CONNECTICUT 1 WORKMAN
Published every Thursday afternoon in the
interests of the several Trades Unions in
AH communications should be addressed to
Labor and Trades Union Journals are in
2nvited to exchange with the Workman.
We would be pleased to receive correspond
ence from union men. Copy should be re
ceived not later than Monday for appearance
3n that week's issue.
Publication Office, Housatonic Avenue and
Gold Street, Bridgeport. Conn.
October 24, 1901.
In publishing the CONNECTICUT
WORKMAN the publishers hope to
Shave the hearty co-operation of all the
labor unions in the Nutmeg State. "We
tare in a position to place before the
public a journal that will reflect credit
mpon the labor movement: Our first
fluty to you is to explain its position.
Within the last few years we have
"Witnessed a phenomenal growth in
.trades unionism; in fact, greater than
our most earnest expectations. Is it
aiot necessary that such a body of peo
ple banded together for mutual pro
jection should be represented by an
organ in which to voice their senti
anents, air their grievances and place
themselves in closer communion?
That is our object.
The CONNECTICUT WORKMAN
"will be printed in the interests of
minions and union men. Its writers will
1b men of experience in the labor
movement, men whom you can trust
and believe in. From time to time we
TOill treat our readers to correspon
dence from national and international
leaders. Samuel Oompers, the nation
al president of the American Federa
tion of Labor, will be one of our con
tributors. The local field will be well
taken care of by men in every section
f the state. Particular attention will
Tie paid to labor notes rthat will inter
sf Everybody " 7" "
If we believe right, this is the first
time that the labor .movement in this
state has been represented by a weekly-
publication, and we hope our efforts
will be appreciated.
Politics will play no part in the col
jximns of the WORKMAN, unless it be
comes necessary for the advancement
of the labor cause.
We present to our readers this week
the first of a series of articles, written
ly prominent state leaders. We are in
debted to the state president of the
Connecticut Branch of the Federation
f Labor, the Hon. I. A. Sullivan, of
Hartford, for his digest on "The Pro
agress of Labor Unions," to be found
elsewhere in our columns.
The publishers of the WORKMAN
will be pleased at any time ito receive
3iews items or reviews of the labor
question from any one connected with
We intend to publish a newspaper
that will meet with the approval of
every trade union in the state, there
fore, we invite our, readers to speak
to their fellow workers through these
ADIEU, BROTHERS CROSBY AND
We are pained to learn that the Con
necticut Craftsman has lost its valued
and trustworthy editors, Owing to the
pressure of other business interests
Brothers Godkin and Crosby, this
anonth, sever their connection with
the journal that has done much to up
lift the cause of labor in the different
sections of the state.
The files of the Craftsman bear wit
ness to the fidelity of these gentle
men, whose witness on the labor sit
uation have gained for them a reputa
tion, extending beyond the boundary
r their own state.
While we dislike to lose such shin
ing lights from the field of journalism
ire must feel gratified to think that
Jboth gentlemen will not remove from
ur midst, and we hope to hear from
them in the future.
We extend to Brothers Godkin and
Crosby our heartiest sincerity in their
new vocations, and hasten to assure
them that if their success depends on
liard work, they will succeed in their
JIR. PATRICK CHARTERS.
Alderman Christopher Charters, of
Ansonia, will probably be the nominee
on the Democratic ticket for mayor at
the coming election. Mr. Charters is a
tmion man and is deserving of election.
If nominated his election is positive.
The union men of Ansonia remember
the treatment they received at the
Farrll foundry strike, by the Republi
can party. Let every workingman ral
ly to the support of Brother Charters
tnd deal the injunctionists of Ansonia
a black eye. Show the public that the
union men are a factor.
The convention of the State Branch
of the American Federation of Labor
took up the Charters case and passed
resolutions to free that gentleman
from the charge against him.
Success to you, Brother Charters.
Our state was honored last week by
a visit from President Roosevelt, who
wa3 a guest at the bi-centennial cele
bration at Yale College.
Be sure that new Fall suit you are
contemplating buying has a label on
it. Your hat, too. Your dealer won't
charge anything extra, and you'll get
the benefit, of good workmanship.
The patrolmen of Bridgeport are en
gineering a deal whereby they will re
ceive as much pay as those doing duty
in sister cities. We would suggest
that an organizer be sent to that city
to explain the virtues of unionism.
Union men should be up and doing
at any and all times. Insist on the
union label, whether you are buying
a hat or a smoke. When ordering your
printing be careful to bring it to a
fair shop. t Label goods cost no more
than cheap goods. Inaction brings
stagnation, is an old and wise saying.
Let every member of a trades union
take heed and push the label.
WANTED NON-UNION PLUMBER.
None but temperate man need apply.
Address- Plumber, this office.
We clipped the above from an unfair
Bridgeport paper. Such lessons should
spur honest men to stamp out the
word non-union. A man who is in
telligent enough to be . a plumber
should be sensible enough to see the
benefit of unionism, and make appli
cation to the nearest local.
Our representative will call on the
different unions, in the near future,
soliciting subscriptions for the WORK
MAN. That is the one favor we ask
of the union man. And we guarantee
to give him a newsy paper in return.
We would be pleased to have the sec
retaries of the different locals send us
some local information; election of of
ficers, etc. Address CONNECTICUT
WORKMAN, Bridgeport, Ct.
OF INTEREST TO UNIONS.
Trades unions in-all parts, of the
country interested in union label stat
utesifljndjgrdinfln cejs will. findtitjuW
tion In the experience of some of the
hodies at Lowell. Mass. Chapter 415 of
the laws of Massachusetts of 189C pro
vides that all material and supplies for
the city of Lowell shall be purchased
by the chief of the department of sup
plies, subject to the approval of the
mayor, and that neither the "city coun
cil nor either branch thereof shall di
rectly or indirectly take part in the pur
chase of material," with certain excep
tions not pertinent to the case before
the court, "nor shall they' or either of
them take part in the making of con
tracts." An ordinance was passed in
December, 1900, by the common coun
cil of the city that all printed matter
for the city should thereafter bear the
Imprint of the union label. In conform
ity with the terms of this ordinance a
contract was awarded to a company
which was not the lowest bidder, but
which had the right to use the union la
bel. Suit was brought against the city
officials to enjoin the payment of mon
ey by the city under the contract on the
ground that it was illegal. This- was
the view taken by the supreme court,
which held (Goddart et al. versus City
of Lowell et al.) that the ordinance of
the city council was invalid as being
directly in conflict with the statute first
cited. The state and the municipal end
of the union label agitation will both
have to be looked after.
. According to the report prepared by
Secretary. Frank Morrison for submis
sion to the American Federation of La
bor at the annual meeting in Decem
ber at Scranton, Pa., the past year has
shown great accessions to the ranks of
labor. It has been generally supposed
1900 would prove the record year of or
ganization, but the American Federa
tion's official indicates that 1901 will
beat it. Organizers have been active
in all sections of the country, and the
result has been a substantial increase.
The number affiliating with the Fed
eration of Labor is approximately
1,500,000, New York showing the lar
gest membership, something over 230,
000, Illinois coming second, with more
than 150,000 on the rolls. Since the
beginning of the year there has been
the greatest activity In the building in
dustry in all portions of the country,
many advances in wages being record
ed, while almost every branch of labor
has held its own. The principal strikes
Inaugurated have been those of the ma
chinists for the nine hour day and that
of the Amalgamated association for
recognition of their organization. Tho
machinists claim to have been in a
large measure successful, while the
steel workers have failed. The total
number of organized workers affiliated
and nonaffiliated with the American
Federation is estimated at upward of
2,000,000. j, .
Smokers! Don't forget the blue label.
Advertise in the WORKMAN.
The cigar makers unions of New York
through Jhe editor of a local German
paper have received a letter from the
cigar makers of Key West, Fla., de
scribing the adventures of the strike
leaders who were kldnapfd by the ene
mies of the cigar makers' unions at
Tampa and taken in a schooner to a
desert island, where the strike leaders
narrowly escaped death by starvation.
Among the strike leaders were sixTf
Spaniards, six Cubans and one English
man. The Cubans and the Englishman
were naturalized American citizens.
Francisco Rodriguez, Ramon Pignero,
Luis Barcia, Revino Prieto, Jose Feugo,
Pedro Carellas, Estanislaus Lanza,
Eustacio Valdaz, Bailio Paronda and
Charles Kelly after their escape from
the island were found to be suffering
severely from hunger.
Luis Barcia testifies that he was pull
ed out of bed at midnight and that his
wife died of fright as a result of her
husband's forced departure.
Barcia was put into a closed wagon
and taken to a railroad depot, where Jie
was placed in an electric car. Eight of
his fellow strikj' lenders who, had been
taken prisoners with him were locked
up in a rear compartment of the car.
The prisoners were taken to Ballast
point, several miles west of Tampa, on
Hillsborough bay. Four other strike
leaders who were members of Resist
ancia, the cigar makers' union, were
taken to Ballast point through a dense
fog. ' "
A freight steamer was waiting to
take the prisoners to sea.
Without much ado the thirteen strike
leaders were hustled aboard the freight
steamer, and amid a storm of jeers and
mocking cheers from the kidnapers,
who were prominent citizens of Tampa,
the steamer sailed away.
A schooner known as the Marie Coop
er was soon sighted. The prisoners
were put aboard this vessel and in sev
en days were taken to an island,, where
they were dumped out with a box of
soda crackers, a couple of hams, two
boxes of smoked beef and two gallons
After days of wandering the strike
leaders, their . provisions gone, could
hardly crawl, so weak were they from
Some of them were at the point of
death when they were discovered by an
Indian, who, bringing assistance from
a plantation, saved the lives cf the ma
rooned labor leaders.
Of the whole number of strikes, 1S9,
in Massachusetts last year 10 were, oc
casioned by questions relating to hours
of labor alone, 2S to hours of labor and
wages taken together, 90 related to
wages alone, the remaining Gl being
occasioned by a variety of cause:
succeeded, 10 partially succeeded!
were compromised. 14 satisfactorily a
Justed, 74 failed, and 4 were pendi
nt tabTlOaenDfnlre jeaT,-vulle-w
erenee to 9 the result of the co;
was not stated. Expressed In perce
age, 28.4 per cent of the contests
mlnated successfully for the employ
ees, 5.29 per cent succeeded partially,.
13.23 per cent were compromised, 7.41
per cent were satisfactorily adjusted.
39.15 per cent failed. 2.12 per cent were
pending at the close of the year, and in
4.7G per cent of the cases the result
was not stated. There was more trou
ble in the boot and shoe industry than
in any other trade, the number of
strikes being 40. ' " " - ,
Every combine of wealth that was
successful enough to get control of la
bor has started in or degenerated into
oppression of labor and has grown less
capable of being fair or businesslike
until it had to be swept aside as an ob
stacle to progress.
On the other hand, every successful
combine of labor by which, on the
whole, the share of the wage earner
in his product has been increased has
bettered his country and the race and
almost uniformly increased the ulti
mate returns to capital in the product
most directly affected.
The general tendency of wealth in
power has always been to degrade la
bor; that of labor in power to protect
and respect wealth.
It is the wage earners of our country
whose protection gives value, to the
wealth of our trust capitalists.
In short, the few are more safe inthe
hands of the many than are the many
In the hands of the few.
CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT.
The American Federation of Labor
has decided to fight for the re-enactment
of the Chineseexclusion act. Its
executive council, after a full discus
sion of the important subject, has in
structed President Gompers to direct
all the labor influence that can be
brought to bear from various parts of
the United States upon congress at its
next session. A committee of repre
sentative workingmen will be stationed
at Washington this winter to work
for the extension of the exclusion law,
and mass meetings of wage earners
and small -business men will be called
in various cities to adopt resolutions
favoring a continuance of the anti-Chinese
attitude of the American govern
ment. FACTORY BURNED.
Meriden, Oct. 27. Fire Friday night
damaged the buffing department of C.
Rogers & Bros.' silver factory to the
extent of ?2,000. On account of a rush
of orders the managers of the factory
estimate that the fire will mean a loss
of at least $8,000, through delays in
finishing work. The burned building
and contents were insured.
Labor and Capital
Resolutions Adopted by the
Convention at San
The adoption by the Episcopal Tri-
ennial Convention at San Francisco of
Dr. McKim's resolutions providing for
the creation of a standing Committee
on the Relations of Capital and Labor,
brings the aspirations of leading writ
ers far toward practical realization.
Under this plan there will be a per
manent commission, consisting of
three bishops, three presbyters and
three laymen. It will be the duty of
this body "to study carefully the aims
and purposes of the labor organiza
tions of our country," to investigate
the causes of industrial disturbances
as they arise, and to be prepared to
act as arbitrators, "with a view to
bring about mutual conciliation and
harmony in the spirit of the Prince of
That is a rainbow of promise for
our distracted social system. The
church is the natural agency for the
promotion of harmony among classes,
for it is the one organization in which
all classes are united upon a footing
of unselfishness and mutual confi
dence. You could not expect a Chamber of
Commerce or a Bankers' Association
to take the lead in creating a system
of arbitration, for the workingmen
would not trust it. They would see
in it only a group of capitalists trying
to get in one way what they had not
been able to get in another.
Nor could you expect employers to
take enthusiastically to a scheme of
conciliation devised by a labor union.
It would seem to them merely a walk
ing delegates' trick.
In the State, indeed, all classes are
united. Employers and employes alike
vote for public officials, and if our pol
itics were honestly managed State ar
bitration might be the solution of the
difficulty. But politicians are gener
ally supposed to be working for their
own advantage, and hence, when they
interfere , in labor disputes, they are
not usua"y trusted by either side.
But in the church men stand on a
different footing. There they come to
gether, not for personal profit, but for
spiritual elevation. All are face to
face with God, in whose presence the
trivial distinctions of human society
shrivel into nothingness. Pierponc
Morgan and his coachman meet as
equals, and one called and consecrated
to the service of a power that is no
respecter of persons ministers to them
both. Here, if anywhere, it should be
possible to find the means by which
the petty differences that vex us hu
man insects in our moment of life on
earth may be reconciled.
"You must, first of all," said Bishop
Potter in one of his public writings on
the labor question, "provide a sound
' knd gkt is precisely- where . the
church can do its most effective work.
A sound public opinion is one that de
mands justice, that scorns trickery
and that is warmed by an all-embracing
- sympathy. Such an opinion can
not be created by the representatives
of contending interests, but it may be
created by a body which exists for the
sole purpose of promoting the good of
Genuine peace, it must be remem
bered, cannot come through mere ex
ternal arbitration. If two parties agree
to submit a dispute to a third, and
the arbitrator, after hearing them
wrangle, renders a decision, the award
may be accepted by both, but this sub
mission . does not necessarily mean
harmony. The beaten party may be
as bitten as ever, and may be only
waiting for a good chance to renew
For the peace to be real it must be
not merely imposed upon the parties,
and not merely accepted by them, but
must actually please them. Each side
must feel that it has been fairly treat
ed. And the most useful function of
such a body as the Episcopal Conven
tion has just created will be to inspire
in each side such a regard for justice
that it will be satisfied with what an
impartial arbitrator can honestly
The first commission appointed un
der the new Episcopal resolutions will
command the confidence of capitalists
and laborers alike. Bishop . Potter, of
New York; Bishop Lawrence, of Mas
sachusetts; Bishop-Coadjutor Ander
son, of Chicago; the Rev. Randolph
McKim, of Washington; the Rev.
George Hodges, of Massachusetts: the
Rev. Charles D. Williams, of Ohio;
Seth Low and Jacob A. Riis, of New
York, and Samuel Maher, of Ohio, form
a Board of Conciliation whose opinion
on any labor question would come
very near to being conclusive.
The example of the Episcopal
Church has been followed by the Civic
Federation, whose industrial depart
ment is to meet in this city on the
16th and 17th of December to discuss
the relations between labor and capi
tal. Among the members of this body
are Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop Ire
land, Bishop Potter, Seth Low, Charles
Francis Adams, the president of a
number of important manufacturing
and transportation companies, Carroll
D. Wright, United States Commission
er of Labor; Samuel Gompers, presi
dent of the American Federation of
Labor and the presidents of most of
of the principal trades unions in the
The movement so auspiciously start
ed must spread. Every church should
have its National Commission on La
bor and Capital. Many prelates and
clergymen do faithful work in labor
disputes now, but when they appear
as individuals they cannot accomplish
what they could if they spoke by the
formal authority of their churches.
The Church, in all its branches, is
the greatest voluntary organization in
America. Its clergy are an army, its
houses of worship would make a
mighty city, its wealth is incalculable.
Its meshes cover the whole land. In
the city slum, in the exclusive pre
serves of wealth, in the remotest
mountain hamlet, it has the means
of carrying its messages instantly to
INIMICAL TO LABOR.
Snch Are Trusts, Says Orrln TV. Pot
ter, and He Scores Thetoi.
Orrin W. Potter, the Chicago million
aire and f oimer president of the Illinois
Steel company, has declared against
Mr. Potter's two daughters, Gertrude
Potter Daniels and Margaret Horton
Potter, are known as the authors of
several books, and In some of these pro
ductions the socialist spirit has been
given such prominence as to arouse
comment among those who knew of the
wealth and social position of the fam
ily. Mr. Potter said:
"I resigned as president of the Illi
nois Steel company when it entered a
trust. Trusts are inimical to the rights
of the laboring man.
"I cannot consistently hold a position
which would force me to put into exe
cution measures of which my con
science cannot approve.
"Our system of taxation is infernal.
What people are given to calling the
middle and lower classes know this,
and they are getting ripe for a revolu
tion. They will not continue to live un
der such a system. I am only taxed
$500 for my house. It is wrong and
should be taxed much more.
"I was in New York recently, and
while walking along Broadway I had
to stop a moment at the corner of
Twenty-third street to allow a car
riage to pass. It was a fine carriage
drawn by a pair of splendid horses. A
liveried coachman drove, and a liveried
footman was in attendance. The car
riage was open. Upon the rear seat
sat a becapped French maid. Upon
the seat beside her, sitting upon its
haunches, was a blanketed dog. That
dog was being driven out or an air
ing, and the maid was In attendance
upon his dogship.
"While I stopped I looked beyond the
carriage and saw a workingman car
rying a baby and accompanied by his
wife standing on the crossing. They
were facing me, and their progress
had been checked like mine by the
passing of the carriage. The working
man was clean, but threadbare. He
looked hungry, and his wife looked
worn. The babe looked strong and
well. In the three faces was the story
of the sacrifice for the sake of the little
"I saw that workingman look at the
splendid equipage that was passing.
He looked at the coachman, the foot
man, the maid and, lastly, the dog. I
saw something come into that man's
eyes, and I saw his lips grow firm. I
knew what it was that was looking put
of his eyes, and I say that if the look
had been put into spoken words they
wotild have found an echo In my heart.
"I have taken the word of fifty men,
representing 10,000 wageworkers, with
out a word of writing to bind them to
what they had agreed and was as well
satisfied with their word as I would
have been with the word of the fif tj
foremost business men of Chicago." -,
, A Pittslmrs Plan. ; "'
The Building Trades council of Pitts
burg will shortly put in operation a
plan whereby it hopes to minimize dis
putes between builders and employees
and to avoid strikes. Each trade rep
resented in the council has an author
ized business agent whose duty it is to
visit all works to ascertain if the union
scale and union rules are being regard
ed. Upon them falls the responsibili
ty of causing strikes. The council It
self will hereafter have a sole repre
sentative net identified with any par
ticular trade whose duty it will be to
visit architects and builders. The
Building Trades council will ask them
to specify union labor wherever prac
ticable. None of the local architects
has been advised of this plan, but it is
understood that the idea will meet with
a favorable reception. When a struc
ture is to be erected under a tight time
limit, it is to the advantage of the
builder to avoid labor contentions and
delays of all kinds.. Once the plans
and specifications have passed into the
hands of the contractor the architect
is not liable for the late completion "f
the structure. The responsibility falls
upon the contractor. The council main
tains that the plan will work to the in
terests of all trades and contractors. ,
Employers Against Unionism.
The principle of the Employers' asso
ciation and when , I speak of the Em
ployers' association I mean practically
all the capital in the city of San Fran
cisco engaged in the wholesale and
manufacturing business and. I am
afraid, the banks also is that unionism
must be destroyed. They are not think
ing of this union or that union or of the
other union, they are not thinking of
tho teamsters or porters or packers, but
they are thinking simply of unionism,
and the principle upon which they
start out, the principle on which they
are rooted and founded, the principle
on which to give the devil his due or
rather to give the devils their due, for I
believe there are many of them, the
principle which they so persistently
stand up for, is that unionism must be
destroyed and that there must be no
comDromlse. with unionism. - -
the people and stirring them to sys
What could not such a tremendous
force do if it were effectively directed
toward a single fend? Suppose the
Catholics and the Presbyterians and
the Methodists and the Baptists and
all the rest do what the Episcopalians
have done, and that then, after each
church has organized its own work
for social harmony, all of them co
operate in one grand central agency
that shall speak to the wrangling em
ployers and laborers with the voice of
concentrated religion. Would not
Christianity come very near then to
realizing the purpose for which its
founder was sent into the world
"Peace on earth, good will to men"?
New York Journal.
Ti man who returned $0,150 to th
unuuiitil treasury conscience fund ap
invirs to have a robust silent monitor.
' If seems that public hangings are
still permitted in Pennsylvania. Penn
sylvania should be too civilized for
that. Buffalo Express. ".
One of the most remarkable thing
about the baseball season is that the
umpires are all alive and in a reason
able state of health. Detroit Free
TLe life cf a Philadelphia man wast
saved by a $.10,000 roll of bills in his.
pocket, from which a bullet deflected.
Wealth is not without its advantages.
If the world concludes to put all its.
anarchists together on an - island, it
might not be a bad plan to send along
such college students as insist on hav
ing the privilege of hazing. Omaha.
England has been so unfortunate
with her vessels that were named aft
er reptiles that it might be wise to give
tho new boats the names of birds. Six
teen of the reptilian craft have come to
grief. Chicago Post.
A Brooklyn man lived without miss-
ing his stomach for fourteen months
after the surgeons had removed it. It
was nothing remarkable. Many men
never know that they are without
brains. New York World. .
THE WHIRL OF FASHION.
Russet and golden brown cloth gowns
are to be in prominent vogue this sea
son. Bodices dip a little in front, and there--'
is an extra length to the waist line, but
Fobs or the watch are In fashion
again for women, and they are worn
tucked through the belt.
Colonial gray is the newest of tho
new tints of this very fashionable col
or. It is not so becoming as it is novel
for there is not a hint of either rose,
cream or fawn in the shade.
Moufflon is one of the furs which are'
coming out In new combinations .this
year. It is used with the aristocratic
chinchilla. Collars of this beautiful
fur, long and short, are seen with
" One of the latest novelties In trim
ming dress skirts is to set a double fes
toon of lace galloons all around ' the
skirt. The galloons should be made to
meet at some point, then separate In '
wavy arcs, then meet again, and so on
around the dress.
Ermine is put to many uses this year.
There is nothing more charming when
properly used and nothing more ag-
worn. Ermine is a fur which is
spicuous and, to use a slang phrc
little of it goes a long way."
A - 'THE iARTISTj
Theodore Chartran the French por
trait painter, is said to have earned
more money during his first short , visit
to the United States than during all
the rest of thls previous career.
The Danish artist P. S. Krover spent
part of the past summer at Aulestad, t
where" he painted a portrait of Bjorn
son. It is a life size picture" and Is to
be exhibited first in Norway and t at
Copenhagen. - V
It now appears that Ernest Seton
Thompson's name is Ernest l3van Se
ton. A short time ago it was stated"
that his name was Ernest Thompson
Seton, but the Thompson seems to be
an assumed name.
Vereschagin.the noted Russian paint
er of war scenes, has returned from
China, where he went some time ago
for new material. He will paint a
series of pictures of the Chinese war,
which will be exhibited throughout
.Walter Crane, the decorative artist
Is one of the most talented men in Eng
land. Tie Is a teacher and writer In
art, a book illustrator, a painter, a de
signer of furniture, glass, mosaic, watt
paper . and fabric. He is, besides, a
poet, lecturer and a fearless socialist.
FOWL AND THEIR FRUIT.
Weight and size are Important fac
tors in making fowls marketable.
An egg soon becomes stale in bad air
or in dry air charged with carbonic
acid. ' :-
If eggs are to be made a specialty
get some nonsitting breed, like the Leg
The better the breed the better the
feed, the better the care the better wil
bo the results.
For broilers you want a quick ma
ing breed that feathers young and
tains a good weight.
When long, silvery hairs are fo
extending beyond the feathers on
thighs and legs, it indicates health
As a general rule tlie long, po
eggs commonly called .rooster eg
not hatch so uniformly as tho
more oval shape.
COLLEGE AND SCHOO
Dr. D. B. Purlnton has been
president of the University of I
By the advice of eminent oculil
authorities of Munich have decil
longer to use gas or petroleum fc
Colorado college opens 4ts nef
vlth by far the largest student!
ment In its history, having COO sf
In all departments.
President James B. Angell
University of Michigan says
entire expense of his four yeari
at Brown university was only
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