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THE MORNING JOURNAL-COURIER, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1908. HDGHES DECLARES WHERE HE STANDS Opens Campaign for' Nomina . tion in Address Before the Republican Club of New York. FAVORS REFORM POLICY Declares Nation Under Lasting Obli. gation to President, and Expresses Similar Views on National Problems. New York, Jan. 31. In his address before the . Republican rlub of New York last evening Governor Hughes fired the first shot In his unique cam paign for the republican nomination for the presidency by defining at length his position on national ques tions. The address in full Is as fol lows: ( Mr. Hughes' Address. j Fellow'; Members of the Republican ' Club: . In the adoption of the resolutions which preceded the call of this meet ing,, you have conferred upon me an honor of which I cannot express ade quately my appreciation. It is enhanc ed by 'the fact that it comesjf from o'd friends ind associates, the fellow members of an organization with which it has been my privilege to be. identified for twenty years, and from a body of loyal and earnest Republi cans whose real for the welfare of the' Republican party and unselfish devotion to: its interests are known throughout the country I cher ish your friendship. I esteem your con fidence. And in recognition of both, and of the obligation Imposed upon me by your action, I shall define my positl-m. Hlncv.' I tqok office I have sought to make It clear that would not. become Involved In factional strife or use the power of office to further any personal Interest. I am, and have been con stantly, solicitous that the administra tion of the affairs of this State shall not be embarrassed by collateral con siderations, and that every question shall be presented and decided upon Its merits, unaffected by suggestion of ulterior motives. For this reason I have avoided gratuitous discussion of questions foreign to my official duty. But when, In justice to those who have honored me with their confidence and to the party which, as we all desifle, should act freely and with full in formation, It becomes a duty to speak, I have no desire, to remain silent. Nor should I In any event care to preserve availability at the expense of candor. President Roosevelt's Administration. We are contemplating a new ad ministration at the closa of one which to a- degree almost unparalleled has Impressed the popular Imagination and won the confidence of the people. The country is under lasting obligation to President Roosevelt for his vigorous opposition to abuses nnd for tt.i 8rftft; impulse he has gU-cn to move ments for their correction. Differences of opinion now as always exist with regard to the best means of solving some of the extremely difficult prob lems that are presented. ISut there who earnestly desire pnaress ain! ihe establishment of 'our aecurliv on Its -necessary loundatlons of fair dealing and recognition of equal rights ap preciate the great service he has ren ilered and the fundamental importance ol the purposes he has Jiad In view. Ve shall have In the next campaign a notable vantage ground, gained through the general admiration of his strong personality and the popular ap preciation of the Intensity of his de sire to promote the righteous conduct of affairs and the welfare of his fellow men. The Historic Struggle For Popular night. ' The most Impressive revelation of modern history Is the picture it af fords of the widespread struggle against every form of oppression and exploitation, and the onward march of the people toward the realization of the Ideals of self-government. This movement, sometimes checked by ar bitrary power, sometimes Impeded by Ignorance, sometimes suffering from the perversions of selfish ambition, 'sometimes suffering from the perver sions of slflsh ambitions, sometimes under the urglngs of passion running Into wanton excesses with their Inev itable, reactions, nevertheless broadlv viewed Is an Irresistible movement against which In the long run the opposition of class or of privilege will be powerless to prevail. There Is no rest In human affairs. The watchword of humanity Is progress. And' the ad ministration of government. In pro portion to the enlightenment of the people, will reflect In ever-Increasing degree their Insistence upon the ellm Inatlon of all evils which threaten quality of opportunity. Socialism TTn-Amcrican. Our government is based upon the principle of Individualism and 'not upon, those of socialism. It. was not es tablished to substitute one form of de spotism for another. It was founded 1o attain the alms of liberty, of liberty under law, but wherein each Individ ual for "the development and the ex ercise of his Individual powers might have the freest opportunity consistent with the equal right of all others, and wherein the rewards of industry and thrift the gains of honest effort might be secure. We do not seek to multiply the act ( Ivlties of government so as to bring bout vexatious interference with lib erty or to restrict legitimate enter prise. We deprecate all unnecessary governmental action. But our Individ ualism does not justify unbridled li censes. Its aims may demand, and frequently do demand, the interven tion of government with necessary re strictions and regulations not to cur tail the liberty of the people, but to protect It. Wherever. in order to maintain civil rights, to secure the public from aggression, or to compel the performance of public obligation the action of the government as the organ of the popular will is necessary there its power should be firmly, ade quately, and Impartially exercised. Fundamental Principles. Now I do not profess to be able to speak the last word with regard to the questions which confront us. Many of them are difficult, and in the effort to reach true conclusions mistakes may be inevitable. But before these are dealt with specifically we may proper ly make closer inquiry as to th prin ciples which should be the guide of our action and to whicn. we should render unquestioned allegiance. What are the conditions, so far as govenrment.is concerned, of progress in the United States? Purity of Elections. There must be the freest opportuni ty for the honest expression of the popular will. To this end every prac ticable means should be employed to preserve the purity of the ballot. Po litical contributions from corporations have wisely been prohibited and pub licity of campaign expenses should be enforced. The most stringent, meas ures should be adopted to prevent cbrrupt practices. Representative Government, ' This is a representative government and not a pure democracy. The latter would be unworkable in a country of this magnitude. Except with regard to fundamental questions or matters comparatively simple, it Is impractica ble for the electorate directly to ex press its views. Our system presup poses the fidelity of the chosen repre sentatives of the people. I believe in party government to enforce and ap ply party principles; I believe in the responsibility of party administration in accordance with the. policies an nounced in the party platform. These policies are but the described methods of public service and the defined means believed to be conducive o the public welfare. In short, "I believe in fidelity to principle, publicly professed and In honorable obedience to the oath of office. Upon the fulfillment of these paramount fiduciary obligation, and upon the public intolerance of the perversion of the authority conferred by the people to the service of any private interest, the safety of our in stitutions depends. Efficiency in Administration. I also believe in securing the high est, possible- degree of administrative efficiency. Our first object should be to derive from existing laws the maxi mum of benefit according to their In tention. The firmness and the Impar tiality of Justice In the execution of the laws insure that respect for law and order and that stability of govern ment which conditions every honora ble enterprise and underlies the pros perity of every man, whatever his work. Special Privilege. , The battle for free institutions has been a struggle against special privi lege. It is not won merely by the cre ation of new forms of government Against every attempt to make gov ernment the instrument of selfish pur poses a free people must constantly be on the alert. Every franchise granted by the people is a privilege justified only by considerations of the public welfare, and the conditions of its exercise should be such as to Insure the performance of public obligation. There must be no encroachment on the common right for the purpose of serving the interests of the few at the expense of the many. Rights of Property. Of fundamental Importance also Is respect for the rights of property. This is the security of thrift. It Is of even greater importance to the poor than to the rich. The unlawful acquisition of property should be prevented Or punished. The conditions underlying grants of public franchises should be enforced. But property lawfully ac quired must be safeguarded. Iiabor and Business Conditions. We are a nation of workers. Idlers are comparatively few. Our people ae employed In a vast network of activities. We must respect the de. mands of Industry and he solicitous to promote the welfare of those who In agriculture, In manufacture, and In the various enterprises Incident to the exchanges of commerce are contribut ing to the sum of national effort. The prosperity of the nation means the prosperity of its millions of toilers. We are so Interdependent that any dis turbance or dislocation has a far reaching effect, and their most injuri ous consequences are borne by those least, able to endtire disaster the wage-earners and the men of limited resources. We desire to see the oppor tunities for labor protected and en larged; the conditions of labor improv ed; the reasonable adjustment of con troversies; and above all we should seek to maintain stability and confi dence. In order that 'he talent of our people for productive Industry may have the widest scope for honorable employment, and that we may enjoy to the greatest possible extent that widely diffused prosperity and happi ness to Which we are entitled by vir tue of our resources and our energy. Constitutional Government. In this country progress cannot be made save In harmony with our con stitutional system. The Constitution In Its entirety most be observed. The power derived from the people must be exercised upon the conditions which they have laid down. The functions of each department of government ex ecutive, legislative, and Indicia) r defined, and the responsibilities of each department are fixed. The people have not only thus, marked out the spheres and limited the powers of their repre sentatives, but the provisions of our Constitutions are also checks upon the hasty and in considerate action of the people themselves. According to our system, the controlling will of the peo ple Is found In constitutional provis ions, as interpreted and applied by the courts, and these must remain effec tive until the people change them by amending the Constitution in the pre scribed manner. Federal and State Power. We must also recognize the division of power? between the fpriprsl and State governments Through the lat ter, necessary local autonomy is secur ed. It Is essential to the permanence of free institutions that earh eommunity should attend to Its particular affairs; and through the powers and responsi bilities of local administration, inde pendence, public spirit, and capacity for self-government, are developed, which not only secure the enforcement of local rights, hut make possible the Just exercise of the powers of the cen tral authority over those matters lying outside the proper limits of local jurisdiction. These considerations are more and not less Important because of the de velopment of Interstate commerce ana the powerful forces in the world of business which in their practical oper ation Ignore State lines. And the necessary extension of the activities of the federal government as to mat ters Inevitably committed to its con trol should make us the more solicit ous that the administration of State governments should show the highest degree of efficiency. There are two dangers. The one is that serious evils of national scope may go unchecked because federal power is not exercised. The other lies in an unnecessary exercise of fed eral power, burdening the central au thority wjth an attempted control which would result In the impairment of proper local antnnomy, and ex tending it so widely as to defeat ith purpose. It must be remembered that an evil Is not the proper subject of federal cognizance merely because it may exist In many States. All sorts of evils exist in many States which should be corrected by .the exercise of local power, and they are not evils of federal concern although they may be widespread. On the other hand it cannot be re garded as a policy of unwise central ization that, wherever there is a seri ous evil demanding governmental cor rection which afflicts interstate com merce and hence is beyond the control of the States, the power of congress should unhesitatingly be exercisea. But we are not left to the consider ation of general principles of govern mental action. Congress has the power given to It by the constitution. It cannot, If it would, invade the rights of the States. It has express authority to regulate commerce among the several States. The scope of the Interstate commerce clause and the boundaries of the federal powers which It authorizes are the subject of determination by the Supreme court. Congress can act only within the lim its so fixed, and In acting within those limits, the question Is not one of pow er but of the nature of the evil and of the appropriate remedy for Its cure. Having stated these principles I shall define briefly my position with' regard to certain particular questions. Conservation of National Resources There is no matter of greater im portance than the conservation and development of our natural resources. It Is of the most urgent necessity that our forests' should be protected, and that these priceless treasures should bo preserved 'from ruthless destruc tion. All the property' of the people should be safeguarded from spolia tion. I am also deeply Interested In the development of Inland waterways,, to provide increased and adequate fa cilities for our growing commerce. We should further do all In our power to extend the area of productive activity through irrigation and suitable plans of reclamation. The common right in our public lands should be protect ed from encroachment, and wherever governmental power may properly be exercised the sole object should be the promotion of the general welfare and all schemes of I rapacity should be frustrated. Railroads. I do not believe . In governmental ownership of railroads. But regula tion of interstate transportation Is es sential to protect the people from un just discriminations and to secure safe, adequate and Impartial service upon reasonable terms in accordance with the obligations of common car riers. In order to have supervision which is both thorough and Just an administrative board is necessary. I may assume that my attitude with re gard to this matter is so well under stood through my recommendations In relation to the enactment of the pub lic service commission law In this State that an extended statement Is unnecessary. I approve the recent extension of the authority of the Interstate i com merce commission by what is known as the rate bill, and I believe that the commission should have the most am ple powers for purposes of investiga tion and supervision, and for making rules and orders, which will enable it to deal to the fullest extent possible, within constitutional limits, with in terstate transportation in al its phases. This is a just policy. The power of congress to fix rates for Interstate transportation so as to prej-ent im proper discriminations and to compel carriage upon reasonable terms Is un doubted. The sole question is how, and under what circumstances, it shall be exercised. But it is manifestly Im possible for the legislative body, on account of the conditions under which It works, to make that thorough ex amination of specific cases which in justice rrfust precede action. It . may establish general standards of con duct but the exigencies of particular cases can be met only by the pains taking consideration of an administra tive board. The alternative to this policy Is either the abandonment of regulation or sporadic legislative in tervention under the Influence of agi tation and almost necessarily without proper examination of the facts or recognition of the different require ments of varied situations. No one can properly complain because legal machinery is provided for the recti fication of abuses. And the aim should be to make the machinery adequate to the purpose of providing redress for every grievanceiand to insist upon standards of administration which will secure Intelligent and patient inquiry and Impartial enforcement of the law. Trusts ami Combinations. The Sherman anti-trust act should' be clarified and made more explicit The law may be made stronger and more effective by being made more definite. Sweeping condemnations of uncertain meaning, do not aid but rather embarrass the prosecution of those who are guilty of pernicious pratlces. Combinations and practices in unreasonable restraint of trade and which menace the freedom of inter state commerce should be. condemned In precise terms. At the same- time provision may well be made for Joint agreements, under proper circum stances, as to1 railroad rates, which which should be subject to the ap proval of the Interstate commerce commission. Various means have been suggested of doubtful validity and srtlll more doubtful utility to prevent, oppres sion through the conduct of large en terprises and to secure the enforce ment of the law against Illegal at tempts to monopolize and the various devices resorted to In unlawful re straint of trade. In my judgment the most effective course Is explicit defini tion of what Is wrong and adequate punishment of the guilty. Such laws like laws in general which are definite and supported by public sentiment, are to a very large extent self-executing. That is, they are generally obeyed. Punishment by Imprisonment. I am not In favor of punishment ih the shape of fines upon corporations, except for minor offenses. The bur den of fines Imposed upon such cor porations Is either transferred to the public or Is borne by stockholders, the innocent as well as the guilty. Nor am I Impressed by the argument that American Juries will generally be In disposed to convict where the evidence is clear, because the crime is punish ed by Imprisonment of the offenders. But If the law be definite and the evidence warrants the presentation of the case" to the Jury, it Is better In my judgment that the respnnslbil'ty for failure to convict should He with the Jury than that conviction shonld be followed by penalties Which are either Inadequate or bear unjustly upon those who have had no complicity In the offense. Tariff Revision. r I believe in a protective tariff. It is an established policy. Oiir opponents would not undertake to present to the voters of the country the issue of free trade. A protective tariff is essential to the Interests of our wage-earners, in mat It makes possible the payment of wages on the scale to which we are accustomed in this country and thus maintains our American standards of living. Hence the difference in the cost of production here and abroad Is the fundamental consideration. But I do not believe In making this policy a cover for exorbitant lates or for obtaining special privileges from the government which are not based upon consideration of the general wsl ware. I believe that the tariff should be revised. And In order to effect whatever readjustment may be neces sary to make the tariff schedules con sistent with the principles underlying the protective policy, I .favor the ap pointment of an expert commission, sc. that the facts may be ascertained with out delay and that congress may 1U pose of the matter In the fairest possi ble manner. Labor Laws. So far as the matter Is within the power of congress, the interests of la bor should be safeguarded and the conditions of labor improved. I am in favor of the enactment (of a law aptly expressed, to apply exclusively to exclusively to interstate . commerce, interstate commerce, which would embody the principle of the employer's liability bill ' recently declared unconstitutional because ' too broad. I also approve the laws which have been enacted with regard to safe ty appliances and hours of labor In railroad service. The . matter of rai -road accidents deserves special Invettl gation, and every effort should fcfc made to obtain adequate measures for the protection of life and limb.' i Wherever the government comes into direct relation to labor, proper condnlons with regard to hours. wa?es, safety, and compensation for accidents should be provided. , ' - The Philippines. With regard to the Filipinos we are placed under the most sacred obliga tions. In justice to them and in justice to ourselves, we must omit no ef fort to prepare them for self-goern-ment. When they are able to govern themselves and are in a position to maintain their Independence.tne Amer ican people will not deny them the boon which we ourselves have so high ly prized. In the meantime, the work of education and training must pro ceed, and everything that , can be done consistently with the interests of our own people must be done to pro mote their prosperity. Th Army and Navy. We are devoted to the, interests of peace and we cherish1 no policy of ag-, gresslon. The maintenance of our1 Ideals Is our surest protection. It Is our constant aim to live In friendship with all nations and to realize the alms of a free government secure from the Interruptions of strife and the wastes of war. It Is entirely con sistent with these alms, and it Is our duty, to make adequate provision for our defense and to maintain the effi ciency of 'our Army and Navy. And this I favor. , Within the limits of this address, It has been. posslble to touch upon only a few subjects which from a national standpoint are worthy of considera tion. But1 1 have endeavored to say enough to give suitable information of my attitude. Our Attitude Toward the Future. .We have no problem that cannot be solved. Our citizens are intelligent and alert, There are fresh evidences daily of quickened public spirit. The conscience of the people has been aroused ad their common sense Is not Impaired. Through the lavish provision for education ' and technical training, (he unexample opportunities for cultivation and enjoyment, and the varied efforts of philanthropy, we are making steady progress In the Im provement of the conditions of our life. ' ( ' I do not believe In arbitrary action. We desire prosperity. We are anxious that (here 'should be fair opportunities for all the workers of the land, for the extension of Industry and commerce, and that there should be the widest diffusion of blessings among a con tented people. To attain these ends the rule of the people must be the rule of reason and every effort must be dominated by the sense of justice. We must be patient impartial and thorough; investigation must precede action; good-will must displace passion; and the sole motive must be to seek the truth and to do the right Fellow-Republicans: I do not come before you in any spirit of rivalry or self-seeking. There are many Re publicans who by virtue of their char acter and distinguished services are worthy of the highest honor the party can bestow. I ask no favor and I make no claim. I desire thatf the par ty shall act forjits best interest. Party Harmony Essential. We must not underestimate the la bors of the next campaign, . It .will be a hard-fought battle. We cannot expect victory unless we are united, and nothing should be done to Imperil success In this State. I appeal to you In the name oJ.the party to which you are all loyal to forget every' personal difference, and to , make the work which, precedes the convention a fit ting preparation for the united effort which later will be esse'ntlal. And let us not forget that the Re publican party does not extet, for it self. Our efforts on Its behalf are justified by our conviction that through the party we may render pa triotic service to the nation. Let this thought dominate our activities and love of country be the Inspiration and the motive of every partisan effort. ' T JWElERS Diamond Jewelry should be thor oughly Insitected by an expert. Many Diamonds are lost through the settings wearing thin, and they become loose. Our charges for repairing and re mounting Diamonds are moderate, and our work Is first-class. . .. . BRIEF MENTION. High water to-day at 9:52 a. m. St. Nicholas' Magazine for February at the Pease-Lewis Company. ' Mrs. FIcra McDonald, wife' of Insur ance Commissioner McDonald, has a story In the February Bohemian Mag azine, entitled "Maid and His Merry (Men." Some Idea of the large amount of business whlfh Is transacted In the controller's cTflce may be gained from the statement that last year there were about $8,500 checks Issued alone, t The checks come In books of 1,000 and each one that goes out has to be signed by both the controller and the city clerk. Last year eight books and a half were used. At the regular jnonthly meeting of the finance committee of the Edwin Bancroft Foote blub held Thursday night. It was reported that all bills had been paid, and the Institution was being run on a paying basis. I Professor Merrltt L. Fernald, of Har vard university, will deliver an lllus trated lecture on the "Florw of the Gaspe Region1' on this afternoon, at 2 p. m., In Room 184, Klrtland hall, Shef field Scientific school. The lecture is to be given under the auspices of the Con nectlcut Botanical society and will be open to the public. Director of Public Works , Foley stated that he Is still considering the cleaning of the Bennett Memorial fountain on the green, and he has not yet decided Just what to do concerning the suggestion which ha's been made by a number of citizens that he have one of the cltyjemployes clean the base or the monunynt with palls of water each da5 ' , ' . ' ': ' . BOY HAS NINE MVES. Massllon, O., Jan.. 31. Whlje crossing a railway track In a buggy today, L, S. Morris,, 14 years 'of age, was struck by a locomotive. The horse was killed and the buggy demolished, but the boy clung to the pilot of the engTne for a mile before the train came to a stop. He was benumbed by the cold and fell unconscious When rescued, but received no serious Injury. Cleaning-Up Before Inyentory We have separated from the balance of our stock a goodly number of pieces on which we will make -. large reduction! from regular prices. Included in them are some goods that we are going out of -patterns of silver we are to discontinue and some articles that are slightly shop -worn. There are also many stapli articles that we have seen for a year and want to say good-bye to, as well as others that per haps we bought too freely. Taken all in all, the stock we offer affords splendid purchas ing at great saving. Every article carries the full Monson guarantee. . Monson's Jewelry Store. 857-859 Chapel St: BROOCHES. We are now showing a most com J piete una oi oroocnea, especially in UK aainty eiiamu auu seou-precio stones. ; . The early purchaser baa (be variety to choose from. 3 738 CHAPEL STRICT. NBW HAVEN. CT. FEW MORSE BONDS. New Haven Did Not Take to Steam ship Funds. , Inquiries" at the local brokers' of flees yesterday revealed that there wer very few of the bonds of , the? Mors Ship .agency floated in New Haven, al though there was an attempt to mar! ket quite a block of them. The Ijond, holders in this company have asked fcj a receiver to protect their interests, ; At the brokers' offices In this cits the president's message on flnancl was being awaited for with Intern yesterday. It was stated that in both lines of Investments, investors wer watting until they could learn the )a est' utterances of the president on flrj anclal matters. . ' W. F. G1XETTE, Prest. THOS. F. CONNIFF, V. Prest C. W. F. GILLETTE, Secty.-Treat The Gillette tasWcten GENERAL CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS. Room 213 Malley Building, 902 Chapel Street, Tel. 3793. Mr. Wilbur F. Gillette having severed his connection as President and Stock-holder with The Geo. M. Grant Co., begs to announce to his friends and former patrons j that he has formed the firm of the Gillette Construction Company, to carry on a general contracting and building N business, and solicits the continuance of your patronage. Associated with Mr. Gillbtte in this new enterprise are Mr. George W. F. Gillette, graduate of The Yale Sheffield Scientific School and for the past six years with The Geo. M. Grant Co., and Mr. Thomas F. Conniff for the past eight years foreman for the same company. 3 i I1 '- 4 'i.