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THE LABOK STANDARD, .TANCARV, 1910. CIGARS MADE N DISEASED PEOPLE What a Springfield, Mass., Ci gar Maker Saw in the Philippine Islands. Excerpt of a letter to Mr. George W. Perkins, President International Cigar Makers Union, by Mr. William Bancker of Springfield, Mass. "I served two years in the Philip pines in the army, mostly around Ma nila, and out of curiosity I visited a number of shops there. Now, every soldier knows the uneleanliness of the average Filipino, and if you ask him he will tell you that many a poor fellow came home in a box by too close associ ation with them as they are poison to the white man. They are all affected with a skin disease and a large majority are covered with open sores or scars. Leprosy, beri-beri, cholera, beubonic plague and other infectious diseases, are, as everyone knows, prevalent there. They sit half naked and work and scratch, while the air is rank with the smell of decayed fish and rank ci coanut oil, which the women use on their hair. Now, imagine one of these natives, whose teeth have rotted black by the constant chewing of the betel nut, biting out heads, which I took particular notice to see if they did, and using their spittle to help paste thr heads on their work, and you can form some idea of what the American smoker will get when the trust dumps these far-famed Manila cigars on the market. The United States government spends thousands of dollars to quarantine against these Asiatic diseases, and when one leaves the island for this country, himself and effects are thor oughly disinfected; yet in the face of all this our law makers propose to put their seal of approval on this bill which will put into the mouths of thousands of our citizens a most prolific means of contagion; and if, as I firmly believe, it will be the means of infecting those filthy Asiatic diseases into the blood oi the American people, the present ad ministration can thank itself for it. I believe that even the trust smoker, if he has these things brought plainly to his notice, will think twice before pur chasing these goods." Painters, Decorators and Pa perhangers Elect Officers. James J. Dunn, president. Cornelius Mahaney, vice-president. Edward Leturmey, recording secre tary. Dennis F. McCarthy, financial sec retary. Edward Hagerty, conductor. Walter Hurlock, warden. Board of Trustees P. P. O'Reilly, deorge Shroeder, Charles Blessing. Delegates to Central Labor Union Charles B. Leonard, D. F. McCarthy, Edward Hagerty, F. A. Clifford, Ed ward Leturmey. Delegates to Connecticut State Con ference James J. Dunn, Thomas J. Cummings, George E. Leturmey. The business people found represented in the advertising columns of this papei make the existence of such a paper pos sible. Do you believe you owe them anything when you are trading? WHAT LABOR SPENDS. Standard of Living In Germany and United States. A recent issue of the Labor Gazette of the board of trade, London, gives the result of an inquiry made by the imperial statistical department at Ber lin into household expenditures of fam ilies of small means in Germany. The report was based primarily on returns from about a thousand families living in Berlin and Hamburg. The average yearly income for the skilled workmen who reported was found to be $458.83 and the average expenditure $457.71, of which 51.5 per cent was spent for food alone. Among the unskilled laborers in both indus trial and commercial occupations the report showed an average yearly in come of $409.78 and an average yearly expenditure of $411.70, 54 per cent of which went for food alone. A recent study of the standard of liv ing in New York city, made under the Sage foundation, led to the conclusion that it was impossible for a family of average size, five or six, to maintain a normal standard of living on an in come under $800 a year. This conclu sion has been substantiated by an in vestigation by the federal bureau of labor, which showed that the average income among 1,415 workmen in the north Atlantic states, among whom the percentage of skilled labor was high, was $834.83. Against this was an average yearly expenditure of $778.04, of which only 43 per cent was spent for food. An investigation by the New York Association For Improving the Condi tion of the Poor made less than a year ago showed that among a thousand men who had been compelled to ask for aid the average yearly wage when employed at full time varied from $575 to $525, as the times were good or bad. The men were practically all ablebod ied family men, anxious to work. The percentage of skilled and unskilled la borers in the thousand was about equal. New York Tribune. MINERS MAY COMBINE. The Two Big Unions Working With That End In View. It is practically assured that a great labor combination will be perfected in the mining industry in the near future. The United Mine Workers of America and the Western Federation of Miners are likely to form an alliance that will include upward of 400,000 men and eventually over 500,000. The two bod ies are desirous of organizing all work ers in and about the mines. It has long been the dream of Presi dent T. L. Lewis and Frank Hayes of the United Mine Workers and such men as Moyer and Haywood and John O'Neil of the Western Federation of Miners to build np an organization that will completely control the mining in dustry. Last summer Frank Hayes visited the western men and invited them to join hands with the eastern coal miners. Next January the west erners will visit Indianapolis to meet the United Mine Workers' representa tives in convention and see if they can agree upon the details of the combina tion. John O'Neil, editor of the Miners' Magazine, the official organ of the Western Federation of Miners, said a few days ago that there is no longer any doubt that the alliance will be consummated. Badge of Mourning Suggested. In a letter to Sam De Nedrey, which was published in the Washington Trades Unionist, D. G. Biggs urges workingmsa to place crape upon their hats shouidl President Gompers, Secre tary Morrison and Vice President Mitchell of the American Federation of Labor be committed to jail in the contempt case and to wear it until they are again at liberty. WORKDAY FOR WOMEN Is It Unconstitutional to Limit Hours of Toil? A QUESTION OF LIBERTY. Illinois Supreme Court Soon to Decide on Legal Status of the "Girls' Bill." Provisions of the Law A View of Both Sides. Is it unconstitutional to limit the workday of women employed in fac tories or laundries to ten hours? Is it an infringement upon their "liberty" protected by the fourteenth amend ment of the federal constitution? Or is it inhuman for any one to make a woman work more than ten hours a day? Is it a mockery to say that it is an infringement upon woman's liberty to protect her "health, safety, morals and general welfare" by limiting her working hours within reasonable bounds? These are the questions which the supreme court of the state of Illinois will be called upon to decide in the near future. Upon the right interpre tation of the word "liberty" in the fourteenth amendment will depend the life or death of the "girls' bill," as this law is known, which was passed at the closing moments of the Forty sixth session of the Illinois legislature last spring ana wmcn went into effect on July 1. The fight for the life of the law, the effort to steer the "girls' bill" safely through the legal rocks and quibbles which its enemies have been and will be putting in its way, will be made by Louis D. Brandeis from Oregon, who after a prolonged fight against a sim ilar ten hour law by the manufacturers of Oregon succeeded in having the su preme court of the United States de clare the law constitutional. Attorney Brandeis goes to Chicago at the in vitation of State Attorney John E. W. Wayman, who, with Chief Factory Inspector Edgar T. Davies, is a de fendant in the case because of his at tempt to enforce the law. The fight for the life of the ten hour law for women is at present the most engrossing topic in labor circles, with the Woman's Trades Union league, the State Federation of Women's Clubs and social and sociological workers generally. The law as it was adopted by the Illinois legislature last spring provides "that no female shall be employed in any mechanical establishment or fac tory or laundry in this state more than ten hours during any one day." Its passage was looked upon as a great victory as well as a "wedge" for further legislation in the interest of women workers in factories and oth er mechanical establishments. When Chief Factory Inspector Davies began to enforce the law after July 1, W. C. Ritchie of the paper box manufactur ing concern of the same name secured an injunction against Factor Inspector Davies and State Attorney Wayman, preventing them from enforcing the ten hour law in his factory. According to the opponents of the ten hour law, its enforcement will in terfere with business considerably. Be sides, many of them argue that the enforcement of the law prohibiting women from working more than ten hours a day will be a hardship to their women employees, who are glad to have the opportunity to work twelve and fourteen hours a day, as they can earn more that way and can support their families, which they could not do if their workday was limited to ten hours only. It is pointed out that the enforce ment of the ten hour law would do away with, overtime and night work in busy seasons and thus would hurt business. At least it would hurt it until the factories and their clients throughout the country will have be come accustomed to it and will tmve made different working arrangements which it would necessitate. Thus, a factory employing fifty girls, but making them work overtime dur ing the holiday season, would at that season have to employ sixty or seven ty girls if the ten hour law were en forced. This would require more space In the factory, more machines and an extensive change in arrangements. The customers of the factory likewise would have to be notified to put in their holiday orders earlier than they were accustomed to do, as the factory would not be able to fill these orders if they came late in the season. The friends of the ten hour law, however, say that the inconveniences which the manufacturers will be sub jected to by its enforcement will be overcome quickly enough. On the oth er hand, the benefits to the women, to their children, if they are married, and to those yet unboru-the benefits to womanhood, motherhood, the gain to country at large will more than atone for the inconveniences to a compara tively small number of manufacturers. As for the other argument that the women workers themselves will lose by the enforcement of this new law, those who champion it declare that can be easily remedied by having the employers pay better wages. Any wo man, they declare, who works ten hours a day ought to be able to earn her livelihood In that time. Among the chief arguments for the ten hour law are the ill effects which long hours have upon the physical wel fare of women. It is pointed out by the champions' of the new law that longer hours of work for women is nothing short of a national calamity. Long hours of work result in wasted bodies of the women workers, and this is reflected in their children. Ellas Tobenkin in Chicago Tribune. Labor In the Old Days. A statute of King Edward VI. pro vided that laborers could work only at a "certain price or rate," under penalty in certain cases "of the pillory or loss of an ear." Another statute provided that if a man refused to work at wages fixed by law he was to be branded with the letter "V" (meaning vaga bond) and reduced to slavery for two years. If he attempted to escape, he was branded with an "S" and made a slave for life. If he then had spirit enough to protest he was hanged. It was not until 1795 that an English workman could legally seek work out side his own parish. Down to 177D miners in Scotland were obliged to work in the pit as long as their em ployers chose to keep them there, and they were legally sold as part of the plant. Jurisdiction Question Settled. At the convention of the Shirt. Waist and Laundry Workers' International union recently the jurisdiction question was brougnt up, it being decided that the shirt workers will give up jurisdic tion over all members who are em ployed in stock factories those estab lishments An which shirts and waists are made and laundered being made ready for the wearer in the one fac tory. It will retain jurisdiction over all members employed in commercial laundries, where work is done for the public. The employees in the stock factories will go to the Garment Work ers' International union, but the change will be made gradually as local agree ments expire in the various cities. For Nonunionists to Consider. If the organization of only a part of the wageworkers has proved of so much benefit, an organization of the whole mass would prove of immeas i urable benefit Carpenter.