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THE LABOR STANDARD, JAWAUX 10ip. STANDARD OF LIVING If Set by the Cheapest Man So ciety Retrogrades. LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND A False and Specious Doctrine That Trades Unionism Resents Based on Greed and Desire to Profit at Hu manity's Expense. It has been a pet phrase of those who favor low wages that "the law of supply and demand" must, In the nat ural order of events, control the labor market if there are three men for the one job, then the one who will work for the smallest sum is properly en titled to the situation. Civilization advances as the people move forward. All that retards prog ress is a handicap. If living condi tions are to have a standard set by the cheapest man, whose individual needs may be of such a nature as to preclude the home life of a community from following its normal way, then the people of the era will suffer and the backward tendency become more marked as time goes on. Time and again have employers en deavored to impress this specious cry of "supply and demand" on their em ployees. Trades unionism resents the doctrine and in so doing is proving of service to all. There are recognized among thinking men and women certain requisites nec essary to enable our present day civ ilization to be tolerable. One of these is a wage sufficient to provide for the home and those living therein. While we live under a competitive system t hat, it is hoped, will be imprjo.vcd as '"time goes on, it is desirable that we should make the most of the work at hand. In objecting to the "Jaw of sup ply and demand" we are making no false move, for it is based primarily ou greed and the deeire to save or make money even at the expense of the community. life. At the present time unfortunately there are thousands of men and wo men without employment. It might be possible to reduce wages because of this condition. If this were done there wouldn't be any more work to be ob tained as a result, and merchants and mechanics would suffer. There is a persistent and growing demand for educational facilities, for reasonable leisure, for books and pic tures, for a home with all the civiliz ing influences. Setting its face sternly against all these is the "law of supply and demand." There isn't an employer who takes advantage of periods of depression who would not resent encroachments on his home life. We will admit that the man in business frequently suffers severely from dull times. We are not now considering the problem of mak ing money, but the larger issue of whether the children should be prop erly fed and educated and whether the mother should be secure in providing for the household needs. From every standpoint the- econom ic, the sociological and the humanita rianthere come objections to the "law of supply and demand" as ap plied to men, women and children. The latter have long been victims to the "law," and the searchlight has re vealed the need of preventing loss of life and stunted moral and physical growth. It is impossible to measure human life by the yardstick of the dry goods store or the weight, of the gro cer's commodities. There are so many essential things to be considered that this article of protest has hardly been able to do more than touch the sur face: Painter od Decorator. THE DIAMOND WORKERS. By New Agreement Union Allows In crease of Apprentices. The diamond manufacturers of New York city have, been notified that a new labor agreement which will have an important effect on the future of the trade has just been formed in Am sterdam, Holland, the chief diamond cutting center of the world, says the Brooklyn Eagle. Under the new agree ment the manufacturers are allowed to introduce 2,200 apprentices into the factories in the next five years. Up to this time the Diamond Work ers' International union has allowed few apprentices under the belief that this policy kept up salaries. The 400 cutters and polishers in this city have been getting from $40 to $80 a week in busy times in accordance with agree ments made between the union and the Diamond Manufacturers' associa tion. Another concession made by the union is that diamond manufacturers may now include their sons or relatives among the 2,200 apprentices. Hitherto the workmen have generally preserved to themselves the privilege of selecting the apprentices, so. that the trade has been handed down from father to son for generations and kept to a great ex tent in the same families. Because of the high cost of diamonds no unnecestv sary risk is taken of an apprentice spoiling a stone, so his training is nec essarily slow and thorough and takes five or six years and often longer. The consent of the union to the in troduction of the large number of new apprentices was given only after the ! Amsterdam manufacturers had agreed ' to follow the New York city manufac turers in recognizing the eight hour l day. The Amsterdam factories, era j ploying altogether about 9,000 diamond workers, are to make the reduction in hours gradually, but all are to get the eight hour basis before the end of two years. The Right to Strike Upheld. Federal Judge Baker, sitting in In dianapolis, refused the American Tin Plate company's pica for an injunction against its striking employees at El wood, lnd. The decision is a radical departure from the custom of these courts. Judge Baker held that unionists had the right to strike, to present wage scales and induce others to join them. In answer to the company's claim that Elwood officials were not enforc ing the law, the court called attention to the company's failure to connect strikers, either directly or indirectly, with this condition. The workers' at torneys acknowledged sympathizers had jeered and in some cases had used insulting language, but Judge Baker agreed that the police authorities of Elwood must handle this phase of the question. The decision is squarely for the workers and is probably the first time a federal judge has thrown an injunc tion application out of court Canadian Unions Would Go Alone. Several of the trades unions of Otta wa, Canada, with a membership rising 20,000, recently effected an amalgama tion into what they termed a federa tion of labor. They take the ground that Canadian union men should act. independently of the international bog ies and accordingly have passed strong resolutions aimed at such international organizations. They will ask Sir Wilfrid Laurier to help . put legislation . on the statute books which will prevent American firms or individuals from working or taking contracts in Canada, and they, will also ask the minister of militia to help legislate to prevent members of J Canadian military bands from belong- ing to the International Federation of 1 Musicians. Brooklyn Eagle. WHAT THEY THINK OF TRADE UNIONS Opinions of Statesmen, Schol ars, Theologians and Other Authorities. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Capftal is the fruit of labor, and could not exist if labor had not first existed. Labor, therefore, deserves much the higher consideration. CARDINAL MANNING. Labor is capital. Labor has the same right to protect itself by trade unions, etc., as any other form of capital might claim for itself. THOROLD ROGERS, Professor of Political Economy, University of Oxford. I look to the trade unions as the principal means of benefiting the con dition of the working classes. JUDGE BLAND, Of Appellate Court of Missouri. Trade unions are authorized by our statutes and are approved and sup ported by the enlightened sentiment of all right-thinking men, and their bene fits, both to their members and the general public, are seen and appre ciated by every unprejudiced mind. WENDELL PHILLIPS. 1 rejoice at every effort workingmen make to organize. I hail the labor movement. It is my only hope for democracy. Organize and .stand together. Let the nation hear a united demand from the laboring voice. ERNEST HOWARD CROSBY, President Social Reform Club, New York. No wage-earner is doing his full duly if lie fails to identify bis own in terests with those of his fellow work men. The obvious way to make com mon cause with them is to join n trade union, and thus secure a posi tion from which to strengthen organ ized labor and influence it for the bet ter. BISHOP POTTER. Organization, co-ordination, co-operation, are the right of every body of men whose aims are worthy and equit able; and must needs be the resource of those who, individually, are unable to persuade their fellow men to rec ognize the justice of their claims and principles. If employed within lawful and peaceful limits, it may rightly hope to be a means of educating so ciety in a spirit of fairness and prac tical brotherhood. WILLIAM E. GLADSTONE. Trade unions are the bulwarks of modern democracies. DR. McKIM, Pastor, Church of Epiphany of Wash ington, D. C. Consider what organized labor has clone to improve the condition of the workingmen. Seventy or eighty years ago the condition of laborers in the factories was far worse than the con dition of the slaves in the south. I have lived in the south and I know that the material condition of the slaves was better. In 18&2-33, in many of the mills in this country, the woi men and children had to go to work at 4:30 o'clock in the morning, and to continue at work fourteen or fifteen hdurs a day. Labor organizations have done a ' splendid work, and I honor them. They have been lifting up the masses of the people, who are not con tented any more. Their ambition is aroused to be men and women, and their song is: "Eight hours for work; eight hours for sleep, and eight hours to do what we will." I do not say whether in the present conditions of labor the eight-hour day is always attainable; but all these things are to be judged by the effect they have on manhood and womanhood. They want some time to look away from their work out on the great world, and to breathe the pure air of heaven; they want some time with their falmilies; and, therefore, their discontent is healthful. POTTER PALMER. For ten years I made as desperate a fight against organized labor as was ever made by mortal man. It cost me considerably more than a million dollars to learn that there is no labor ;so skilled, so intelligent, so faithful as that which is governed by an organ ization whose officials are well-balanced, level-headed men. COMMISSIONER DOWLING, In Report From Bureau of Labor Statistics. It is clear that the working people of the state (New York) have reaped innumerable benefits through the in fluence of the associations devoted to their interests. Wages have been in creased; working time has been re duced; the membership rolls have been largely augmented; distressed mem bers have received pecuniary relief; general conditions have been improved and labor has been elevated to a high position in-tlio swial scale. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT. Time was, as the last speaker has most eloquently said, when everybody who employed labor was opposed to the labor union, when it was regarded as a menace. That time. I am glad to say, has largely passed away, and the man to-day who opposes' an organiza tion of labor should be relegated to the last century. It has done marvels for labor and will doubtless do more. JOHN K. INGRAM, LL.D. Attacked and denounced as scarcely any other institution ever has been, the unions have thriven and grown in the face of opposition. This healthy vi tality has been due to the fact that they were a genuine product of social needs indispensable as a protest and a struggle against the abuses of in dustrial government, and inevitable as a consequence of that consciousness of strength inspired by the concentra tion of "numbers under the new condi tions of industry. They have been, as is now admitted by almost all candid minds, instruments of progress. Not to speak of the material advantages they have gained for working men, they have developed powerful sym pathies among them, and taught them the lesson of self-sacrifice in the in terest of their brethren, and, still more, of their successors. They have brought Eionie of the best men to the front and given them the ascendency due to their personal qualities and desirable in the interests of society. . . The price of .The Labor Stand ard is 50 cents per year, mailed to your home. Send in your Subscrip tion direct, or give it to the Secretary, of your Union to forward for you. The strength and happiness of a man consists m finding tlje way of duty and walking: therein.TH3oeeh.er.