THE LABOR STANDARD, JAN U Alt Y, 1010.
When, in the course of human
events, it becomes necessary for one
people to dissolve the political bands
Which have connected them with an
other, and to assume, among the pow
ers of the earth, the separate and equal
station to which the laws of nature
and of nature's God entitle them, a
decent respect for the opinions of man
kind requires that they should de
clare the causes which impel them to
We hold these truths to bo self
evident, that all men are created cqua'i,
that they are endowed, by their
Creator, with certain unalienable
rights, that .among these are life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
That to secure these rights, govern
ments arc instituted among nun, de
riving their just powers from tli" run
sent of tin- governed; that whrniever
any form of government becomes de
structive of these: ends, it is the right
of the people to alter or to abolish it,
and to institute a new government,
laying its foundation on such prin
ciples, and organizing its powers in
such form as to them shall seem most
likely to effect their safety and hap
piness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate,
that governments long established
should not be changed for light and
transient causes; and accordingly all
experience hath shown, that mankind
are more disposed to suffer, while
evils are sufferable, than to right
themselves by abolishing the forms to
which they are accustomed. But when
a long train of abuses and usurpa
tions, pursuing invariably the same
'object, evinces a design to" reduce them
under absolute despotism, it is their!
right, it is their duty, to throw off
such government, and to provide new
guards fur their future security. Such
has been the patient sufferance of
these Colonies, and such is now the
necessity which constrains them to
alter their former systems of govern
ment. The history of the present King
of Great Britain is ;i history of re
peated injuries and usurpations, all
having in direct object the establish
ment of an absolute tyranny over
these States. To prove this, let facts
be submitted to a candid world.
lie has refused his assent to laws,
the most wholesome and necessary for
the public good.
lie has forbidden his governors to
pass laws of immediate and pressing
importance, unless suspended in their
operation till his assent should be
obtained: and when so suspended, he
has utterly neglected to attend to them.
lie has refused to pass other laws
for the accommodation of large dis
tricts of people, unless those people
would relinquish the right of repre
sentation in the legislature, a right
inestimable to them, and formidable
to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative
bodies at places unusual, uncomfort
able, and distant from the depository
of their public records, for five sole
purpose or fatiguing them into com
pliance with Jiis measures.
He has dissolved representative
houses repeatedly, for opposing with
manly firmness his invasions on the
rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after
such dissolutions, to cause others to
be elected; whereby the legislative
powers, incapable of annihilation,
have returned to the people at large
for their exercise: the State remaining,
in the -mean time, exposed to all the
dangers of invasion from without, and
He has endeavored to prevent the
population of these States; for that
purpose obstructing the laws for nat
uralization of foreigners; refusing to
pass others to encourage their migra
tion hither, and raising the conditions
of new appropriations of lands.
Ho has obstructed the administra
tion of justice by refusing his assent
to laws for establishing judiciary
He has made judges dependent on
his will alone, for the tenure of their
offices, and the amount and payment
of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of new
offices, and sent hither swarms of
officers to harass our people, and cat
out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of
peace, standing armies, without the
consent of our legislatures.
lie has affected to render the mili
tary independent of and superior to
the civil power.
Ho has combined with others to
tubjeet us to a jurisdiction foreign
to our constitution, and unacknowl
edged by our laws; giving his assent
to their acts of pretended legislation.
For quartering large bodies of
armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock trial,
from punishment for any murders
which they should commit on the in
habitants of these States:
For cutting off our trade with all
parts of the world:
I'm' imposing taxes on us without
For depriving us, in many cases, of
the benefits of trial by jury:
For transporting us beyond seas to
be tried for pretended offences.
For abolishing the free system of
English laws in a neighboring prov
ince, establishing therein an arbitrary
government, and enlarging its bound
aries, so as to render it at once an
example and fit instrument for intro
ducing tin; same absolute rule into
For taking away our charters, abol
ishing our most valuable laws, and
altering fundamentally the forms of
For suspending our own legislatures,
and declaring themselves invested
with power to legislate for us in all
He has abdicated government here,
by declaring us out of his protection,
and waging war against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged
our coasts, burnt our towns, and de
stroyed the lives of our people.
He is, at this time, transporting
large armies of foreign mercenaries
to complete the wrorks of death, deso
lation, and tyranny, already begun,
with circumstances of cruelty and per
fidy, scarcely paralleled in the most
barbarous ages, and totally unworthy
the head of a civilized nation.
lie has constrained our fellow-
citizens, taken captive on the high
seas, to bear arms against their
country, to become the executioners
of their friends and brethren, or to
fall themselves by their hands.
He. has excited domestic insurrec
tions amongst us, and has endeavored
to bring on the inhabitants of our
frontiers, the merciless Indian sav
ages, whose known rule of warfare is
an undistinguished destruction of all
nges, sexes, and conditions.
In every stage of these oppressions
hr-tve petitioned for redress in the
niofi humble terms: our repeated peti
tions have been answered only by re
peated injury. A prince whose char
acter is thus marked by every act
which may define a tyrant, is unfit to
bo the ruler of a free people.
Nor have wc been wr.nting in atten
tion to our British brethren. We have
warned them, from time to time, of
attempts by their legislature to extend
an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.
We have reminded them of the cir
cumstance's of our emigration and set
tlement here. We have appealed to
their native justice and magnanimity,
and we have conjured them by the
ties of our common kindred to dis
avow these usurpations, which would
inevitably interrupt our connexions
and, correspondence. They, too, have
been deaf to the voice of justice and
of consanguinity. We must, therefore,
acquiesce in the necessity which de
nounces our separation and hold them,
as we hold the rest of mankind, en
emies in war, in peace, friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives
of the United States of America, in
General Congress assembled, appeal
ing to the Supreme Judge of the world
for the rectitude of our intentions, do,
in the name, and by the authority of
the good people of these Colonies,
solemnly publish and declare: That
these United Colonies, are, and of right
ought to be, free and independent
States; that they are absolved from
all allegiance to the British crown,
and that all political connexion be
tween them and the State of Great
Britain is, and ought to be, totally
dissolved; and that as free and in
dependent States, they have full power
to levy war, conclude peace, contract
alliances, establish commerce, and to
do ail other acts and things which
independent States may of right do.
And for the support of this declara
tion, with a firm reliance on the pro
tection of Divine Providence, we mu
tually pledge to each other our lives,
our fortunes, and our sacred honor.
Georgia Button Gwinnet, Lyman
If in, Geo. Walton.
South Carolina Edward Rutledgc,
Thos. Hcyward, junr., Thomas Lynch,
junr., Arthur Middleton.
Virginia George Wythe, Richard
Henry Lee, Thos. Jefferson, Benj.
Harrison, Thos. Nelson, Jr., Francis
Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton.
Delaware Caesar Rodney, Geo.
Read, Tho. M'Kcan.
New Jersey Richd. Stockton, Jno.
W'itherspoon, Fras. Hopkinson, John
H..-M-I. Abra. Clark.
Massachusetts Bay Saml. Adams,
John Adams, Robt. Treat Paine, El
North Carolina Win. Hooper, Jo
seph Hewes, John Penn.
Maryland Samuel Chase, Wm.
Paca, Thos. Stone, Charles Carroll of
Pennsylvania Robt. Morris, Ben
jamin Rush, Benja. Franklin, John
Morton, Geo. Clymer, Jas. Smith, Geo.
Taylor, James Wilson, Geo. Ross.
New York ATra, Floyd, Phil. Liv
ingston, Fran's. Lewis, Lewis Morris.
New Hampshire Josiah Bartlett,
Wm. Whipple, Matthew Thornton.
Rhode Island and Providence, etc.
Step. Hopkins, William Ellery.
Connecticut Roger Sherman, Saml.
Huntington, Wm. Williams, Oliver
January 18, 1777.
That an authenticated copy of the
Declaration of Independesce, with the
names of the Members of Congress
subscribing the same, be sent to each
of the United States, and that they be
desired to have, the same put on
By order of Congress.
Attest, Chas. Thomson, Secy.
A true copy,
John Hancock, Presidt.
YOUNG FOLKS i
THE PIPE OF PEACE.
Etiquette of the Calumet Observed by
tho American Indian.
When you read an account of tho
conclusion of a treaty with the In
dians you are pretty sure to find that
the calumet was brought out and hand
ed around. The calumet is a pipe of
peculiar construction. The bowl Is of
red sandstone, and the stem Is of reed,
about tAvo and a half feet long. The
stem is decorated with women's hair
and feathers, which hang from it like
This pipe is the famous "pipe of
peace," used by the American Indian.
After a treaty has been concluded tho
pipe is produced and filled with to
bacco. It is then handed to the repre
sentatives of the party with whom the
treaty has been made, and they must
take at least one whiff of It. It is
afterward passed around among tho
Indians present, who also take a whiff
of it, and that ceremonial ratifies and
makes sacred the compact that has
just been entered into. The passing
around of tho calumet is an act of
hospitality, and a refusal to take it is
considered a dire offense. Chicago
A Fireside Game.
Word guessing is a good game to
play in the evening. One of the play
ers thinks of a word and says, "I have
a word of six letters; the first letter is
'g' and the last is 'a.' "
The guessers are allowed to ask any
questions they like, which the leader is
bound to answer, if ho can do so with
out actually telling the word. The
player who guesses the word correctly
chooses tho next one, and a prize isi
won by the player guessing the largest
number of words.
An Order For the Grocer.
Good morning, Mr. Grocer Boy! My or
der's long today.
My pantry's nearly empty now, becauso
I've been away.
I want a pound of nice white Hour and
yeast to make some bread,
Ten pounds of currants for a cake, some
icing powder red.
Of butter give me half a pound, of sugar
most a ton.
1 must make candy right away, before
tho morning's done.
Potatoes? Why, of course I don't. And
codfish? No, indeed!
You interrupt and bother me. I know tha
things I neeil.
V quart of strong vanilla bring, and hon
ey, too. and spice,
K pound of nutmeg don't forget it make3
things tu?t.e so nice.
! want ten dozen freshest eggs, soma
nd apples, 'bout a peek or two; some
dumplings I must steam.
ni tak a bor. of oranges and chocolate,
And desiccated cocoanut such lovely
things it makes!
Now, hurry up my order, please. I want
them very soon,
I can set them all copked up by
luncheon time this noon.
Youth3 Companion, j
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