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The Illinois free trader. (Ottawa, Ill.) 1840-1841, January 15, 1841, Image 2

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(jj-Wc tak? the following from the Troy Budget.
It is, asSiiinucI Weller would ay, " worry excel
lent, nnJ werry much to the point."
pay the rixivricit.
Original "Lw Tt ii ' A'"i."
Here cows winter, liere comes winter,
Storing of hail and snow ami ulcct
. Tuy the Printer, pay the Printer,
Let him warm his hands mid fui-l.
Hero comes winter, here comes wiutir,
Whitening every hill and dale ;
Pay the Printer, pay the Printer,
'Ntnd your money hy the mail,
ray the Printer, pay the Printer,
All remember his ju.t due.
In cold winter, iti cold winter,
He has wants us well a yon.
Merry winter, merry wiuli r
It will he if all do riijht;
Pay the Printer, pay the Printer.
Do the thin that is polite.
Happy winter, happy winter,
Hark the jiii.'r'linj; of the bells;
To the Printer, t the Printer,
What sa l tales their inline tells !
Ah! poor Printer! ah! po.ir Printer !
Your subscribers f.-;!ie a!l
' In the winter, in the winter,
Hut ne'er think f von lit all !
Wtnrrr A. Blie, l.lilo.s.
Olinwii, 111., I'ritl.iy, Jiiiiimry li, I'll.
i!. IIenlon's I.eller.
Semite C'mmhir, l).r. If!, 1 .!.
Drill Sib I nm glad to see thai vmi have
hoisted the Van liurcti lias for IS 1 1. This is
the third time, since the eoinmeneeiiii'iit of our
government, that the demoeraey have heen de
feated in a Presidential election, and I think the
party should do now as it has done hcrelofoic,
and 'immediately take up the defeated candidal-,
and move forward with hi. a without division ami
without falterin,;. This is the way. the deuioei i
cy acted in 17!H, when .Mr. Jell'crsoii was defea
ted by the elder Adams, and in 1 '!, when (.'en.
Jackson was defeated hy Mr. John IJ. Adams.
Ill each of the- eases the demoeraey, instead of
wasting their time in vain regrets, or weakening
themselves hy divisions, immediately took up their
defeated candidate, applied themselves to his
proper presentation heford the public, anil carried
him triumphantly through.' I am for following
the nauio course now, and can see, no reason for
an hour' if delay. For one, 1 am Tor Mr. Vnn
Uuren against the world, and that upon a full
view, and a full approbation of his conduct, public
and private, for twenty years past. I want no
belter candidate, no better President, no belter
man. I want no fairer trial for the democracy
thai) n second contest in his person will ullonl.
The late election I do not regard an scttliiiit the
question of party supremacy. It is a great victory
for the federalists, mid a great defeat for the de
mocracy, hut the line was not firly drawn be
tween them, and I repute n new trial before I
can -surrender the democratic cause. .1 want u
new trial in the person uf our defeated, but irre
proachable candidate, and look for the same re
sult in hi ease which the democracy of former
days found in the uecoiid trial of Mr. Jefferson
ami (Jen. Jackson.
Yours trul v,
The above letter wr.s written by Senator Hen
ton to the editor of the Cincinnati Advertiser, im
mediately after be hail hoisted the Van Uuren
flag for 1811. This is not the first time that this
distinguished statesman and i.teiliiii? democrat
has evinced tlu- disinterested motives which have
governed him in his public walks of life, and
which have k often ( licited the approbation and
gratitude of the Democracy. Placed by the gal
lant Stale which he represents in the councils of
the nation, be there stands in the front ranks of
the great Democratic party, whose confidence he
has and who glory in his principles ami actions,
and the views of no one lire more entitled to the
favorable consideration of the party than hi.
Well does Mr. IJ. bay '' want a new trial in
the person of our defeated, but i a HtPNo.u n t ui.r,
candidal'-." Yes, the Dcinoi rutic party want it
the parly that has been calumniated, misrepresen
ted, and insulted by huiroouery and dancing pup
pets, demand a "new trial" a fair and impartial
heating of an intelligent nation of frectn'Mi. The
rnotlo of our party is and ever has been, 'Pi iuei
p'.es, not Men," und the time has rome when it
honld be more strictly ihnu ever adhered to. All
a true democrat, wanU to know respecting his
candidate is, whether he is honest und capable,
and will curry out the fame principles that go
verned the party during the struggles of 'M and
'09. And where is the man that will av Martin
Van Buren doeg not po-sicss these qualification:) ?
He eunnot he found. Mr. Van Uuren's most vio
lent opponents themielvvS admit it. lie is the
troii5et:t man the party can place in nomination.
IPis principles are known, und so placed that he
"who runs may read," nud for them to be known
and fully ' understood is i.ulVuicnt to carry him
triutnphaut'y through the contest. With all the
base and contemptible means umde use of to e
cure his defeat, it wa but barely done by only a
few thousand votes.' Let us examine the re. nil
in four of the larj slates: Mr. Von Uuren lost
Maine by 113 votes: New York by 13,20; Penn
iyvftiiia, 313; N. Jersey, 2,2S8. In all, MilMV.
votes, and thene four state giving 00 electoral
vote, which, added to his GO, would make lot).
So that, in the face of all this tremendous boast
'iojff nil 'hi 'nighty c,oiiccntratioii of purty and
pipe-laying, if Martin Van Uuren had received but
8, 500 more vote in the above four states, Instead
of General Harrison, ho would have been cltteted,
eriu lut two electoral Vote to spare, The Cppo-
.' aitioH have thereforo auceeeded hy the 'kiu of
their teeth;" and when can they njruiii ruJIy un-
1-. Unnur ns llipv did uf. tbn Isnt plerlimi 1
UCI UIIV J " - "- - '
Never t tlicy have tho need of their own destruc
tion within tlicmselvM, and time only U required
to bring it forth.
Mr. Van Buren lining ihua placed before the
tarty which auatained him, on former occasions,
ahould not now be fcreakfn and haft to terminate
and justice demand that lie should have a "new
trial," and if, in that event, the party is fated again
to lc defeated, it rannol fall more gloriously and
with n belter and purer statesman, than with
Q'j-'I'he Saugamo journal is politely requested
to use the name of this paper more uiiderstan
dingtv hereafter, or we limy deem it expedient to
" draw n few of the e .lilnrV leeth."
Illinois l.caNliilnie.
The proceedings of this body, at the present
time, are not particularly inter, sting. W " select,
however, such items as are of a general character.
Sicniti. Dee. 30. Tlu joint resolution from
the house for the appointment of a e!cct com
mitleo to dral't a memorial to Congress, praying
th j passage of a law giving to actual s -tilers upon
the public lmds the right to enter an indefinite
iiiim!.er of contiguous 40 ucrcs, wa read and re-li.-rredto
tin1 Judiciary committee.
The joint resoluti t; lioin the liose, j.rovid.ng
t!iat at ill.' nel flection the pe iple be request' d
to vote lir or ag mist a onvention for the amend
ment of the Constitution, was read, and on mo
tion of Mr. Stailden laid oil the table.
Jtt. 2. Hill in relation to the Public Square
in the oi i jinal town of Ottawa, was read a second
time and ret'"ired to the Judiciary committee.
A communication from the (iovernor, traus
initlin.r a . tl- r from Messrs. Nevins, 'Jd-.vnseud
i' Co., N. V.. communicating the iiilvllieu. c ot
the failure of Wright C,i. London, agrut for the
sale of Illinois llonds; and alsi comuiiinieatim;
the further iuformiition that Maguiac, Smith iS.
f!.i. have entered into an arrangement with our
fun 1 commis. i nier, fir the paynnnt of the Janu
ary iiilerc.-t.
Mr. Sargent introduced a resolution direeliug
the eommitlee on Lie. li.ms to in piiif intotlie ex
jiedicuev of so aliieniling the present plan of vo
ting lira van- as to provide for the voting by b il
lot. Mr. (.'aleuood introduced a joint resolution
providing for a convention of the two houses, on
the 'llli inst. at 7 o'clock, P. M. for the jiurpt.se ul
cleclirig a Fund Commissioner.
The l.esolutioii was amended on motion of Mr.
Snyder, hy striking out "-lib'' and inserting '!lth"
instead end thus amended passed,
Jan.o. Mr. Snyder brought up the Hill for
the Keornaniation of the Judiciary, which he
sustained in a uiasleily manner. The bill pro
poses to increase the number of Supreme Judges
to nine, to require the Supreme Judges to hold
circuit courts in the srieral counties, disjicnsing
with the present iiysicm of Circuit CoorH. The
grcst change jiroposed consists in requiring the
Supreme Judges to perforin circuit duties, as the
Judges of the Supreme Court of the I'nited Slates
now perform. In 12(, in Congress, when the
present I'nited Slates Judiciary system was estab
lished, it elicited a long and able discussion, which
will be found in (.'ales ami Seatmfs Register of
debates. Daniel Webster, Martin Van Uuren
Judge While, Col. John ion, John Holmes, Col,
Heiiton, John Howan and Klius K. Kane took
jiart in this debate, unit ndvoeated the system
which the bill brought in by Mr. Snyder in out
Senile proposes to establish in Illinois, Hequi
ring Supreme Judges to perforin circuit dutirs,
t;nys .ltld;',e White, brings them nearer thcpcople.
It is a mistake, says another of fhese able men, to
suppose that a Supreme Judge acquires more le
gal knowledge in the closet, than upon the bench.
A judge will hear more law read at the bar in one
term, than he would read himself in a year in His
closet. i''-er.
lloi si: ok Ukimi kskm r a i i v is. We notice
nothing in the jiroceediugs of this body, which
are of general interest. Mr. Dodge has presented
various petitions from citizen of this county, re
specting a division ol'lhe mine, but no action has
taken place upon them. The (iovernor presented
a message to the house, informing them that the
Slate would sustain no loss by the recent failure
of Wright V Co. of London, who hold bonds of
this State.
t'llf fCN.
Iii the Sknvtk, Dec. VI, Mr. Clay, (Ala..)
Irom the Committee on Public Lands, icjioileil
the Hill introduced by Mr. Heiiton, for establish
ing a permanent piospeclivc pre-emption system.
It was read, ordered to he iriule I, and made the
special order for next Monday. Mr. Calhoun, of
S. ('., gave notice that he would nevt day ask
leave to bring in a bill to cede the public hinds to
the States in w hich the hinds lie, on certain con
dition. In the IIoi si: or lUcHKsi: r in v i.s.the Clerk,
Mr.Carland. rejiorted in answei loa resolution of
the House, as to the ji iymciit of w itnesses in the
ease of Cliarles J. Ingersoll, at the last session.
Mr. Uotts oll'cred a resolution directing the com
mitlce of accounts lo report the time and authori
ty upon which the fees to the witnesses em
ployed by Mr. Ingersoll bad been paid. The re
solution, after a long and warm debate was pass
ed. Mr. l'ihuoro introduced a joint resolution,
proposing an amendment to the Constitution of
the I'liitcil States, to change the time for llu
commencement of the term of Senators und He
(iresentatives in Congress from the ith of March
to the 1st of December, which was committed to
the committee of the whole on the Mate of the
In the Skvutk, Dec. 2H, Mr. Calhoun, on
leave, introduced tho bill of which he had before
given notice, to cede, on certain conditions, the
public lands to the Slates in which they lie.
In the Horn:, a resolution submitted by Mr.
K iridan, for an appropriation of $ 300,000 out of
the proceeds of the public lands, to continue the
Cumberland road in Ohio, iVc, was taken uji,nnd
afler mime debate laid on the table yeas 103,
nays HI. Auothei on the same subject, appropri
ating J 150,000 was then offered by Mr. Prollit,
who for. told in a very animated manner the dire
ful consequences which would ensue should the
House not make the appropriation. He declared
that the eight tule of the Northwestern Territory
would unite and in their indignation make their
way into the hull to ohtuin their right by furrt.
He alto talked about nullification, tariff, etc., and
concluded by giving the House a solemn warning
that ill raaa the rctolutiou should be rejected, the
when their indignation would be an all-eonsum-
ng blaze, without a pa:tic!c of smoke, which
should destrov a! I that was not rmht. Uut inaugre
this tremendous s eceh, it was his lot lo discover
that tbrcateniiu wa-. a very ut.-';-uble mean
of obtaining anything from the House, for in this
case, at Ic.M, Mr. l'nffil was iW to get an
aiinronriatioii. and his resolution, alter Mr. .
Cost Johnson and Mr. Hubbard lu l given him a
pretty severe llageltati m, was laid on the table.
In the Sn ri., on the ,oth, Mr. Hentou gave
notice thai he would on the next day introduce a
bill to impese a tav oi: bank notes under the de
nomination of ::il dollar.'. On the tilth he asked
leave to introduce the bill, when Mr. Huntingdon
objected to rhe propriety of originating a bill of
rev. one i.i the Senate. This objection led to an
at.im i'.' d discussion, when Mr. Uenton withdrew
his motion f ir h ave.
In t!:e Ho' si: the memorial from tho Legisla
ture of Illinois, remonstrating again! the mode ot
ili-po-ing of Mini the price -f the public lands
Mug within the States recently admitted into the
I niou, was taken up, when Mr. Ucyi.!ds moved
that it be refetnd to the committee on Public
Lands, with instructions to report a bill granting
pro.-pcclivc pre-emptions to settlers on the public
lands, and to reduce the price to settlers according
to the value of the lands. Mr. Key nobis spoke at
considerable length in favor of his motion, but
before the ote
as tak"n up on it the House a I-
f t..ilro::l lo Ftorli Itiier.
We di -over by I he Chicago papers, th it a
meeting b is been held at !Sel idere. suggesting
the importance of constructing a liailroad fur.n
Chicago to i! ickford. The road is prupo-ed to
be conslrui ted by a f illip in
I (inlv the best o!,in, and th
, w bieli is most cer
ouly way to ciHurc
i -o.edv con. lib iioti when commenced
i i
A profitable revenue when in op.-r.iti n. Wc be
lieve there i let a railroad in th" 1'liion, which
U o-.vnr'd by a State, that yields a ivvi-nue hu.Ti
cient to J iy the annual repairs on the toad am!
the interest on the money invested in its con
struction. Ml. i lc Criisus.
The S ing imo Journal publishes a table show
ing the population of this State, without the coun
ties of Cook, Winnebago, Knndolph, and IMgar.
The population v. iilinut these counties, is 1 15, 1 i'o.
We will publish th" table as soon as complete.
'ulit IVe.-illier Ver, .
The Peoria Itegistcr, of ihe Sth inst. says:
"On .Monday -t we were compelled to move
our tvpe cases so near the slove as to burn our iii
Ikt grinuui, w hile our more sensible exlrcmi
lie:. in the oiifiiisile itirrrimi wme benumed with
(J'jAVe deeply lament the unfortunate rutrax
tropltr of our fiiend, lud feel it our duty to pre
scribe such remedies r.tiilisrrvritiini has taught us:
Should the "AfniiV.e c.rrn7iVi" be frost bitten'
a fiee use of ittuin Willi r w ill be found efficacious.
A small portion of jiririi nrpniiiir, applied
with a feather, to Ihe "iifl'irr jmits," will cause
immediate relief. No mistake!
M':iiub:t on Kadi Itirer.
The I' x press state that a company is be
ing formed in that region, for the building of steam
boat, which i designed to ply upon the waters of
I'ock river. Should the design be carried out,
and the boat be properly constructed, it ciiinot
fail to prove of great advantage t') that feitile re
gion of country. 1'oaW, wc believe, have ascen
ded that stream as far up as Dixon's Ferry.
" The rij' have it" as Lincoln said when he
jumped out of the Slate House window, and
kicked the sand in his face. Pun S'tte.mrri.
rfj-'Ti a mistake Mr. Statesman, the new had
it, as he said when he staggered nguinst a cart
wheel near at hand.
Jennie Fo n n ha.i resigned his office as Judge of
the Olh Judicial Circuit.
Lillian Trr.it i. The Fort Wayne (la.) Times
states that, at the lale Indian payment at the
Forks of the Wabash, the Indians made n propo
sition to sell their lands; and that (Sen. Milroy,
(although not officially authorized by the tiovern
menl.) took the responsibility, 'while they were
in the humor,' of treating with them for about
.'itlO.OOO acres, being the whole of the Miami lands
in this Slate. The price agreed lo be paid is
about l?l 10 per acre, and the Indians to move
West in live years. The hinds are worth $ 10 per
acre, hard as Ihe time are, and there is little
doubt the (icurral (iovcriitnciit will confirm the
.rgf D.civim. The Democratic (O.) Stan
dard says : " The Court in Hank, lately in session
at Columbus, have decided that proprietors of
stage coaches are common carriers that they are
responsible for the safe conveyance of passengers
and bnugage, and that their giving public notice
to the contrary will not niter the case timt a
watch is a usual and customary article of bnggage,
and the trunk of a traveller a proper place I'm its
deposit.', mid the stage proprietor will be charged
in case it is lost.
F.ii'itirr. An I'pper Ciimnla paper say s, that
within the last four years more than 10,000 run
away slaves have made their escape into Canada
from the Tinted States, and that schools have
been maintained tun ing them during ihnt lime bv
the American Abolitionists.
The following is said to be a Inina fnk sign in
Mew lied lord :
" lleer Pi.e and Kake ami llier I sell,
(iood Oyesturs sto d & in the shel,
And frigb'd uns tew for then that chews,
And with dispatch black hutes und shu.e.'
.1 Ship Cantil. A meeting has been held in
Sherman, Michigan, to consult on the propriety
of petitioning Congress to order the construction
of a ship Canal from the head of I.uke Erie to
the head of Lake Michigan, agreeably to surveys
mid climates niiulu some twelve yearn ago.
lhuulniine linpml. A lady residing in Salem,
(Mas,) has bequeathed twenty-five thousand dob
Urn to the Kssex County McLean Asylum for the
support of the Insane.
Ctnmu. 'Tho census of tho District of Colum
bin, just completed, liows population of 43,712,
Juifiwif. The .New York Pianet fays : "Thir
teen Indians have come in und surrendered them
seLes at Fort King, Florida. They s ty that the
chief who bolted while the treaty was under con
sideration, is coming back to the Fort. Perhaps
h w ill but lV- Indians now in, arc not to have
the privilege of iiiovinir again. They are under
St. L'l'iji. The business which the city ol
St. Louis lias transacted during the last year with
the cities of New Voik and Hoston, has amounted
t.J the very neat sum of j!i,0('(l,i)(H).
In Lirypt they obtain their tble salt from the
bodies of the numerous mummies found in the
A i ;: ix, U-Mt Mib(iwi. bill lately passed
the .New Hampshire 1 louse of Iicprcscnlalivcs, to
incorporate the Portsmouth and Dover Kailroad,
with a section, by which the private property of
the individual members of the corporation is held
fir the payment of corjioration debts.
A' iic '
The tav list of Kentucky,
among other items, enumerates as the value ot
laves in that statr.si v ly-1 .vo millions, two hundred
and eighteen thousand dollars the number being
one hundred and sixty-six thousand. The total
taxable j.ropeity in the State is "7."H audits
revenue, 273,.'!.'.I.
,. I. tie Austin paper states that, two
alditioual gold mines have born discou-icl be
tween that city and Santa Fe.
;.., if li'-ilut'.n-.n the Senate of Ohio, on
the Olh ult., Mr. Taylor presented resolutions iu
st . n; ling the Senators and Keprcsenlativcs in
Congress from that State, to vote for a law estab
lishing a d iy on which every Slate in the I'uion
.haul I vote lor President and Vice Preldeiit.
U'.'ro.i U "I has recently been elected to
the Slate Senate ol" Pennsylvania, from t'i city of
Philadi Ipbia, in the place of Mr. Frederick Fra-
lev. resigned
Mr. K. is, of course, a Whig.
In the papers brought by the Acadia, we find
three ea-.es of death by starvation in the English
A'lntliir II irriil M inli t. A Mrs. Stinger, of
Washington 'ownship, Willi um county,! Ihio.goi
up from her bed on the night of the KSth ult. took
a rille hanging in the mom, placed the inuzle to
the head oi lier sleeping husband and deliberate
ly shot him dead. Jealousy is the assigned cause.
The woman is now in Defiance jail uuaiting her
The Senate of (Icorgia have passed a series of
resolutions denying lo Congress the right to char
ter a national bank. Several Whigs voted for the
S mtlh (:n,linu. A bill has been introduced
in (he House uf Representatives of this State, to
alter and amend the 1st und "d sections of the iid
article of tlii'otistitution of the State, so as to
give the elciTiou of (Sovcuor to the people; and
also a bill lo give the election of Klcctors of Presi
dent and Vice President of the I'nited States, to
the people.
Itrporl ni Ihe Sccrctiu-j of tin; Trc;int-;.
The following abstract of Mr. Wooiuu mv's
annual IJeport we copy from the New York
Evening Post. It embraces nil that is of interest
lo the general reader.
The annual report of the Secretary of
the I rcastiry is a satisfactory document
in regard lo the state of our finances and
contains many just and well considered
The ordinary receipts for the year 1810,
somewhat exceed 17,0(10,000. Add to
these certain receipts from tho deposite
banks, from the fourth bond of the United
Stales hank, and from the issue of Trea
sury notes and the entire aggregate of
means fur the year staled at SMS.vJS l,,r 1 1
The current expenses for the year have
been lH3,:i 10. Add to this the sums
paid to redeem treasury notes, and 100,-
000 for the funded debt of ihe District of
Columbia, and the payments and expen
ses of the year amount to $'2U,(Vi:),(5(i,
leaving a balance of more than a million
and a half in the Treasury.
The exports of the year are computet
at $131,57 1, Df0, an amount which ex
ceeds those of the previous year by more
than two millions. It is a larger amount
than was ever before sent out of the
... i . -I,
country, ami isio uiiiercnec win appear
still greater when we consider that the
prices of some of our great staples have
been lowered.
The imports during the same year have
been $10 -i, 805,8!) 1, less than those ol
the preceding year by fifty-seven mil
lions. The falling oil' has of course oe
casioncd a falling off in the revenue th
rived Irom the customs. 1 lie statements
and views of the report on the subject
of our imports and exports are highly m
The entire receipts into (he treasury
for the next year are estimated at $tl,
723,173. The expenditures of the year
for ordinary purposes, it is supposed
w ill amount to $U),'J50,000. To thest
must be added lour millions and a half
for the redemption of treasury notes, and
the sum of $l ll),!00 on account of the
funded debt of the cities of the District of
Columbia, making an aggregate expendi
tu re of iv3,8!)!),00 tor tho year 1811
This would leave between eight am
nine hundred thousand dollars in the trea
sury at tho end of tho next vear a bal
ancc not largo enough, Mr. Woodburv
thinks, to he convenient or useful. II
therefore suggests that Congress shoul
revise tho appropriations and make some
reduction of their amount. , Should Con
gres, however, be indisposed to (his
the L.expcdiuiH wouhlJ)qjho impost
lion of sonut ailJitiona! duties a meas
ure which, it " ill He seen, he does not
ad ise. He has, however, given the sub
ject his consideration, and in ease that
(.'oiiirre.-.s should deem that method of
increa-sin? the revenue expedient, h'J is
prepared'to Mibinit a plan for the purpose.
The mode of keeping the public mo
ney, 'established at the last session of
Cotioress, has answered the expectation
f the Treasury Department in other
WOlMS tilts llliiepetlllflll ue.iau.y
i , . i ... .it.tti.n
works well. .Mr. Woodbury smtnrcsts
that authority should be given to appoint
principal eletk in the city ol ev l orK,
ith a proper compensation, that some
irovision should be made for performing
the duties of receivers ol public money in
ise of a vaeanev bv death or otherwise,
tb-it the minis hment tuTscribed by the
independent treasury law should he ex
titled to all (Ii-dnirsing oltieers, and a
w other changes
The report recommends tnc uiscon
i.i 1
tiiinance ol certain land iiisirieis, aim
renews a previous recommendation of the
. , i . . .
iseontinuauee of certain oliieers eouneet-
il with the customs
.Mr. Woodbury, near the close of his
enort. matt res lit lite expression ot a
list pride at the success with which the
linauees of the government have been
ulininistered during the difficult period
which followed the great expansion of
credit i t i n.i.) ;hui ioou, noiinii" u:.-'
...- i ioi x-.i.: l...
than indexible firmness and extraordinary
cxteritv could have accomplished the
hivorable results to which he alludes.
Kcorl ot" tin- Wrrreljiry of War.
I'lie following comprises the piiiicipnl facts
i ml statements of Mr. I'm nsk r r's annual Keport
;eu t'loin an abstract published in Alexander's
W'ceklv Messcii 'i r :
Mr. l'oiu.seli's annual Ueport gives a
full account ol the army operation's during
the nasi vear. The design entertained
bv the department, of keeping the regt
ments entire and concentrating the troops
whenever it is practicable to do so, has
been persevered in with the most bene
ficial results.
Of the niaratime frontier of the (!ulf of
.Mexico, it m recommended the addition
to the permanent fortifications planne
for its defence, and now being erected,
the establishment of a depot, somewhere
below the falls of the Ohio, for armed
team vessels. .
Experiments have been made at Old
iint Comfort to test the utility of liol-
ow snot. A stone wall was erected lor
the purpose, but the shells broke against
it, making hut little impression.
Percussion locks for muskets he consi-
lers much superior to those now in use,
uul advises their being adopted by the
The enlistment of boys in the Army,
the same as in the Navy, is recommended
to Congress.
The erection of barracks at dill'ercnt
mints on tho Northern frontier, and also
a strong wall at the outlet of Lake Champ-
li ii is also recommended.
The Military Academy at West Point,
las lieea conducted in a manner ingtuv
reditablo to the superintendant, and sa
tisfactory lo this department. It is be-
ieved the standard of discipline, morality
mil religion at this institution, is equal
to that of any other college or academy
in the United States.
The regular troops now in Florida
amount lo about 1500 men, and the mili
tia in service to about 2000. lie re
commends that authority be given to the
Executive to engage the services of this
discription of troops for a twelvemonth,
or during the continuance of hostilities in
Florida. The term of three months is
much too short to ensure elficiencv, and
lVeiuent enlistments are a fruitful source
of insubordination.
The number of Indians emigrated from
tint interior to the West, since 1830,
amount to very nearly 41,000, of which
about 5,000 were removed during the
past season.
1 he number ol pensioners of every de
scription now on the rolls in all the States
and Territories, and in the District ol
Columbia, (except those paid out of the
Navy pension fund,) amounts to -11,3!) 1,
of which 2,07'J cases have been admitted
during the past year.
The total sum drawn from the Treasu
ry during the year to pay pensions a
mounls to $2,0 18,(U3, exclusive of Navy
John '. Calhoun iiii.I the Knb-'t'i'ensiirjr.
Of tho various speeches made in reply to that
of Mr. (.'lay on his introducing into the United
Slates (Senate u resolution to repeal the Indepen
dent Treasury Hill, none appears to us to present
more clearly, forcibly, and candidly, the grounds
of opposition to such rejeal, than the reply of
the Hon. John (.'. Calhoun of South Carolinn.
On introducing his resolution, .Mr. Clay naid he
did not wish again to go over the whole argument
against tho Sub-Treasury ; three years hud alrea
dy been consumed on it, and nothing could be
gained hy its revival. It was nuilicicnt, he thought,
to say that the nation wills the repeal of the mea
sure ; mid he therefore felt it to he his duty to of
fer tho resolution he did. The following is part
of Mr. t'allmun's reply :
Mr. CALHOUN said ho desired to
speak with perfect candor. Though he
by no means considered it certain, yet
there w as reason to fear (ha( a majority of
(he community was opposed to that high
ly important measure (tho Independent
Treasury lystrm). If such should turn
out to be (he fac(, he would regret it pro-
foundly but ate gentlemen certain that
there is a majority in favor of any alter
native measure that can be presented, anil
that there is not a majority in its rL.
gamst any such alternative! Tl. :
,1 " 13
l"c point. T.ft no. tf.ll
I " " o1"'"-"1""! wnea
mey come to the real question not nr.lv
whether the Sub-Tiensnrv shnll I.. ,L
I'ealetl, b,u what shall be substituted;
! ,B-V W1" m,t so easy a" victory as
tiey expect. That is the question which
)ou must meet, ami it will be i vain to
t.e.npttoehu eit. As to one of the on-
wo posstble altcrnativcs-he referred
U the repudiated ntl condemned pet hank
system which the eentlnmn- n. r....v
l.-l so jtly denounced, so faV back ai
183 1 on the question of the removal of
the deposttes, as the most fiillarin... Si
cily and corrupt system that could be
auopted, wlucli they prophesied, and tru
ly prophesied, would explode and blow
up its authors, he took it for granted that
there was no danger of that being imposed
on the country by the coming administration.-
He trusted that would not be the
result of all the late agitation, and the de
cided victory they had achieved.
As to the other alternative
a National
Hank lie wouh
llOt "O into tbnt nnv
It will be time enough after (;0IIt jarl
rison comes in, ami recommends it to our
adoption, if, with his constitutional objec
tions, he ever should. ,15ut come when
that time might, if it ever should, he
should stand up and resist it by every fac
ulty, and all the energy with which Na
ture had bestowed on' him ; for, as he
lived, he believed the day on which a
National Hank shall be established, with
a capital of fifty or a hundred millions,
and twenty years' duration, and with
power and privileges suflicietu to control
the currency and business of the country,
would be the end of our liberty, ami
would ;w ejleciually create a sovereign
power, as if (Jen. Harrison were elected
President for life, with the right of suc
cession in his descendants, and even
more so.
To either of these, tho much abused
Sub-Treasury will be found to be the
only alternative. Condemned and vilified
as it was, the country, if it desired to pre
serve its free institutions, must come to
it ; nor was it less for the advantage of
the batiks themselves, than the country,
that it should. Yes, for the banks; he
knew what he said ; he weighed every
word. He regarded those the greatest
enemies, in reality, to the banks, howe
ver kind their intention, who would force
them again into a union with the Gov
ernment, against the depp conviction of
the injustice, impolicy and unconstitution
ality of such union, of a powerful and de
termined party, not much inferior in ni ru
bers than their opponents, if tested even
by the late election ; for, however strong
the vote of the electoral college, the pop
ular vote in favor of General Harrison did
not much exceed one hundred thousand
out of upwards of two millions of votes.
If, against the fixed opinion of this pow
erful and resolute party, the coming Ad
ministration should force a reunion be
tween Hank and Government, they would,
at the same time, force them into the poli
tical arena of party conflict, which could
not fail to overthrow the whole system in
its convulsive movements, lie warned
the banks, and those interested in them,
against the fatal tendency of their indis
creet friends, who would under such cir
cumstances, force the reunion, lie was
no enemy to the existing banks, while he
had no confidence in tho system as it ex
isted in this country and Great Britain,
lie believed that banks of issue and cir
culation were founded on a mistake, and
must run down, by their own inherent
defects, against every ell'ort to stay their
descent, and had long thought so ; blithe
made no war on them, and never had.
They were running down of themselves,
according to his impression, too fast for
the good of the country, and his policy
was to retard, and not accelerate their
descent. lie acted on the same principle
in 1831, when the deposites were remov
ed ; and in obedience lo it, tirged a
course, which, if it had been adopted,
would have saved the country and banks
from the disasters which have since fol
lowed. On the same principle he acted
at the extra session in 1837, and had ever
since, in advocating the separation of the
Government from the banks, as the only
means of extricating them from politics,
and leaving them quietly to be reformed
or run out, under the action of an enlight
ened and calm public opinion. He was,
and ever had been, averse to all sudden
and forced measures in reference lo the
currency, even ns applied to our system,
as bad ns ho believed it to be.
In addition to the supposed condemna
tion of the Sub-Treasury by the people
at the late election, the senator (Mr.
Clay,) urged another reason for its repeal,
that it would make no practical change.
He says that the practice under the exis
ting law is, in reality, the same as it was
before its passage, and would bo after the
repeal. If so, why then, this haste to
repeal it ? Why agitate the country, so
anxiously seeking repose, on a subject
acknowledged by him to be wholly im
material ? Why not allow the measure
to go on quietly until hi and his party
come into power, and then they could act
deliberately on the subject and not only
repeal a measure they consider so obnox
ious, but also present their substitute, so
as to afford the community a fair oppor
tunity of deciding between them T , But
h'e tho practice under it what it may, the

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