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in Western Mount ains The Crude Trails of the Rockies Are Gradually Giving Way to Well Built Highways AS THE center of population trav els westward, as the western states become more densely peopled, and especially as the farm lecomes more and more the founda tion of western prosperity, and the , mining interests, great ' as they have "been in the past, and are yet, become f secondary importance in the devel opment of the mountain states, the "demand for good roads through the mountains increases. This increasing demand ior passa ble roads is but history repeating it elf. The demand began to grow in Ibis country first in the east, and the demand has traveled steadily west iward with the advance of population, lantil to-day it has reached the foot .of the Rocky mountains, and the crude trail over which adventurer, ex plorer, pioneer, prospector and miner 3iave been wont to drag with labori ous toil their small belongings, must .give way to the wagon roads deT manded of a populous and prosperous people. It may be stated as a general prop osition that practically every moun tain road west of the Missouri river Has been built to meet a need aris ing in some way from the existence Of mineral deposits. The prospector, Twith his crude tools, blankets, and v imple food packed upon his faithful Imrro, goes ahead. In his business neither roads nor trails are necessary or specially desirable. He finds the mineral; the news gets abroad, and others flock to try their luck in the xiewly-explored region. Then comes "the trader with supplies, men to buy, md miners to work the new finds. The freighter with his mule team fur nished transportation, and for his use xe built the -first mountain roads. fThe motto is: "Get there and get there quickly." The first desideratum eems to be a route over which ve hicles on four wheels can travel with out tipping over. It is often so steep - -in places that wagons can only be ' pulled up with blocks and tackle, and descend with wheels rough locked -and dragging a heavy log behind. Xext came roads to particular mines, toll roads, county and state Toads, each case usually affording am ple latitude and scope to the actual ignorance or bad judgment of men of all grades of supposed road cun ning. There is not a mining county or a mountain county (the terms may astern base of the Rocky mountains -to the Pacific coast where the money squandered in traveling over bad : xoads would not in five years build new ones intelligently located and properly constructed. But the saving to existing enter prises would be only a small part of the advantages to accrue to any re gion from such a betterment of its road system. The expansion of the mining industry everywhere is due principally to the development of ore bodies of low grade but abundant -quantity, where processes involving th strictest economy and most care iul saving at every step yield in the .aggregate a slight margin of profit. Hundreds of thousands of tons of ore are mined and treated where this margin is less than one dollar a ton. The saving of a few cents a ton on ore down to the mills, and a corre sponding saving in freight charges on fuel, lumber, provisions and other supplies up to the mines means in the AN IMPROVED MOUNTAIN ROAD IN UTAH. 5re3glit item alone a very eonsidera "ble percentage on a large capital to "Companies producing . hundreds of 2tons a day. 'Throughout this great region thou sands of deposits now lie idle, which, with roads properly constructed, will become available, furnishing a new, vast market for labor, mining ma chinery and farm prolucts, and bene rfiting directly or indirectly every in- -dustrial and financial enterprise in -the United States. The keynote to road construction, "whether it be in the mountains of the -west or in the New England hills, is grade. .: That must be kept to the minimum, and the ldfwer the mini mum is the greater will be the bene mts accruing to the community for -which the road is built. The heavier the loads to be hauled, either up or clown, the lighter the grades should be. James W. Abbott in a pamphlet issued by the agricultural depart- .- A,. ' v it x&FWmf. uilding Methods ment says of this subject of grade in road building: "Experience in heavy freighting has shown that wagons can be actually and satisfactorily controlled in all weathers on 12 per cent, grades, but that they cannot be thus controlled on steeper grades, and that where mueh heavy freighting has been at tempted on steeper grades it has al most invariably been attended with terrible accidents. In freighting on On The Pik.E'8 peak toll ROAD. any grade the weight and number of wagons will depend upon the propor tion between material to be hauled up and freight back. On a properly constructed dry road four animals, averaging 1,300 pounds each in weight, will haul 6,500 pounds, total weight, distributed between wagons and contents, up a 12 per cent, grade at the rate of about iy2 miles per hour. Descending, the four! animals will haul all' that a wagon can hold up, but in practice this amount rare ly exceeds 16,000 pounds on a single wagon or 20,000 pounds on a lead and trail, and tne average is probably not much in excess of 10,000 pounds on one wagon or 14,000 pounds on lead and trail. When roads are icy heavy wagons tear up a roadbed badly. ' "But while a 12 per cent, grade is admissible as a maximum, roads of lighter grade are so much more effi cient and satisfactory in every way tna t 'only the-gravesr necessity slaoxtld ever determine the maximum at 12 per cent. "Mountain roads are routes of trav el between points of different alti tudes. The most common, as well as the most serious, mistake made in their location is the attempt to cover this distance by too short a line. On a 12 per cent, grade every pound of freight going up is elevated 12 feet for each 100 feet of horizontal dis tance traveled. On an 8 per cent, grade it is elevated 12 feet in 150 feet of horizontal distance traveled, while on a 6per cent, grade it is elevated the same amount in 200 feet of hori zontal distance; or, in other words, the distance required to get a 12 per cent, grade must De increased one half for an. 8 per cent, grade and doubled for a 6 per cent, grade. Tables have been published giving the comparative weights which a horse can pull on different gradients; but no actual statistics have ever oeen compiled which show what would be the difference in perform ance in actual freighting between good roads of different gradients. The limit of, load which a team can pull on any road is determined by the steepest place in that road. It is rare that a mountain road is -built on which 'the maximum gradient is less than 12 per cent. It is also true that there are very few places Avhere mountain roads have been construct ed that it was not feasible to secure a maximum under 12 per cent. The extra length that would be required is generally much less than one would at first suppose. Eoads built on a continuous uniform grade are very rare. Many seem to go up steep places just for the sake of going down again, thus giving a' grade ad verse to the heaviest traffic, which ought never to De compelled to climb a foot in descending a mountain. So far as the writer's study and oDserva tion have extended, 99 per cent, of all roads built for heavy mountain- traf fic might have had a maximum under 12 per cent. It is putting it very mod erately to say that a team will haul up 50 per cent, more load in the same time between two given points on a rdad with an 8 per cent, maximum than it could haul on one of similar surface with a 12 per cent, maximum. The doom of the old-time mountain road in the west has been sounded, and the new roads that will replace them will be built upon scientific rules. The change may detract con siderably from the picturesqueness and excitement of a stage ride through the Rockies, but it will add to the wealth and prosperity of the mountain country. Supply Too l.lnilte"d. "I heard you had a cow for sale," be gan the amateur, "and as I am think ing of buying one I " "Wall," interrupted the profession al farmer, "thar's thet Jarsey. Thar's one good p'intinher thet " "Oh! Gracious! That would never do. I need a quart at least." Phila delphia Press. , t PEACE NOW EEIGNS. Southwest Texas No Longer Dom inated by Outlaws. Prosperous Farmers and 'Oil Prospec tors . Congregate Where Regu lators and Bandits Once Made Life Uncertain. Special Beaumont (Tex.) Letter. T" HOUGH southwest -Texas is one g of the oldest settled portions of this state, it has remained until the past few years the most sparsely inhabited. In the early years of the last century it was the New Eldorado of the immigrants from the states, and for many it was a refuge from pur suing officers. This was the border line between Spain and the United States, Spain claiming to the Neches rive rr on which the oil town of Beau mont now stands. Her military out post was at the ancient pueblo of Nacogdoches, where a stone fort was built, and from which military de tachments were sent as far as the Louisiana line. This territory was a ground of contention between the two governments, and there was more or less fighting along the bord-er iintil Mexico seceded from Spain. Then the trouble was renewed between the Mexican government and the United States, until Texans, or rather the American immigrants to Texas, re- 1 belled against Mexico, and established the "free and independent state of Fredonia," which was' afterwards named Texas. At the time of the revo lution there were only about 5,000 Americans in this Mexican province. The revolution was caused by the re fusal of the Mexican government to permit the American adventurers to bring their slaves into the province. The few Americans in this section stormed and captured the Mexican fort at Nacogdoches, about 100 miles westward from Beaumont. The fort was a stone structure, and the Mex icans considered it impregnable. The quaint old stone building "has stood for 125 years, and was recently sold by the owner of the land on which it is situated. The old landmark will be torn down. It was only after Mexico possessed Texas that this section received much immigration from the United States, and from that time until the Texan war for independence things were very lively on the border. The first A COLORED KITCHEN MAGNATE. immigrants were Acadians a small number came west from the Acadian parishes of Louisiana, and here intro duced the culture of rice, tobacco and indigo. Their descendants still live here, and pursue the same occupations followed by their ancestors. Then came the Americans from the gulf states and beyond, and, being the di viding line, it was very convenient for absconding debtors to slip over,- and run their negroes over the line, where they were free from seizure for a debt. A large trade was also done in horse stealing on both sides. Horse steal ing, however, was a serious crime, more so than murder, and the thief was almost always hanged, by the vigilantes when caught. The Mexicans did not consider it such a serious of fense, ahd there was frequently a con flict of authority. The Mexicans never objected to the Americans hanging one of their own countrymen, but drew the line at their nationality or failed to do so. When the republic of Texas was established this was the unwritten law of the country, and those of the Mexicans who followed horse-thieving organized into banditti and confined their depredations to Americans. This led almost to a race war. Finally, when the Americans largely dominated, conditions changed, and the disorderly element was mostly the "nfcw comers" from the "states" who swarmed into the coun try just after the war between the United States and Mexico. After a panic, or a failure of crops in some states, or a yellow fever epidemic, there would be an exodus to Texas. Caravans of wagons crossed over into this haven for the absconding debtor, and those who were bankrupt and de sired to begin anew free from the law's interference. There was a standing joke told for many years that when a new comer arrived in any settlement he was asked: "What did you have to leave your state for?" No doubt this ques tion was applicable in a number of cases, yet the country was peopled with many of the best citizens of the adjoining states, just as all new coun tries have been. But the criminal element could move easily, and soon formed a large power. This led to the formation of a vigilance committee, known under the less harsh name of "Regulators." They were especially needed on the border, and where rteaumont stands was a trading set tlement, where horses and negroes -ieg:1 were bought and sold, and few ques tions asked or answered. The horses and negroes were usually those that were run across the line by gangs who raided the plantations, driving them away at night, or even in defiance of the owner, for they operated in com panies. The "Regulators" were or ganized for protection against these depredations. There was little law in the country, and this organization seemed necessary. Hangings were frequent. The "court" was orderly, but there was little system about the proceedings. There were three de grees of punishment hanging, brand ing and whipping. WThefe the evidence was not sufficient to convict, and yet circumstances pointed to guilt, the ac cused was ordered to leave the state immediately. Another standing joka is told at the expense of the early STARTING TO CHURCH. Texans. A suspected person was or dered by the Regulators to leave the state. He innocently asked: "Where can I go; I am in Texas now?" The same joke was told at the ex pense of early California a few years afterwards. The Regulators, like all illegal bod ies, soon abused the objects for whih it was organized, and gradually de scended into bands of rioters and plun derers, acting partly to revenge them selves for old grudges and personal prejudices. The organization had be come so powerful and law-defying that the better element now organized to put it down. Accordingly" another committee,, of vigilance was organized, and called the "Moderators." The Regulators had gone too far, and need ed regulating. The Moderators were composed of the better elemeitt, the most law-abiding portion of the Reg ulators having abandoned that now- lawless organization. A guerrilla war followed, lasting several years, dur ing which many lives were lost, and Texas became , the synonym for law lessness, just as was the case in Cal ifornia, a few years later, and in the In- aB-territory until a decade ago. from the states had emigrated to Texas to shape society and govern hina uv h siiTTip.i pn t n 11 m ner 01 ueouia ment, and the Regulators and Modera tors passed out of existence as'organ izations. But the southwestern bor der was still neutral ground for the lawless and the law-abiding until the breaking out 1 of the civil war, and after. During the war it was a refuge for "conscripts" who sought to evade service in the confederacy. Sonie( of these jay-hawkers did a lively busi ness in horse and negro trade, "con fiscating" them from the farmers, and running them off to Arizona and New Mexico. In later years there arose the usual trouble between the small and the large planters on the one side, and the cattlemen on the other. Beyond a few neighborhood killings, and sub sequent family feuds, the country was comparatively quiet. The old Regu lator and Moderator days had passed into history and family tradition. The planter of to-day takes life phil osophically he prefers quietude and rest to overwork and a scramble for large crops. The southwest of to-day presents a different picture from that of the tragic and picturesque past, for then the country was a garden of prairie and a "forest primeval." It also had its romance. The pirate Lafitte came up from his field of operations in the Gulf of Mexico, and secreted his plun der in the islands of Lake Charles, and made incursions up .the Neches river to depredate upon the farmers and traders. There are many stories of hidden wealth on the islands and in the shady bends of the Neches river, and even now fortune-hunting expedi tions are seen exploring the country for jars of doubloons supposed to have been hidden by the pirates. The loca tion is usually designated by an old darky, who received the story from his ancestors but he never digs for the treasure he prefers pay for his information. J. M. S CANLANIX -7-r- ; - " ' 1 fir ws s?? m If GUIDE TO PIRATE'S TREASURE. An Honest Ad. Agents wanted to sell Fairchild's Carriage Renovator. Will positively restore the lustre to a carriage and all varnished surfaces bring back the life of the varnish when it has be come dull, making it look as good as new. Oscar L Fairchild, Woodtick Road. R. F. D. "Waterbury, Conn. Lilley, Swift & Co., The world-famed firm that furnishes Meat to every country in the world. Select Beef, Mutton, Pork and Poultry always ready no matter how large the order may be. COLD STORAGE DEPOT, Cedar St., near N. Y. & N. E. Depot. AT LAST We will change this "ad." and say we have our Fall Stock of Shoes ready to show you if you give us the opportunity. The best Ladies Shoes we ever had for the popular price of $2.00. We make a specialty of Boys' Shoes. George C. Sfmor, SHOE DEALER. 52 Bank Street Waterburv FURNITURE RENOVATING. Et's a real good lime to liavc it dune NOW. Coverings were never cheaper, assortment never larger, work never as good as NOW. Let Us Show You our goods and estimate on work you want done. THE Lapalme, Hoffman Co. Painters, Furnishers, Decorators 158 & 160 Grand St. Flojvers, Birds, Etc. C. O. MUNSELL, florist, cut flowers and floral designs at short notice;-birds and cages, 87 Trumbull st., Allyn House Annex, Hartlord. , tf Help Wanted Male. WANTED Help: all towns; "work for ua; take orders by sample: valuable article; steady money-maker to bustlers ; write today. Standard Specialty Agency. Ellicott Square, Buflalo, N. Y. 12-T.5 Help Wanted. Female. LADIES AND MEN to copy letters and represent us. . Seasonable pay. Particulars mailed on application. En close stamp, Toledo Novelty Supply (Jo., Drawer A., Toledo, Ohio. 8-31 WANTED -100 ladies to do copving at home; wages good; enclose self- addressed stamped envelope for particu lars. C. R. Yoder, Van Wyck, S. C. WANTED Ladies evervwhere : dem onstrate; take orders by sample; high class article; the neatest thing out; im mense seller; write today. Standard Specialty Agency, Ellicott Square, Buf falo, N. Y. 13-15 Pan-American Booms. THE MELROSE, 138 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. Strictly first class accommodations for Pan-American vis itors; desirable location. Write for cir-8-31 cular with cut. Misscellaneous. DEAR FRIEND Will send you Only a Boy, Only a Girl, Vyite's Confession, A Bride's Confession, on receipt of $1 each. Book Exchange. 406 E 75th St., New York City. 8-24 MME. LOCK WOOD; most reliable; thousands can testify to her ability; her prices are moderate ; gives good advice. f you are in trouble call on ner. 1147 Main St., cor. Trumbull. 9-14 Smith's Store House. Separate rooms with locks, at reasonable pri ces, ury piace ana gooa care. Dealer in New and Second-hand Household Goods, iers. Extension ana Kitchen Tables. Stands. Chairs, Folding Bedsteads, etc. J. CHAS. SMITH, Bear 86 Buckingham street. 7-13 W. T. PEEFIELD, Upholsterer. Carpet Laying. Furniture and Grocery Packer. Household Furniture Repaired and Renovated from Insects of every description. 58 John &(, Hartford. 7-13 THE HOLMES, BOOTH 5 HAYDEBS CO. Waterbury, Conn. Salesrooms: 37 Park Place, New York. Brass, Copper & Germanr Silver rpHE WATERBURY PARREL' FODSDRY 1 AKD MACHINE -CO. ; ' Waterbury, Conn. Patent Pov?r Presses, Drop and Foot Preeses, Bo Jin c and Wire Mill Machinery, Rivet Mact inei. Cartridge Machinery, Jewelers' Tool, tari Slitters, Trimming Lathes, special machines and sheet metal machinery of ever? descrip tion. , ' YAEENTINE BOIL. ' Beef, Pork, Veal and Provisions at Wholesale. South Willow Street, Near N. Y. & N. E. Fkeight Depot. Genuine Real Estate Bargains. The store and tenement property, 276 Dublin street, the two-family house with large lot, 268 Dublin street, two double houses with large lots, 93 Dublin street, the'two family house with large grounds, 63 and 67 Dublin street. At the prices asked and on the terms they can be secured, ought to enable us to close a deal on all of the said places within the next few days. The owner of the said property means business as he expects to make his home in the future on the other side of the water. For the above Bargains, Loans on Real Estate, Fire and Plate Glass In surance, Stores. Offices, and Tenements, see .... WILLIAH J. SCHLEGEL, Lewis. Building, - 65 Bank Street Brass City Coal Co. T. F. CONWAY, Manager. Coal, Wood and Charcoal. YARDX NEAR GAS HOUSE. CENTRAL OFFICE: Cannon & Webster Drug Store. 106 Bank street. TELEPHONE 139-14. TRAVELERS', GUIDE. M.York, Hew HaYen-& Hartford R. R. ; May 19, 1901. HARTFORD DIYISIOIT. Trains leave Hartford as follows: For Springfield, Boston, Albany, ITortiam ton, and all points on the Connecticut River Line x2.30, 5.55, 8.04, 9.26, xll.18 a, m. : xl2.05, I. 25, X2.42, 3.55 for Suffield, 4.35, 6.20, x6.50, 9.20, II. 20 p. m. Sundays, x2.30 a. m. ; 1.25. xB.50, 9-15 p. m. For Meriden, Hew Haven and IJew York x3.00, 6.40, 7.08,8.00, 8.33, 10.40, xll.07 a. m.; X12.25, 12.55, x2.58, 3.50, 5.30, x7.10, 7.40. 10.05 p. m. Sundays, x3.00, 7.45 (to New Haven) a.m. ; 12.55, x7.10, 10.05 p. m. For Middletown via Berlin (New Britain Junction) 6.40, 10.40 a. m. ; 12.25. 3.50, 5.30, 7.40 and 10.05 p. m. VALLEY BRAHCH. Trains leave Hartford as follows : For Saybrook Point and way stations 6.85, 8.55 a. m. ; 1.48, 4.30 p. m. , For New London 6.35, 8.55 a. m. ; 1.48, 4.30 p. m. For Hartford, leaving Saybrook Junction at 8.18 a. m. ; 12.29, 4.20 and 6.30 p. m. For Hartford Trains leave New London, connecting at Saybrook Junction, at 7.35 and 11.45 a. m. ; 3.55 and 5.53 p. "in. B3GHXAHD DIVISION. Trains leave Hartford as follows: For Boston and "Worcester x5.05, 8.30 xlO.53 (Boston only) a. m. ; xl.55 p. m. For Plainfield and Providence x5.0o, &30 a. m. ; xl.55, 5.30 p. m. . For Putnam x5.05, 8 30, xl0.56," H.20 a. m. ; xl.55, 5.30 p. m. For "WUlimantic x5.05, 8.30, xl0.56, 11.20 a. nu ; xl.55, 5 30, 7 15 p. m: For Eockville via Vernon 8.30, 10.5C, 11.20 a. m. ; 1.55, 5.30, 7.15, 9.50 p. m. For Springfield Branch 10.CO a. m. ; 6.20 p. m. For Danbury 6.50 a. m. ; xl2.30, 4.02 p. m. For Fishkill Landing 6.50 a. m. ; xl2.30 p. m. For Waterbury 6.50, 10.22 a. m. ; xl2-30, 4.02. x6.30 p. m. Sundays, 8.30, 10.00 a. m.; 3.30, 5.30 and 7.30 d. m. Third rail trains connect at Bristol. J35x Express trains. - ' HAUGATUCK DrVTSIOlT. December 2, 1900. Trains leave Waterbury as follows : For New York 6.35, 8.12, 10.50 a. m. ; 1.28 2.48, 6.08 p. m. Sunday, 7.05 a. m. ; 5.20 p. m. For Bridgeport 6.35, 8.12, 10.50 a. m. ; 1.28, 2.48, 6.08 p. m. Sunday, 7.05 a. m. ; 6.20 p. m. For New Haven (via Derby Junction) 6.85, 8.12, 10.50 a. m.; 1.28, 2.48, 4.45, 6.08, 7.20 (mixed) p. m. Sunday, 7.05 a. m. ; 5.20 p. m. For Ansonia 6.35, 8.12, 10.50 a. m,; 1,28, 2.48, 4.45, 6.08, 7.20 (mixed) p. m. Sunday, 7.05 a. m. ; 5.20 p. m. For Watertown 6.45, 8-41, 11.17 a. m.: 1.30, -4.01, 5.00, 6.12, 7.03, 9.05, 1L20 p. m. Sunday, 8.43 a. m. ; 8.00 p.m. For Thomaston, Torrington and Wins ted 8.38, 11.12 a. m. ; 3.56, 6.58 p. m. Sunday, 9.38 a. m.; 7.55 p.m. C. T. HEMSTEAD, Gen. Pass. Agent. Central Hew England Railway Company. Ponghkeepsie Bridge Route. Station Cor. Church and Spruce Sts. Trains leave Hartford da'ly except Sunday, 6.00 a. m. for Cottage Grove and Bloomfield. 8.20 a. m. Express for Miller ton and way stations. 12.40 p. m. Western Express for Simsbury, Collins ville, New Hartford, Winsted, Norfolk, , Canaan, Boston Corners, Co pake, Rhinecliff, Poughkeepsie, Highland and Campbell Hall, connecting with N. Y. O. & W. Limited Ex press, due in Chicago 9.10 p. m. following day. 3.05 p. m. Millerton local, for all way stations to Millerton. . 4.45 p. m. local for Winsted and way stations. 6.35 p.m. West Winsted local, for all wit stations to West Winsted. Sundays only, 8.40 a. m. for all main line stations to Campbell Hall. Tickets for the South and West for sale. Chicago, $17.50, first-class; $16.50, second class. For tickets, time tables and information, call or address W. A. Wolcott, Ticket Agent. C. N. E. Railroad Station, corner Church and 8pruce streets, Hartford, Conn. W. J. MARTIN, Gen. Pass. Agent.