ganization and a resultant loss to the. Labor movement as a whole which would be serious. jdlScbTET' ' OF THE WORKER DUE TO INJUSTICE AND AGGRESSION This "discontent'.' among the workers is a terrible thing. The average individual seems to have a dim sort of an impression that the worker is . a perpetually disgruntled being continually shouting for more money for less work and that his ;. discontent comes from 1 an avaricious desire to grab everything in sight. . Persons laboring under this phase of dementia should look into the situation a little. Right at the start let it be stated that the average worker wants only a square deal, the opportunity to main tain his' family in a decent standard of living, educate his children, save something for old age or a rainy day and a chance to get ahead a little in the world. ' ,, Does he get it? Not on your Jife. The minute he gets, an increase in wages his landlord, his grocer "or Ms candlestick maker and everybody else that he does business with advances their prices about 25 per cent, more than his advance in wages amounts to. .Witness the recent raise of the express com pany employees. No sooner , was it announced than their landlords grabbed for more rent and that is but one small instance of direct grabbing, fOn the whole the confiscation of wage advances is much more general and complex. - .. ; . , It begins at the source. The grocer and other merchants are forced to advance their prices because the wholesaler advances his and the wholesaler advances his because the manufacturer or pro , ducer advances his and as the advance progresses everybody adds a little something to the. original advance on his own account. By the .-. tune-the price to the consumer is made it has grown out of all pro porionJto the advance he has received in wages.' 5 . r x- The landlord, is, in many instances, compelled to raise his rent because of increased costs of maintenance, taxation and so forth. BUT there are numerous landlords who do a lot of boosting on their own account. If their expenses increase 15 per cent, they slap 30 per cent, onto the rent for luck. 4 . And it isn't only the increase in rent that results in the workers' "discontent,' I it's the autocratic attitude assumed by the landlord toward his tenant. The latter has to stand for all sorts of injustices. Lack of repairs, insufficient heat if he rents an apartment alleged to be heated, and a - score of other aggressions. If he doesn't like it he can lump it. There are plenty of other' victims ready to take the rent if. the first victim relinquishes it. 'And. so" it, goes The worker has it-rubbed into him right and left. The only. thing he can do is to "holler" and when he does he is voicing his "discontent." If, in a desperate effort to get more money with which to meet his increased.. expenses he makes a demand on - his employer he is again proving his "discontent." The raise isn't going to do him any good if be does get it for it is gong to be speed- ly taken away from him again so he is bound to stay discontented anyway. , , . . But.it isn't altogether a matter of wages that' is at the bottom of all this "discontent." It's a realization that he is getting a good and proper trimming all around and while-that realization continues the worker i going to manifest the aforesaid "discontent" loudly and vociferously. ..Thinking , people who keep in touch with current conditions must, realize that something will have to be done to protect not only . the worker but the great mass of what is usually termed the "com mon" people from the aggression of which they are now the vic tims. Special privilege and the profiteer must be dealt with effec tively and harshly, or the "discontent" of the masses will take on a form of serious menace. SURVEY SHOWS THAT LONG HOURS RESULTS IN LESS PRODUCTION r Low speed,, wasted time and limited output are in large part the workers' automatic, defense against exhaustion and the overstrain of excessive .hours of labor, says the United States Public Health Service in a survey on the eight-hour and 10-hour workday systems. This restriction of output cannot be attributed to union practice, says the report, which states that in the 10-hour plant investigated there were few union workers. The survey expresses the thought that the slowing down process may also be caused by the workers' fear that if they exceed the customary output to jany extent piece rates will be cut, so they will have to work harder for the same or a smaller return. This, however, is not the important reason. "The fundamental cause for limitation of output lies deeper," it is stated. "No group of workers could continue, without physical disaster, to work at full capacity for a stretch of 12 hours at inght or 10 hours in the day time; not to mention the three hours overtime irregularly worked at the 10-hoiir plant." . . . The investigators found in the 10-hour plant, with its unorgan ized employes, that in many of the operations there seemed to be a tacit acceptance of some fixed quantity as a suitable output for the -day, and this was rarely exceeded. If, however, some accidental de lay or interruption made it likely that the worker, producing at his accustomed rate, would not reach this quantity, he could and did work at a much faster rate until he felt assured of his output. Jt is not suggested that this spurt could have been maintained throughout the day, but there was considerable ground for believing that the actual output was decidedly below the potential output. "At the eight-hour plant there was little, if any, evidence of this stereotyping of output," says the report. "At the eight-hour plant 90 per cent, of average power was main tained until six minutes, on the average, before the close of work ; at the 10-hour plant more than 21.5 minutes before the close of work the percentage of average power had dropped below 90. In other words, work continued at the eight-hour, plant practically under full power until. six minutes before the end of the shift; at the other factory power began to decline three and one-half times as long be- , fore closing time at exactly 5:30 p. m., when the investigators be gan afternoon readings, only 87 per cent, of average power was in use in the entire building." . Both the eight-hour and the 10-hour plants that were investi gated were operated on the piece work system. $1.50 per Year 24 SATURDAY, AUGUST 21, 1920 Connecticut Company will endeav- prove that the public desires that Conseauentlv there can be but little and, conducted along systematic conducted by the company, they even greaier vaiue man as run ai has made every effort to do its part question ot wages or conditions of the Street Railway Employees FREE SPEECH. Time Something: Was Done to Safeguard It Effectively. In the town of Duquesne, Pa., labor union organizers recently attempted to hold a street meeting. The town has a local ordinance requiring application for permits to "hold such meetings. The labor men were arrested and sen tenced to pay a fine. They appealed to the common pleas court, which re duced their fine but held the ordinance to be valid. They now announce their intention to carry the case to the United States supreme court. The practice of prohibiting and break ing up meetings of working people has become the rule in some localities, notable instances occurring recently in Waterbury. Many towns have ordin ances which require a permit in ad vance for any public meeting, which in itself is -not an unreasonable provision. But when labor folk apply for such a permit it is arbitrarily refused. Then if a meeting is held, even though it is a perfectly orderly assembly, the par ticipants are arrested as lawbreakers. There is no doubt that these suppres sive measures have .been instigated by the managers of local industries, not for the purpose of maintaining order in the community, but to prevetn their em ployes from organizing and demanding living wages and decent working con ditions. This has led to flagrant mis use and abuse of police powers. On the other hand, there have been cases where disorder has resulted di rectly from reckless speech making at street meetings. I. W. W. agitators have a studied policy of going into towns where it is known that street speakers are subj ect to suppression!, delivering wild and provocative speech es and inviting arrest and its resultant notoriety. iney want to pose as "martyrs" in the hope of drawing pub lic sympathy in their cause. The first amendment to the consti tution of the United States prohibits the making of any law "abridging the freedom of speech, or the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assem ble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." This seems plain enough, and yet state laws, federal laws and judicial interpretations seem to have radically changed the meaning of these provisions as they were un derstood wehn the first amendment was ratified in 1791. Just now a great portion of the peo ple of the United States appear to have grievances of various kinds and they demand the right to air them. Another faction of the people, however, when the aired opinions run counter to their own, demand suppression by laws and ordinances denying the rights of peace able assembly and free speech to all except those who agree with them. Throughout this situation it is the duty of the police authorities and the courts to maintain order, prevent in citement to disorder and to so regulate the activities of citizens that other citi zens shall not be discommoded. But the police and the courts exceed their authority when they assume a prejudiced attitude and attempt to abridge the rights of peaceable assem bly and lawful free speech. There are other methods, entirely in accord with the constitution, of dealing with those who. plot treason or seek to bring a statie of anarchy in America. It is to be hoped that the Duquesne case will be carried to the supreme court. We need a clear definition of what the constitution means in its guaranty , of the rights and peaceable assembly and free speech. If it means that peaceable meetings of laboring people may be suppressed "by order , of local mayors, police chiefs or police judges, at the instigation of private financial interests, let us definitely know it, that -we may take steps to further amend the constitutio nin accordance with the principles of American liberty. LABOR IN CONGRESS. Non-Partisan -Movement Bound to Give It Representation. The trade unionists are responding nobly to the call of the 'American Fed eration of Labor's non-partisan cam paign. It meets with the approval of all students of the labor problem in this community. It urges the workers and their friends to action, and now that they are called on to assume a. free spirit in politics they will present a solid front that will please their friends and confuse their enemies. The American labor movement has the right to expect and to have the support of every man and every woman to whom progress has a meaning and who find inspiration in the enlargement of human opportunity and the protec tion of rights and liberties already se cured. Privilege-serving congressmen and senators who sneered, scoffed and imagined that labor was fooling when it declared that it would oppose for re election every man who manifested hos tility to the workers, are being rapidly disillusioned of their folly. There are at present over 300 law yersin congress. How did they get there? Somebody was looking for law yers to represent them. Has it ever occurred to you what we could do if we had that many trade-unionists there? Can you give any' reason why trade unionists should -not sit in congrejs? We are not asking for favors. What the workers of this country want is a square deal, and no favors for any claf s. We, as free-born American?, have a right to demand justice for all the people, not just a privileged few, and if that can be brought about we will be satisfied. But, remember, labor announces that it will back up with full support the national, state and local program, for we have a housecleaning to do, and tihs must and shall be done. WORKERS' HOMES. Freedom From Rent Sharks Would Help a Lot. Th ownership of homes, free from the grasp of exploitative and speculative interests, will make for more efficient workers, more contented families and better citir.t-ns. The government should, therefore, inaugurate a plan to build model homes and establish a syst?m of credits whereby the workers may bor row money at a low rate of interest and under favorable terms to build their own homes. Credit should also be extended to voluntary non-profit making housing and joint tenancy associations. States and municipalities should be freed from the restrictions preventing tehir under taking proper housing projects and should be permitted to engage in other necessary enterprises -relating thereto. The erection and maintenance of dwellings where migratory workers may find lodging and nourishing food during the periods of unemployment should be encouraged and supported by municipalities. (From Labor, . Its Grievances, Protests and Demands, adopted by Labor's Conference, Decem ber 13, 1919.) LIMITING OUTPUT. All Right for Manufacturers and Dealers, Apparently. The limitation of output is sometimes charged against trade unions, although there is practically no truth in this charge but little attention is given to regular meetings of manufacturers and dealers in "which they openly discuss and agree upon prices and the limita tion of their products in order to main tain those prices. In some industries the producer will cut off the supply of the dealer if he :?ells the product cheap er than the price agreed upon. Mean while the same concern will insist on the workingman's right, to sell his labor for whatever price he pleases. Every storekeeper despises the merchant who cuts his prices, but he will usually de fend the workingman who cuts his. ' But the labor union has a distinct and ethical value for which it should be given credit. Labor halls have become great social centers. Helpful lecture courses are given. .Social features, up lifting in character, are often support ed .and there is a moral value in the regular meetings of the union. Every man has a chance to present his views, no matter how unpopular he is or they may be. He learns the lesson of subor dination tothe will of others, which is always a good discipline. He learns the value of brotherhood, of co-operation, of teamwork. He is sometimes called upon to make real sacrifice for the sake of his fellows. Trade unionism is doing more to in still real patriotism' in the immigrant than any other institution. It is teach ing him the meaning of "government." In the old country the word "govern ment" meant opression. He soon un derstands that here it means friend. In the labor union he gets away from his clannish instinct, which" even his re ligion has not altogether been able to accomplish. Organized labor stands for the aboli tion of child labor. It demands equal pay to men and women for equal work. It is wiping out unsanitary conditions in shops and tenements. Indeed sweat shops have been practically abolished in our big cities on account of the aggres siveness of trade unionism. LOW WAGE DEATHS. Infants Suffer From Insufficient Pay of Fathers. In calling attention to the relation of low wages to infant mortality, the United States Children's Bureau .states that the "summer peak" of infant deaths is now beginning. In Manchester, N. H., more babies died from gastro-intestinal diseases than from any other cause, the rate bc.ng 63 per 1,000 babies born alive. In August more deaths occurred from these diseases than occurred in any other month from all 'causes combined. Two-thirds of the Manchester babies were born to foreign-born mothers, two-fifths to mothers who could not speak English, and over one-sixth to illiterate mothers. Nearly one-half of them were in families where the fath er's earnings totaled less than $650 a year, and over two-fifths were to moth ers who were gainfully employed dur ing the year following the baby's frith. In Johnstown, Pa. ; Waterbury, Conn., and New Bedford, Mass., where similar conditions prevailed, the infant mortality rates for diseases of the di gestive systenuwere 32, 41 -and 48, re spectively, v . These reports, says the Children's Bureau, emphasizes the importance of family income,, better domestic and municipal sanitation, and the need of teaching mothers how to take care of babies. ' THE PUBLIC. Workers . Wouldn't Get Much if They Depended on It. "If the wofkers depended on the pub lic alone., they would rarely, if ever, make any progress, for -the fundamen tal reason that the public is wholly selfish," gays the National Civic Fed eration Review., It is declared that much of the statistics on strike losses "is pure and unadulterated rot." "The public does not want to be in convenienced," says this publication. "In a strike on a street railroad the public does the walking and the swear ing. It makes no -difference how long may be the hours the men work or how small may be their pay. 'If they don't like their jobs,' the public gen erally says, 'they should get others, but under ho circumstances make us walk How long would it have taken the pub lic to wake up and organrze to force 'the bloated coal barons' to give shorter hours and increases in the pitifully low wages of the anthracite coal miners in 1903? . . - "In regard to the appalling cost to the wage earners, there is another side to that question. The big headline figures about the losses of hundreds of millions of dollars on account of millions of days' wages being lost are Trequently great fallacies. In some cases not a cent is lost and the increases in wages are clear gains.1 The 1910 anthracite strike of six weeks only changed -the date of the annual shut down of the mines. Just as much coal was produced for the year, but the miners got more for the portion mined after the strike. The headline statisticians can always scare the public by multiplying days by the wage rates, but no headliner has ever pointed out another startling fact, and that is that in any normal year there are more days of labor lost on any three of the seven national holi days than in all thestrikes of that year. Think of the three billion days lost on Sundays and Saturday afternoons, and yet nobody counts that a loss, but a gain." BIG TOBACCO PROFITS. New York, Aug. 20. The financial report of the American Tobacco Com pany show's prosperous times for this concern and it will increase, its class B common stock .from $50,000,000 to $100,000,000. As compared with the same period last year, the volume of business from the first of the present year to July 1 increased- $12,500,000, or more than 20 per cent. This does not seem unusual in these billion dollar days, according to Presi dent Hill of the company. He says the company's business and earnings "are in a very satisfactory condition." Those who are kicking about rising costs of gasoline and other petroleum products will be interested in knowing that for the year ended December 31, the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey "earned" $77.55 a share on its common stock. This is the net result, according to official statement, after paying $14,000,000 in federal taxes. The union label transforms the women and children of the working class into towers of strength. With out it they are often elements of weak ness in the struggle for bread. STORMS HARD ON PNONE SERVICE Every Available Man Working Overtime to Repair Damage Done by Electrical Disturbance. Electrical storms, severe in their in tensity and damage, recurring daily for more than three weeks, occasional ex tremely high winds in some sections of the state. acrnmnanicH hv . nrnlAnnpH . " r 1 J J .-...-f. period of excessive humidity, have pro- j ij.i. . ... uuceu tne worst condition m its outside plant that the telephone company has experienced from summer storms in its history. Despite the fact that every available telephone man has been put on trouble work and that many of them have worked figths and all of them on Saturday afternoons and Sundays, they have not been able to repair the damage as fast as it has occurred. To date the storms are ahead of them for it has been just one blamed break after an other in the telephone business. A few days of dry weather, however, and the service will be cleared in all sections of the state. For three weeks or more, no 24 hour period has passed without a heavy downpour of rain in some part of the state and it fs also a fact that a light ning storm has occurred in some sec tion of Connecticut every day for 23 rniKprntiup Have rli J- mine imr J where in this state it rains on the equip ment ot the telephone company. Cables struck by lightning, broken by falling trees and then burned out by contact with trolley or electric light wires ; flooded manholes, grounds on telephone lines in . damp cellars and elsewhere, and other disturbing effects of the long spell of wretched weather had put 7,000 telephones out of com mission in the two weeks ending today. The service troubles of the telephone company have been cumulative. Before the breaks occurring during one storm could be repaired and service restored, along came another storm with its re sulting damage and further interference with the service in the same locality or elsewhere in the state. An official esti mate of. the number of telephones out of order on Thursday in some of the larger centers follows: Waterbury, 1,200;. Stamford, 600 r Putnam, 600; Bridgeport area, 600; Hartford, 500; New Haven, 500; New Brtain, 400, and Willimantic, 300. The high wind and heavy rain on the night of July 2j started the troublous days, for the telephone people. This storm took a great oII of telephone equipment, by breaking lines and caus ing outside electrical influences to burn them out. The damage by this storm was widespread and ran the gamut of things that can happen to put telepohne service out of order. On . successive - days or nights there after till the present, some part of the state and at times the whole state, has been visited by electrical storms and heavy downpours of rain, each doing its own destructive work. A lightning storm of July 24 caused a burned out cable in Stamford, putting 300 telephones 6ut of commission there and nearly twice that number there have since been affected by storms which crossed the Stamford section. On the same night Danbury was hard hit by the same storm. Then 'along came storm that struck hard up New London, .Putnam, Danielson and Wil limantic way and in other towns in that section. From 200 to 500 telephones were put out of order by a succession Of -storms in the eastern part of the state. Bridgeport, Norwalk, New Ca naan and other towns in the western and northern part of the state were in the path of another intense electrical storm which played hob with the tele phone lines. Cornwall, for instance, was out of telephone communication with the state at large for a few hours on Saturday morning because of a break in the main cable. Lightning caused -this trouble. Another of the storms hit New Brit ain, Hartford and points north, with a violence that levelled trees and broke telephone and other wires. In addition a gas station in Windsor burned down Saturday morning and the blaze ate its way through- the Windsor-Hartford cable, cutting Windsor from communi cation with Hartford and adding meas urably to the telephone company's troubles. . - Flooded" manholes in Waterbury, where there were miniature cloud bursts during the week, temporarily stopped service on 600 telephones in the western part of that city. The excessive humidity has had its baneful influence on telephone service as it has had on the good nature of ordinary persons. Moisture in cellars has put hundreds of telephones out of commission by causing grounds and the dampened equipment in central offices further aggravated an already bad out side equipment. The past few days have been espe cially severe in storm damage done and no one will give heartier welcome to fair weather than telephone men. TRICKY ALLEN EXPOSED. Topeka, Kan., Aug. 20. Kansas trade unionists are enraged at Gover nor Allen's publication of an -indorsement of his "can't-strike" law signed by an alleged A. F. of L. organizer, just before the recent primaries. The indorsement was signed by A. L. Flem ing, "A. F. of L. organizer." It is now shown that Fleming is not an A. F. of L. organizer, and it is also stated that he is not a member of organized labor. Fleming says he signed a letter in the governor's office that he (Fleming) did not write. Later, Fleming said, he received a letter from the governor stating that he "had taken the privilege to add a few paragraphs or make a few additions." "The governor, I feel, has taken un due advantage of me in having this let- I ter published," concludes Fleming, in a ; signed statement. "He had no author ity from me to publish this letter in newspapers. I have written the gov ernor telling him not to use my name on any literature or to quote me in any way whatever; I have no desire for further relations with Governor Allen." ITS REAL INTENT. The League of Nations' Provis ions in a Nutshell. Some folks say the League of Na tions is to be the leading issue in the Do you understand the League of Nations? Do you intend to study the plan? Only about one out of a thousand voters can give an approximate idea cf what the League of Nations really means. And yet the idea back of the proposal is. easy. Ever hear an employer say he had "nothing to arbitrate?" He was gen erally condemned for his autocratic attitude, wasn't he? Ever hear an employe say that a con tract with the employer, carrying an arbitration clause, would practically put an end to strikes? We all know that voluntary arbitra tion will reduce strikes to the vanish ing point. But it won't altogether stop otrikes. The League of Nations is nothing more nor less than an arbitration agreement intended to reduce the pos sibilities of war. It won't entirely eliminate war.s but it will make it diffi cult for any naton to "start some thing." . That's the League of Nations in a nutshell. If you don't believe it, study Support Our Advertisers The advertisers in THE CONNECTICUT LABOR PRESS deserve the support of organized labor and "its friends. They materially assist in making it possible for this paper to be of service to the workers. The individuals and firms using our publication are showing interest in our cause and expressing friendship for the wage worker, and the latter should give, them the preference in making purchases. As organized workers you can readily grasp the value of reciprocity in preference to all others. As one good turn deserves another, it follows, that those advertisers should get' the purchasing power of New Haven's organized labor, amounting to HUN DREDS OF THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS PER WEEK, as well as friends of the cause. Hot air never accomplished anyr thing. Talk is usually valueless. Action is what counts. Buy -from those who help your cause. Those who make their wants known through THE LABOR PRESS are certainly worthy of your patronage." See to it that they get it. A Savings Account For Your Children You desire, your children to grow into prosperous and successful men and women, to be prepared to fight life 's battle in competition with the rest . of the world. . Teach them early in life the value of money, for then, is the time they form little habits that grow as they grow older. Teach them to save. Start a Savings Account for your children in our bank. It will-earn 4 interest compounded and cred ited quarterly increasing their savings while they save more. Teac them. to deposit part of their spending money regularly to be thrifty. $1 starts the account. On Savings Accounts Member of the New Haven Trades Council Co-Operative Campaign. "For Twenty Years we have issued this Union Stamp for use under our . VOLUNTARY Arbitration Contract OUR STAMP INSURES: Peaceful Collective Bargaining . Forbids Both Strikes and Lock-, outs Disputes settled by Arbitration Steady Employment and Skilled ' Workmanship r ' . Prompt Deliveries to Dealers and public Peace and Success to Wofkers and Employers " Prosperity of Shoe Making Com munities WORKERS UNION UN10NttSTAMP Factory As loyal union men and women, we ask you to demand shoe's bearing the above Union Stamp on Sole, Insole or Lining. Boot and Shoe Workers" Union 246 Summer Street BOSTON, MASS. COLLIS LOVELY. General Pres. CHARLES L. BAINE, General Secretary-Treasurer. FURNITURE and Mechanical Tools BOUGHT AND SOLD Bargains Always on Hand FREE DELIVERY. e: i im !OADWi Near the Broadway Bank. it for yourself- You will find the. main idea is arbitration of disputes while the details are the . equivalents of the provisions covering working conditions in an ordinary industral contract. The United States senate has1 said "we have nothing to arbitrate." Hence, it has refused to enter into contractual relations - with other countries and agree to submit political disputes to arbitration. Study the instrument yourself and you will see we are right. " Incidentally, the American Federa tion of Labor, at the Atlantic City convention, endorsed the League of Na tions by a vote of 29,909 to 420. "Service That Satisfies" MERCHANTS NA TIONAL BANK Chapel at State THAT Great Advertising Authority Printer's M The Leading Publication ot Its Kind in America, Says That . . A LABOR PAPER Is a Far Better Advertising Med ium Tahn an Ordinary Newspaper in comparison of Circulation. ' The Connecticut Labor Press ' Gives Its Advertisers- the Co-Op-eration of Thousands of Members of Organized Labor. Every Read er Has a Reason for Patronizing Those Who Advertise in Labor's Own Newspaper. This is THE UNION LABEL OF THE United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers of North America Cloth Hats and Caps bearing this Label are made under Sanitary and Union Conditions The union label is the most eco nomical agency of trade union work, its cost being little compared to its re--, suits.